A. Lahteenmaki

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland

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Publications (77)202.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We analyse the implications of the Planck data for cosmic inflation. The Planck nominal mission temperature anisotropy measurements, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization, constrain the scalar spectral index to be ns = 0:9603 � 0:0073, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5�: Planck establishes an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r < 0:11 (95% CL). The Planck data thus shrink the space of allowed standard inflationary models, preferring potentials with V00 < 0. Exponential potential models, the simplest hybrid inflationary models, and monomial potential models of degree n � 2 do not provide a good fit to the data. Planck does not find statistically significant running of the scalar spectral index, obtaining dns=dln k = 􀀀0:0134 � 0:0090. We verify these conclusions through a numerical analysis, which makes no slowroll approximation, and carry out a Bayesian parameter estimation and model-selection analysis for a number of inflationary models including monomial, natural, and hilltop potentials. For each model, we present the Planck constraints on the parameters of the potential and explore several possibilities for the post-inflationary entropy generation epoch, thus obtaining nontrivial data-driven constraints. We also present a direct reconstruction of the observable range of the inflaton potential. Unless a quartic term is allowed in the potential, we find results consistent with second-order slow-roll predictions. We also investigate whether the primordial power spectrum contains any features. We find that models with a parameterized oscillatory feature improve the fit by � 2 e� � 10; however, Bayesian evidence does not prefer these models. We constrain several single-field inflation models with generalized Lagrangians by combining power spectrum data with Planck bounds on fNL. Planck constrains with unprecedented accuracy the amplitude and possible correlation (with the adiabatic mode) of non-decaying isocurvature fluctuations. The fractional primordial contributions of cold dark matter (CDM) isocurvature modes of the types expected in the curvaton and axion scenarios have upper bounds of 0.25% and 3.9% (95% CL), respectively. In models with arbitrarily correlated CDM or neutrino isocurvature modes, an anticorrelated isocurvature component can improve the 2 e� by approximately 4 as a result of slightly lowering the theoretical prediction for the ` <� 40 multipoles relative to the higher multipoles. Nonetheless, the data are consistent with adiabatic initial conditions.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2014; 571(A22):1. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected a strong gamma-ray flare on 2011 May 15 from a source identified as 4C 49.22, a flat spectrum radio quasar also known as S4 1150+49. This blazar, characterised by a prominent radio-optical-X-ray jet, was in a low gamma-ray activity state during the first years of Fermi observations. Simultaneous observations during the quiescent, outburst and post-flare gamma-ray states were obtained by Swift, Planck and optical-IR-radio telescopes (INAOE, Catalina CSS, VLBA, Metsahovi). The flare is observed from microwave to X-ray bands with correlated variability and the Fermi, Swift and Planck data for this FSRQ show some features more typical of BL Lac objects, like the synchrotron peak in the optical band that outshines the thermal blue-bump emission, and the X-ray spectral softening. Multi-epoch VLBA observations show the ejection of a new component close in time with the GeV gamma-ray flare. The radio-to-gamma-ray spectral energy distribution is modeled and fitted successfully for the outburst and the post-flare epochs using either a single flaring blob with two emission processes (synchrotron self Compton, and external-radiation Compton), and a two-zone model with SSC-only mechanism.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted a multiwavelength survey of 42 radio loud narrow-1ine Seyfert 1 galaxies (RLNLS1s), selected by searching among all the known sources of this type and omitting those with steep radio spectra. We analyse data from radio frequencies to X-rays, and supplement these with information available from online catalogs and the literature in order to cover the full electromagnetic spectrum. This is the largest known multiwavelength survey for this type of source. We detected 90% of the sources in X-rays and found 17% at gamma rays. Extreme variability at high energies was also found, down to timescales as short as hours. In some sources, dramatic spectral and flux changes suggest interplay between a relativistic jet and the accretion disk. The estimated masses of the central black holes are in the range ∼106−8M⊙, smaller than those of blazars, while the accretion luminosities span a range from ∼0.01 to ∼0.49 times the Eddington limit, with an outlier at 0.003. The distribution of the calculated jet power spans a range from ∼1042.6 to ∼1045.6 erg s−1, generally lower than quasars and BL Lac objects, but partially overlapping with the latter. Once normalised by the mass of the central black holes, the jet power of the three types of active galactic nuclei are consistent with each other, indicating the scalability of the jet. Despite the observational differences, the central engine of RLNLS1s is apparently quite similar to that of blazars. The historical difficulties in finding radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies might be due to their low power and to intermittent jet activity.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of rapidly variable Very High Energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from 4C +21.35 (PKS 1222+216) by MAGIC on 2010 June 17, triggered by the high activity detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in high energy (HE; E > 100 MeV) γ-rays, poses intriguing questions on the location of the γ-ray emitting region in this flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ). We present multifrequency data of 4C +21.35 collected from centimeter to VHE during 2010 to investigate the properties of this source and discuss a possible emission model. The first hint of detection at VHE was observed by MAGIC on 2010 May 3, soon after a γ-ray flare detected by Fermi-LAT that peaked on April 29. The same emission mechanism may therefore be responsible for both the HE and VHE emission during the 2010 flaring episodes. Two optical peaks were detected on 2010 April 20 and June 30, close in time but not simultaneous with the two γ-ray peaks, while no clear connection was observed between the X-ray and γ-ray emission. An increasing flux density was observed in radio and mm bands from the beginning of 2009, in accordance with the increasing γ-ray activity observed by Fermi-LAT, and peaking on 2011 January 27 in the mm regime (230 GHz). We model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 4C +21.35 for the two periods of the VHE detection and a quiescent state, using a one-zone model with the emission coming from a very compact region outside the broad line region. The three SEDs can be fit with a combination of synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton emission of seed photons from a dust torus, changing only the electron distribution parameters between the epochs. The fit of the optical/UV part of the spectrum for 2010 April 29 seems to favor an inner disk radius of <6 gravitational radii, as one would expect from a prograde-rotating Kerr black hole.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At very high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV), we count only three blazars of the flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) type to date. The MAGIC experiment detected all three of them; here we present MAGIC observations of 3C 279 and PKS 1510-089. 3C 279 was observed in 2011, without a significant detection, hence upper limits on the differential flux have been computed. The MAGIC observations of PKS 1510-089 in 2012 were triggered by alerts of high activity states and resulted in a significant detection. MAGIC observations are complemented with simultaneous multiwavelength observations in high energy γ rays, X-rays, optical and radio wavelengths and polarization measurements. With the study of the spectral features and the variability observed, we aim to identify the physical processes responsible for the behavior of this source class. In particular, we propose coherent scenarios, which take into account both the modeling of the spectral energy distribution and the constraints obtained from the lightcurves.
    International Journal of Modern Physics Conference Series. 02/2014; 28.
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    ABSTRACT: Opacity-driven shifts of the apparent VLBI core position with frequency (the "core shift" effect) is a promising tool to probe physical conditions in the innermost parts of radio jets in active galactic nuclei. We present the first detailed investigation of the core shift effect in the brightest gamma-ray blazar 3C 454.3 using multiple techniques: direct core position and size measurements with simultaneous 4.6--43 GHz VLBA observations and a time lag analysis of 4.8--37 GHz radio lightcurves obtained with the 26 m UMRAO, 22 m CrAO, and 14 m Metsahovi radio telescopes in 2007--2009. The remarkable agreement found between the results obtained with different techniques supports the standard Konigl model as an appropriate description of jet physics in the VLBI core region. The distance of the core from the jet origin r_c(f), the core size W(f), and the lightcurve time lag \Delta T(f) all depend on the observing frequency f as r_c(f) ~ W(f) ~ \Delta T(f) ~ f^-1/k. We find the value of the coefficient to be in the range k=0.6--0.8, consistent with the synchrotron self-absorption being the dominating opacity mechanism in the jet. No difference between the frequency dependence of r_c(f) and W(f) is observed, which suggests that the external pressure is not significant for the jet geometry in the cm-band core region of 3C 454.3. Assuming equipartition, we estimate the magnetic field strength at 1 pc from the jet origin to be B_1 ~ 0.4 G, and it scales with distance r as B = 0.4(r/r_1)^-0.8 G. The total kinetic power of the jet, assuming that it is composed of pair plasma, is about 10^44 ergs/s. An electron/proton jet would be about two thousand times more powerful.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Planck likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations. We use this likelihood to derive the Planck CMB power spectrum over three decades in l, covering 2 <= l <= 2500. The main source of error at l <= 1500 is cosmic variance. Uncertainties in small-scale foreground modelling and instrumental noise dominate the error budget at higher l's. For l < 50, our likelihood exploits all Planck frequency channels from 30 to 353 GHz through a physically motivated Bayesian component separation technique. At l >= 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on angular cross-spectra derived from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-l cross-spectra with residuals of a few uK^2 at l <= 1000. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps, and with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. The best-fit LCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary Planck polarisation spectra. The standard LCDM cosmology is well constrained by Planck by l <= 1500. For example, we report a 5.4 sigma deviation from n_s /= 1. Considering various extensions beyond the standard model, we find no indication of significant departures from the LCDM framework. Finally, we report a tension between the best-fit LCDM model and the low-l spectrum in the form of a power deficit of 5-10% at l <~ 40, significant at 2.5-3 sigma. We do not elaborate further on its cosmological implications, but note that this is our most puzzling finding in an otherwise remarkably consistent dataset. (Abridged)
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Rotational transition lines of CO play a major role in molecular radio astronomy and in particular in the study of star formation and the Galactic structure. Although a wealth of data exists in the Galactic plane and some well-known molecular clouds, there is no available CO high sensitivity all-sky survey to date. Such all-sky surveys can be constructed using the \Planck\ HFI data because the three lowest CO rotational transition lines at 115, 230 and 345 GHz significantly contribute to the signal of the 100, 217 and 353 GHz HFI channels respectively. Two different component separation methods are used to extract the CO maps from Planck HFI data. The maps obtained are then compared to one another and to existing external CO surveys. From these quality checks the best CO maps in terms of signal to noise and/or residual foreground contamination are selected. Three sets of velocity-integrated CO emission maps are produced: Type 1 maps of the CO (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational transitions with low foreground contamination but moderate signal-to-noise ratio; Type 2 maps for the (1-0) and (2-1) transitions with a better signal-to-noise ratio; and one Type 3 map, a line composite map with the best signal-to-noise ratio in order to locate the faintest molecular regions. The maps are described in detail. They are shown to be fully compatible with previous surveys of parts of the Galactic Plane and also of fainter regions out of the Galactic plane. The Planck HFI velocity-integrated CO maps for the (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational transitions provide an unprecedented all-sky CO view of the Galaxy. These maps are also of great interest to monitor potential CO contamination on CMB \Planck\ studies.
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We have constructed the first all-sky map of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect by applying specifically tailored component separation algorithms to the 100 to 857 GHz frequency channel maps from the Planck survey. These maps show an obvious galaxy cluster tSZ signal that is well matched with blindly detected clusters in the Planck SZ catalogue. To characterize the signal in the tSZ map we have computed its angular power spectrum. At large angular scales ($\ell < 60$), the major foreground contaminant is the diffuse thermal dust emission. At small angular scales ($\ell > 500$) the clustered Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) and residual point sources are the major contaminants. These foregrounds are carefully modelled and subtracted. We measure the tSZ power spectrum in angular scales, $0.17^{\circ} \lesssim \theta \lesssim 3.0^{\circ}$, that were previously unexplored. The measured tSZ power spectrum is consistent with that expected from the Planck catalogue of SZ sources, with additional clear evidence of signal from unresolved clusters and, potentially, diffuse warm baryons. We use the tSZ power spectrum to obtain the following cosmological constraints: $\sigma_8(\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}/0.28)^{3.2/8.1}=0.784 \pm 0.016 (68% C.L.). Marginalized band-powers of the Planck tSZ power spectrum and the best-fit model are given. The non-Gaussianity of the Compton parameter map is further characterized by computing its 1D probability distribution function and its bispectrum. These are used to place additional independent constraints on $\sigma_{8}$.
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We analyse the implications of the Planck data for cosmic inflation. The Planck nominal mission temperature anisotropy measurements, combined with the WMAP large-angle polarization, constrain the scalar spectral index to $n_s = 0.9603 \pm 0.0073$, ruling out exact scale invariance at over 5 $\sigma$. Planck establishes an upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of r < 0.11 (95% CL). The Planck data thus shrink the space of allowed standard inflationary models, preferring potentials with V'' < 0. Exponential potential models, the simplest hybrid inflationary models, and monomial potential models of degree n > 2 do not provide a good fit to the data. Planck does not find statistically significant running of the scalar spectral index, obtaining $d n_s/d ln k = -0.0134 \pm 0.0090$. Several analyses dropping the slow-roll approximation are carried out, including detailed model comparison and inflationary potential reconstruction. We also investigate whether the primordial power spectrum contains any features. We find that models with a parameterized oscillatory feature improve the fit $\chi^2$ by ~ 10; however, Bayesian evidence does not prefer these models. We constrain several single-field inflation models with generalized Lagrangians by combining power spectrum data with bounds on $f_\mathrm{NL}$ measured by Planck. The fractional primordial contribution of CDM isocurvature modes in the curvaton and axion scenarios has upper bounds of 0.25% or 3.9% (95% CL), respectively. In models with arbitrarily correlated CDM or neutrino isocurvature modes, an anticorrelation can improve $\chi^2$ by approximatively 4 as a result of slightly lowering the theoretical prediction for the $\ell<40$ multipoles relative to the higher multipoles. Nonetheless, the data are consistent with adiabatic initial conditions.
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Using \Planck\ data combined with the Meta Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we address the study of peculiar motions by searching for evidence of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ). By implementing various filters designed to extract the kSZ generated at the positions of the clusters, we obtain consistent constraints on the radial peculiar velocity average, root mean square (rms), and local bulk flow amplitude at different depths. For the whole cluster sample of average redshift 0.18, the measured average radial peculiar velocity with respect to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation at that redshift, i.e., the kSZ monopole, amounts to $72 \pm 60$ km s$^{-1}$. This constitutes less than 1% of the relative Hubble velocity of the cluster sample with respect to our local CMB frame. While the linear $\Lambda$CDM prediction for the typical cluster radial velocity rms at $z=0.15$ is close to 230km s$^{-1}$, the upper limit imposed by \Planck\ data on the cluster subsample corresponds to 800 km s$^{-1}$ at 95% confidence level, i.e., about three times higher. \Planck\ data also set strong constraints on the local bulk flow in volumes centred on the Local Group. There is no detection of bulk flow as measured in any comoving sphere extending to the maximum redshift covered by the cluster sample. A blind search for bulk flows in this sample has an upper limit of 254 km s$^{-1}$ (95% confidence level) dominated by CMB confusion and instrumental noise, indicating that the Universe is largely homogeneous on Gpc scales. In this context, in conjunction with supernova observations, \Planck\ is able to rule out a large class of inhomogeneous void models as alternatives to dark energy or modified gravity. The \Planck\ constraints on peculiar velocities and bulk flows are thus consistent with the $\Lambda$CDM scenario.
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164 in 2008. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images at 7mm with ~0.15 milliarcsecond resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte-Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary core and in the superluminal knot, both at >12 parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long time-scales (months/years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter time-scales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Using Planck data combined with the Meta Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we address the study of peculiar motions by searching for evidence of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (kSZ). By implementing various filters designed to extract the kSZ generated at the positions of the clusters, we obtain consistent constraints on the radial peculiar velocity average, root mean square (rms), and local bulk flow amplitude at different depths. For the whole cluster sample of average redshift 0.18, the measured average radial peculiar velocity with respect to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation at that redshift, i.e., the kSZ monopole, amounts to 72 ± 60 kms−1. This constitutes less than 1% of the relative Hubble velocity of the cluster sample with respect to our local CMB frame. From a subset of this cluster sample Planck finds the radial peculiar velocity rms to be below 800 kms−1 at the 95% confidence level, which is around three times the �CDM prediction for the typical cluster radial velocity rms at z = 0.15. Planck data also set strong constraints on the local bulk flow in volumes centred on the Local Group. There is no detection of bulk flow as measured in any comoving sphere extending to the maximum redshift covered by the cluster sample. A blind search for bulk flows in this sample has an upper limit of 254 kms−1 (95% confidence level) dominated by CMB confusion and instrumental noise, indicating that the Universe is largely homogeneous on Gpc scales. In this context, in conjunction with supernova observations, Planck is able to rule out a large class of inhomogeneous void models as alternatives to dark energy or modified gravity. The Planck constraints on peculiar velocities and bulk flows are thus consistent with the �CDM scenario.
    03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of data from multi-frequency monitoring of the blazar 3C 454.3 in 2010–2012, when the source experienced an unusually prolonged flare with a duration of about two years. This corresponds to the orbital period of the companion in a scenario in which two supermassive black holes are present in the nucleus of 3C 454.3. The flare’s shape, duration, and amplitude can be explained as a result of precession, if the plane of the accretion disk and the orbital plane of the binary are coincident. We detected small-scale structure of the flare, on time scales of no more than a month. These features probably correspond to inhomogeneities in the accretion disk and surrounding regions, with sizes of the order of 1015 cm. We estimated the size of the accretion disk based on the dynamical and geometrical parameters of this binary system: its diameter is comparable to the size of the orbit of the supermassive binary black hole, and its thickness does not exceed the gravitational radius of the central black hole. The presence of characteristic small-scale features during the flare makes it possible to estimate the relative time delays of variations in different spectral ranges: from gamma-ray to millimeter wavelengths.
    Astronomy Reports 01/2013; 57(1):46. · 0.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present more than three years of observations at different frequencies, from radio to high-energy gamma-rays, of the Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) Galaxy PMN J0948+0022 (z=0.585). This source is the first NLS1 detected at energies above 100 MeV and therefore can be considered the prototype of this emerging new class of gamma-ray emitting active galactic nuclei (AGN). The observations performed from 2008 August 1 to 2011 December 31 confirmed that PMN J0948+0022 generates a powerful relativistic jet, able to develop an isotropic luminosity at gamma-rays of the order of 10^48 erg s^-1, at the level of powerful quasars. The evolution of the radiation emission of this source in 2009 and 2010 followed the canonical expectations of relativistic jets, with correlated multiwavelength variability (gamma-rays followed by radio emission after a few months), but it was difficult to retrieve a similar pattern in the light curves of 2011. The comparison of gamma-ray spectra before and including 2011 data suggested that there was a softening of the high-energy spectral slope. We selected five specific epochs to be studied by modelling the broad-band spectrum, characterised by an outburst at gamma-rays or very low/high flux at other wavelengths. The observed variability can largely be explained either by changes in the injected power, the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet or the electron spectrum. The characteristic time scale of doubling/halving flux ranges from a few days to a few months, depending on the frequency and the sampling rate. The shortest doubling time scale at gamma-rays is 2.3+-0.5 days. These small values underline the need of highly-sampled multiwavelength campaigns to better understand the physics of these sources.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2012; 548:A106. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the detection of a very rapid TeV gamma-ray flare from BL Lacertae on 2011 June 28 with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The flaring activity was observed during a 34.6-minute exposure, when the integral flux above 200 GeV reached $(3.4\pm0.6) \times 10^{-6} \;\text{photons}\;\text{m}^{-2}\text{s}^{-1}$, roughly 125% of the Crab Nebula flux measured by VERITAS. The light curve indicates that the observations missed the rising phase of the flare but covered a significant portion of the decaying phase. The exponential decay time was determined to be $13\pm4$ minutes, making it one of the most rapid gamma-ray flares seen from a TeV blazar. The gamma-ray spectrum of BL Lacertae during the flare was soft, with a photon index of $3.6\pm 0.4$, which is in agreement with the measurement made previously by MAGIC in a lower flaring state. Contemporaneous radio observations of the source with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) revealed the emergence of a new, superluminal component from the core around the time of the TeV gamma-ray flare, accompanied by changes in the optical polarization angle. Changes in flux also appear to have occurred at optical, UV, and GeV gamma-ray wavelengths at the time of the flare, although they are difficult to quantify precisely due to sparse coverage. A strong flare was seen at radio wavelengths roughly four months later, which might be related to the gamma-ray flaring activities. We discuss the implications of these multiwavelength results.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 762(2):92. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the preliminary results of a survey performed with Swift to observe a sample of radio-loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies (RLNLS1s). Optical-to-X-ray data from Swift are complemented with gamma-ray observations from Fermi/LAT and radio measurements available in the literature. The comparison with a sample of bright Fermi blazars indicates that RLNLS1s seem to be the low-power tail of the distribution.
    X-ray astronomy: towards the next 50 years!, Milano, Italy; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Taking advantage of the all-sky coverage and broad frequency range of the Planck satellite, we study the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) and pressure profiles of 62 nearby massive clusters detected at high significance in the 14-month nominal survey. Careful reconstruction of the SZ signal indicates that most clusters are individually detected at least out to R500. By stacking the radial profiles, we have statistically detected the radial SZ signal out to 3 x R500, i.e., at a density contrast of about 50-100, though the dispersion about the mean profile dominates the statistical errors across the whole radial range. Our measurement is fully consistent with previous Planck results on integrated SZ fluxes, further strengthening the agreement between SZ and X-ray measurements inside R500. Correcting for the effects of the Planck beam, we have calculated the corresponding pressure profiles. This new constraint from SZ measurements is consistent with the X-ray constraints from XMM-Newton in the region in which the profiles overlap (i.e., [0.1-1]R500), and is in fairly good agreement with theoretical predictions within the expected dispersion. At larger radii the average pressure profile is slightly flatter than most predictions from numerical simulations. Combining the SZ and X-ray observed profiles into a joint fit to a generalised pressure profile gives best-fit parameters [P0, c500, gamma, alpha, beta] = [6.41, 1.81, 0.31, 1.33, 4.13]. Using a reasonable hypothesis for the gas temperature in the cluster outskirts we reconstruct from our stacked pressure profile the gas mass fraction profile out to 3 x R500. Within the temperature driven uncertainties, our Planck constraints are compatible with the cosmic baryon fraction and expected gas fraction in halos.
    07/2012;

Publication Stats

282 Citations
202.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Helsinki
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2011–2013
    • Aalto University
      • Metsähovin radiotutkimusasema
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
    • Saint Petersburg State University
      Sankt-Peterburg, St.-Petersburg, Russia
  • 2009–2011
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
  • 2010
    • University of Turku
      • Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO
      Turku, Western Finland, Finland