Takashi Oshio

Hitotsubashi University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (63)18.43 Total impact

  • Takashi Oshio, Kunio Urakawa
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that income inequality in society is negatively associated with individuals subjective well-being (SWB), such as their perceived happiness and self-rated health (SRH). However, it is not realistic to assume that individuals have precise information about actual income distribution measured by the Gini coefficient or other statistical measures. In the current study, we examined how perceived income inequality, rather than actual inequality, was associated with SWB, using cross-sectional data collected from a nationwide, Internet survey conducted in Japan (N = 10,432). We also examined how this association was confounded by individuals’ objective and subjective income status, considering the possibility that individuals with lower income status are more inclined to both perceive income inequality and feel unhappy/unhealthy. In our analysis, we focused on the perception of widening income inequality (as perceived income inequality), perceived happiness and SRH (as SWB), and household income and living standards compared with 1 year ago and compared with others (as income status). We also controlled for personality traits. We obtained three key findings: (1) perceived income inequality was negatively associated with SWB; (2) both perceived income inequality and SWB were associated with income status; and (3) the association between perceived income inequality and SWB was attenuated after controlling for income status, but not fully for perceived happiness. These findings suggest that perceived income inequality, which links actual income inequality to SWB, should be further studied.
    Social Indicators Research 05/2014; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using panel data from two surveys in Japan and Europe, we examine the comparability of the self-rated health of the middle-aged and elderly across Japan and European countries and across the survey periods. We find that a person's own health is evaluated using different standards (thresholds) across the different countries and survey waves. When evaluated using common thresholds, the Japanese elderly are found to be healthier than their counterparts in the European countries. Reporting biases causing discrepancies between the changes in individuals' self-rated health and their actual health over the survey waves are associated with education and country of residence.
    Japanese Economic Review 02/2014; · 0.27 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Oshio
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely known that the mental health of middle-aged adults is closely associated with involvement in family caregiving, as well as socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors. However, most studies focusing on mental health in adulthood have not fully controlled for time-invariant factors. Moreover, the relative importance of factors associated with mental health has remained largely understudied. In the current study, we employed fixed-effects regression models to examine the manner in which middle-aged adults' mental health is associated with involvement in family caregiving and socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, after controlling for time-invariant factors. Using data from a population-based, six-year panel survey in Japan, we focused on the evolution of the Kessler 6 (K6) scores (range: 0–24) for 26,522 individuals (12,646 men and 13,876 women) aged 50–59 years in 2005 over the subsequent five years. We found that men and women experienced 0.54 (95% CI 0.44–0.64) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.49–0.66) unit increases in their K6 scores, respectively, when they became involved in care provision for any family member. This magnitude of distress exceeded that associated with any socioeconomic or sociodemographic factor examined in this study. Furthermore, we found that care provision to a mother-in-law had an additional, negative association with mental health for female caregivers, as opposed to men. These findings suggest that more panel studies are needed to examine the correlates of mental health among middle-aged adults.
    Social Science & Medicine. 01/2014; 115:121–129.
  • T Oshio, M Umeda, N Kawakami
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the extent to which social support and socio-economic status (SES) in adulthood mediate the impact of interpersonal adversity in childhood on adult mental health using large-scale population data in Japan. Cross-sectional survey. Data were derived from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income and Neighbourhood, which was conducted from October 2010 to February 2011 in four municipalities in and around the Tokyo metropolitan area. Survey participants were community residents aged 25-50 years who were selected at random from voter registration lists. The total sample size was 3292. The self-reported experience of parental maltreatment (physical abuse and/or neglect) and bullying in school and their impacts on adult mental health (in terms of K6 = 5+, K6 = 13+ and suicide ideation) were examined using multivariate logistic models. Interpersonal adversity in childhood has a negative impact on adult mental health even after controlling for childhood SES. For example, the odds ratio for K6 = 5+, responding to parental maltreatment, was 2.64 (95% confidence interval 2.04-3.41). Perceived social support and adult SES mediated the impact of interpersonal adversity in childhood, but a substantial proportion of the impact was unexplained by their mediating effects; social support and adult SES only mediated 11-24% and 6-12%, respectively. It was also found that social support and adult SES (except educational attainment) did not moderate the negative impact of interpersonal adversity in childhood. This analysis highlighted that the impact of interpersonal adversity in childhood is relatively independent of social support and SES in adulthood. This result has clear policy implications; more focus should be placed on policies that aim to reduce incidents of childhood maltreatment and bullying per se, both of which have a long-lasting direct impact on mental health.
    Public health 07/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we attempt to investigate how educational subsidy, childcare allowance and family allowance affect economic growth and income distribution on the basis of simulation models which incorporate intergenerational ability transmission and endogenous fertility. The simulation results show that financial support for higher education can both increase economic growth and reduce income inequality, especially if the abilities of parent and child are closely correlated. In contrast with educational subsidy, raising childcare allowance or family allowance has limited impacts on growth and income inequality.
    Applied Economics 01/2013; 45(17). · 0.46 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Oshio, Maki Umeda, Norito Kawakami
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the impact of childhood interpersonal adversity on adulthood subjective well-being (SWB), with a focus on the mediating and moderating effects of social support and socioeconomic status (SES). We concentrated on parental maltreatment (abuse and neglect) and bullying in school as childhood adversity variables and on perceived happiness and self-rated health as adulthood SWB measures. Our empirical analysis was based on micro data from a survey in municipalities in and around the Tokyo metropolitan area (N = 3,292). We obtained four key findings. First, the experience of childhood adversity had a substantial negative impact on adulthood SWB. Second, social support and SES significantly mediated the impact of childhood adversity. Third, however, a large proportion of the impact of childhood adversity remained unexplained by their mediation effects. Fourth, social support and SES did not moderate the impact of childhood adversity. Hence, we can conclude that childhood adversity affects adulthood SWB in a relatively independent manner rather than being substantially mediated or moderated by social support or SES. Accordingly, social policies should aim at reducing incidents of childhood maltreatment and bullying in addition to helping people enhance levels of social support and SES in later life.
    Journal of Happiness Studies 01/2013; 14(3). · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Satoshi Shimizutani, Takashi Oshio
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the labor supply effect of the social security earnings test in Japan on those aged 65–69 years through a combined examination of the elimination of the earnings test in 1985 and its reinstatement in 2002. We present evidence showing that the effects of changes in the earnings tests on the labor supply of the elderly are not symmetric, controlling for changes in the attributes of workers and firms. The repeal of the earnings test in 1985 did affect the earnings distribution of the elderly (especially for male), while its reinstatement in 2002 did not alter the earnings distribution.
    Japan and the World Economy 01/2013; 28:99–111. · 0.34 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Oshio, Maki Umeda, Mayu Fujii
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we analyze how life satisfaction and self-rated health are associated with income dynamics. We used data from male employees in Japan (N = 1004) drawn from a panel dataset of career wage records spanning a period of over 30 years. The income history used in this study was based on administrative records; thus, the data were almost free of recall error. Our results show that life satisfaction was more closely associated with a change in lifetime average income or maximum income than with a change in income compared to the previous year, whereas the opposite was true for self-rated health. In addition, life satisfaction tended to resist a decline in response to a fall in income from its average or maximum level, but this was not the case for self-rated health. Furthermore, an income peak experienced in the past made both life satisfaction and self-rated health more sensitive to changes in income, whereas a trough experienced in the past made them less sensitive. These findings suggest that the association of income between subjective well-being and health should be studied further, within a dynamic framework.
    Japan and the World Economy 01/2013; 28:143–150. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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    Masakazu Hojo, Takashi Oshio
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates what factors determine students’ academic performance in 5 major Eastern Asian economies. It does so using data gathered through the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. In a regression analysis, we explicitly consider initial maturity differences, endogeneity of class size and peer effects. We find that a student's individual and family backgrounds are key determinants of educational performance, while institutional and resource variables have a more limited effect. Peer effects are significant in general, but ability-sorting at the school and/or class levels makes it difficult to interpret these effects in Hong Kong and Singapore.
    Asian Economic Journal 12/2012; 26(4). · 0.30 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Oshio
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the associations of life satisfaction with family and social relations among the Japanese elderly. Ordered logit models were estimated to explain life satisfaction with a rich set of explanatory variables, using micro data of 3,277 elderly Japanese adults (1,679 men and 1,598 women) collected from the first-wave sample from the Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement (JSTAR). This study found that men are less satisfied with life when living without their spouse; women are less satisfied with life when they live and/or have close relations with their parents-in-law; coresidence with an unmarried son is negatively associated with life satisfaction for both men and women; and, a larger number of friends and social activities enhance life satisfaction for women but not for men. Men are more sensitive than women to overall family relations, while the relative importance of social relations is higher for women. These results confirmed gender differences in the associations of life satisfaction with family and social relations in Japan-a nation characterized by a gender-asymmetric society and multi-generational family settings.
    Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 05/2012; 27(3):259-74.
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    Akiko Sato Oishi, Takashi Oshio
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    ABSTRACT: No abstract available.
    NBER Book Chapters. 02/2012;
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    Takashi Oshio, Maki Umeda, Mayu Fujii
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have provided evidence of the lasting impact of low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood on adulthood health. However, the mediating pathway that links them is still under debate. In this study, we examine how educational attainment, household income, and social support mediate the impact of low SES in childhood on self-rated health and health-risk behaviors in adulthood on the basis of micro data collected from a survey in municipalities in and around the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan (N = 3,265). As a comprehensive measure for childhood SES, we utilized a binary variable of childhood poverty constructed from the retrospective assessment of the living standard at the age of 15. We estimated recursive bivariate probit models that consisted of (1) the main equation to predict adulthood health outcome by childhood poverty and other variables and (2) the auxiliary equation to predict childhood poverty by parental SES. This method allowed us both to capture a wide dimension of childhood SES and to mitigate the potential recall bias to the retrospective assessment of the past living standard. We observed that educational attainment, household income, and social support, when combined, mediated 35-55 percent of the impact of childhood poverty on adulthood SRH and health-risk behaviors, confirming the substantial magnitude of mediation. However, a large proportion of the impact was unexplained by these mediating effects, underscoring the importance of social policies aimed at reducing risks of childhood poverty.
    01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: No abstract available.
    NBER Book Chapters. 09/2011;
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    Takashi Oshio, Satoshi Shimizutani
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    ABSTRACT: No abstract available.
    NBER Book Chapters. 09/2011;
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    Akiko Sato Oishi, Takashi Oshio
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    ABSTRACT: No abstract available.
    Household Finance eJournal. 08/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study we examine how social security programs have affected the labour force participation of the elderly over the past 40 years in Japan. Using publicly available data, we construct incentive measures for inducing retirement, to ascertain actual changes in the generosity of the programs and to explore the impact of the reforms on the labour supply of the elderly. We show that the labour force participation of the elderly is significantly sensitive to the measures, and our counter‐historical simulations show that social security reforms since 1985 featuring reduced generosity have significantly encouraged the elderly to remain in the labour force longer.
    Japanese Economic Review 01/2011; · 0.27 Impact Factor
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    Takashi Oshio, Maki Umeda, Norito Kawakami
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined how the impact of child adversity on adulthood mental health is mediated by perceived social support and socioeconomic status (SES) in Japan, using micro data collected from surveys conducted in four municipalities in the Tokyo metropolitan area (N = 3,305). We focused on the self-reported experience of parental maltreatment and bullying in school. Our moderation analysis revealed that perceived social support and SES mediated 9-21% and 6-13%, respectively, of the impact of child adversity on selected mental health variables. The results highlight the mediating roles of social support and SES on the impact of adverse events in childhood on adulthood mental health. However, a large proportion of the impact is unexplained by either social support or SES, underscoring the need for reducing risks of parental maltreatment and bullying in school.
    01/2011;
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    Takashi Oshio, Maki Umeda, Norito Kawakami
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the impact of childhood interpersonal adversity on adulthood subjective well-being, with a focus on the mediating and moderating effects of social support and socioeconomic status (SES). We concentrated on parental maltreatment (abuse and neglect) and bullying in school as childhood adversity variables and on perceived happiness, life satisfaction, and self-rated health as adulthood subjective well-being measures. Our empirical analysis was based on micro data from a survey in municipalities in and around the Tokyo metropolitan area (N = 3,292). We obtained four key findings. First, the experience of childhood adversity had a substantial negative impact on adulthood subjective well-being. Second, social support and SES significantly mediated the impact of childhood adversity. Third, a large proportion of the impact of childhood interpersonal adversity was unexplained by social support and SES mediation effects. Fourth, no social support or SES variable moderated the impact of childhood interpersonal adversity. Hence, we can conclude that childhood interpersonal adversity affects adulthood subjective well-being in a relatively independent manner rather than being substantially mediated or moderated by social support or SES. Accordingly, social policies should aim at reducing incidents of childhood maltreatment and bullying in addition to helping people enhance levels of social support and SES in later life.
    01/2011;
  • Takashi Oshio, Miki Kobayashi
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated how area-level income inequality is associated with an individual’s assessment of happiness, based on micro-level data sourced from nationwide surveys in Japan. It was confirmed from our analysis using logit models that individuals who live in areas of high income inequality tend to report themselves as being less happy, even after controlling for various individual and area-level factors. The association between inequality and happiness is modestly significant, regardless of the choice of covariates at an individual level, and stronger at a lower level of perceived happiness. Moreover, sensitivity to inequality differs substantially according to certain individual attributes. Among others, an important implication for social policy is that those with unstable occupational status are more sensitive to inequality. Given that these people tend to be less happy than others, this result indicates the risk that area-level inequality further reduces the well-being of those with unfavorable employment conditions. KeywordsHappiness–Income inequality–Logit model–Japan
    Journal of Happiness Studies 01/2011; 12(4):633-649. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    Takashi Oshio, 隆士 小塩
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the associations of life satisfaction with family and social relations differ between elderly men and women in Japan. Methods. Ordered logit models were estimated to explain life satisfaction with a rich set of explanatory variables, using micro data from 3,063 Japanese elderly adults (1,565 men and 1,498 women) collected from the first-wave sample of the Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement (JSTAR), a survey compatible with the HRS in the United States and SHARE in Europe. Results. This study found that life satisfaction is more closely associated with family and social relations for women than for men, after controlling for socioeconomic, health, and other factors. Women are more sensitive than men to coresidence and contact with family members, especially parents-in-law, as well as to social relations with others in the community, while men are much more depressed than women by divorce or widowhood. Discussion. Observed associations between each factor and life satisfaction are largely consistent with those separately reported by preceding studies. However, this analysis compared the relative importance of each factor and its gender difference, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of subjective well-being of elderly people. 科学研究費補助金(特別推進研究) = Grant-in-Aid for Specially Promoted Research
    01/2011;