Norihiro Ohtsubo

The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Миура, Kanagawa, Japan

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Publications (14)35.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The class B genes DEFICIENS (DEF)/APETALA3 (AP3) and GLOBOSA (GLO)/PISTILLATA (PI), encoding MADS-box transcription factors, and their functions in petal and stamen development have been intensely studied in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum. However, the functions of class B genes in other plants, including ornamental species exhibiting floral morphology different from these model plants, have not received nearly as much attention. Here, we examine the cooperative functions of TfDEF and TfGLO on floral organ development in the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.). Torenia plants co-overexpressing TfDEF and TfGLO showed a morphological alteration of sepals to petaloid organs. Phenotypically, these petaloid sepals were nearly identical to petals but had no stamens or yellow patches like those of wild-type petals. Furthermore, the inflorescence architecture in the co-overexpressing torenias showed a characteristic change in which, unlike the wild-types, their flowers developed without peduncles. Evaluation of the petaloid sepals showed that these attained a petal-like nature in terms of floral organ phenotype, cell shape, pigment composition, and the expression patterns of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes. In contrast, torenias in which TfDEF and TfGLO were co-suppressed exhibited sepaloid petals in the second whorl. The sepaloid petals also attained a sepal-like nature, in the same way as the petaloid sepals. The results clearly demonstrate that TfDEF and TfGLO play important cooperative roles in petal development in torenia. Furthermore, the unique transgenic phenotypes produced create a valuable new way through which characteristics of petal development and inflorescence architecture can be investigated in torenia.
    Plant molecular biology. 08/2014;
  • Ichiro Kasajima, Norihiro Ohtsubo, Katsutomo Sasaki
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    ABSTRACT: Purification of plant DNA involves lengthy ultracentrifugation using ethidium bromide. Here, ultracentrifugation method is improved by staining with GelRed. The resulting method is faster, safer and of higher sensitivity. Purified DNA quality was confirmed by treatment with restriction enzymes and isolation of gene promoters. New type of long adaptor with mismatch sequence was also developed for promoter isolation.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 08/2014; · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyclamen persicum (cyclamen) is a commercially valuable, winter-blooming perennial plant. We cloned two cyclamen orthologues of AGAMOUS (AG), CpAG1 and CpAG2, which are mainly expressed in the stamen and carpel, respectively. Cyclamen flowers have 5 petals, but expression of a chimeric repressor of CpAG1 (CpAG1-SRDX) caused stamens to convert into petals, resulting in a flower with 10 petals. By contrast, CpAG2-SRDX only caused incomplete formation of stamens and carpels. Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana showed similar effects on flower organ specification. Simultaneous expression of CpAG1-SRDX and CpAG2-SRDX in cyclamen induced rose-like, multi-petal flowers, a potentially valuable trait in commercial ornamental varieties. Expression of CpAG2-SRDX in a cyclamen mutant lacking expression of CpAG1 more effectively produced multi-petal flowers. Here, we controlled the number of petals in cyclamen by simple genetic engineering with a chimeric repressor. This strategy may be applicable useful for other ornamental plants with two distinct AG orthologues.
    Scientific Reports 09/2013; 3:2641. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The waxy plant cuticle protects cells from dehydration, repels pathogen attack, and prevents organ fusion during development. The transcription factor WAX INDUCER1/SHINE1 (WIN1/SHN1) regulates the biosynthesis of waxy substances in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we show that the MIXTA-like MYB transcription factors MYB106 and MYB16, which regulate epidermal cell morphology, also regulate cuticle development coordinately with WIN1/SHN1 in Arabidopsis and Torenia fournieri. Expression of a MYB106 chimeric repressor fusion (35S:MYB106-SRDX) and knockout/down of MYB106 and MYB16 induced cuticle deficiencies characterized by organ adhesion and reduction of epicuticular wax crystals and cutin nanoridges. A similar organ fusion phenotype was produced by expression of a WIN1/SHN1 chimeric repressor. Conversely, the dominant active form of MYB106 (35S:MYB106-VP16) induced ectopic production of cutin nanoridges and increased expression of WIN1/SHN1 and wax biosynthetic genes. Microarray experiments revealed that MYB106 and WIN1/SHN1 regulate similar sets of genes, predominantly those involved in wax and cutin biosynthesis. Furthermore, WIN1/SHN1 expression was induced by MYB106-VP16 and repressed by MYB106-SRDX. These results indicate that the regulatory cascade of MIXTA-like proteins and WIN1/SHN1 coordinately regulate cutin biosynthesis and wax accumulation. This study reveals an additional key aspect of MIXTA-like protein function and suggests a unique relationship between cuticle development and epidermal cell differentiation.
    The Plant Cell 05/2013; · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a set of DNA extraction/purification/quantification procedures for preparation of large-amount and pure DNA samples from mature leaves of cyclamen and tree species, from which high quality and quantity of DNA would not be extractable with any other protocols. Cyclamen is a popular flowering plant throughout the temperate world. Only minute amounts or non-detectable levels of cyclamen DNA can be extracted from its leaves by standard methods such as the CTAB method. We have developed a new DNA extraction buffer which we call the ‘PVPP buffer’. This buffer can extract ∼20 μg of DNA from 1 g fresh weight of mature cyclamen leaves. Following extraction, DNA was successfully purified by CsCl ultracentrifugation, but purification was not successful with CTAB precipitation. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the DNA extract were performed by gel electrophoresis, not by the popular UV absorbance-based analysis, which seems to overestimate DNA quality and quantity. This fact suggests the possibility that quality and quantity of DNA extracts were not necessarily enough in the former reports. Pure DNA in large amounts was also extractable from mature leaves of all species tested (camellia, chrysanthemum, orchid, pine, rose and tea), which include ‘recalcitrant’ ones, using the PVPP buffer and CsCl purification. Extraction using PVPP buffer does not require special equipment and CsCl purification requires access to an ultracentrifuge.
    Scientia Horticulturae 01/2013; 164:65–72. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We identified a Torenia fournieri Lind. mutant (no. 252) that exhibited a sepaloid phenotype in which the second whorls were changed to sepal-like organs. This mutant had no stamens, and the floral organs consisted of sepals and carpels. Although the expression of a torenia class B MADS-box gene, GLOBOSA (TfGLO), was abolished in the 252 mutant, no mutation of TfGLO was found. Among torenia homologs such as APETALA1 (AP1), LEAFY (LFY), and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), which regulate expression of class B genes in Arabidopsis, only accumulation of the TfUFO transcript was diminished in the 252 mutant. Furthermore, a missense mutation was found in the coding region of the mutant TfUFO. Intact TfUFO complemented the mutant phenotype whereas mutated TfUFO did not; in addition, the transgenic phenotype of TfUFO-knockdown torenias coincided with the mutant phenotype. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that the mutated TfUFO lost its ability to interact with TfLFY protein. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that the transcripts of TfUFO and TfLFY were partially accumulated in the same region. These results clearly demonstrate that the defect in TfUFO caused the sepaloid phenotype in the 252 mutant due to the loss of interaction with TfLFY.
    The Plant Journal 05/2012; 71(6):1002-14. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: miR156/157 is a small RNA molecule that is highly conserved among various plant species. Overexpression of miR156/157 has been reported to induce bushy architecture and delayed phase transition in several plant species. To investigate the effect of miR157 overexpression in a horticultural plant, and to explore the applicability of miRNA to molecular breeding, we introduced Arabidopsis MIR157b (AtMIR157b) into torenia (Torenia fournieri). The resulting 35S:AtMIR157b plants showed a high degree of branching along with small leaves, which resembled miR156/157-overexpressing plants of other species. We also isolated torenia SBP-box genes with target miR156/157 sequences and confirmed that their expression was selectively downregulated in 35S:AtMIR157b plants. The reduced accumulation of mRNA was probably due to sequence specificity. Moreover, expression of torenia homologs of the SBP-box protein-regulated genes TfLFY and TfMIR172 was also reduced by AtmiR157 overexpression. These findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms of miR156/157 regulation are conserved between Arabidopsis and torenia. The bushy architecture and small leaves of 35S:AtMIR157b torenia plants could be applied in molecular breeding of various horticultural plants as well as for increasing biomass and crop production.
    Planta 05/2012; 236(4):1027-35. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While heavy-ion beam irradiation is becoming popular technology for mutation breeding in Japan, the combination with genetic manipulation makes it more convenient to create greater variation in plant phenotypes. We have succeeded in producing over 200 varieties of transgenic torenia (Torenia fournieri Lind.) from over 2,400 regenerated plants by this procedure in only 2 years. Mutant phenotypes were observed mainly in flowers and showed wide variation in colour and shape. Higher mutation rates in the transgenics compared to those in wild type indicate the synergistic effect of genetic manipulation and heavy-ion beam irradiation, which might be advantageous to create greater variation in floral traits.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2012; 847:275-89. · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Plant Biotechnology 03/2011; 28(2):123-130. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Plant Biotechnology 03/2011; 28(2):149-152. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Plant Biotechnology 03/2011; 28(2):181-188. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homeotic class B genes GLOBOSA (GLO)/PISTILLATA (PI) and DEFICIENS (DEF)/APETALA3 (AP3) are involved in the development of petals and stamens in Arabidopsis. However, functions of these genes in the development of floral organs in torenia are less well known. Here, we demonstrate the unique floral phenotypes of transgenic torenia formed due to the modification of class B genes, TfGLO and TfDEF. TfGLO-overexpressing plants showed purple-stained sepals that accumulated anthocyanins in a manner similar to that of petals. TfGLO-suppressed plants showed serrated petals and TfDEF-suppressed plants showed partially decolorized petals. In TfGLO-overexpressing plants, cell shapes on the surfaces of sepals were altered to petal-like cell shapes. Furthermore, TfGLO- and TfDEF-suppressed plants partially had sepal-like cells on the surfaces of their petals. We isolated putative class B gene-regulated genes and examined their expression in transgenic plants. Three xyloglucan endo-1,4-beta-D: -glucanase genes were up-regulated in TfGLO- and TfDEF-overexpressing plants and down-regulated in TfGLO- and TfDEF-suppressed plants. In addition, 10 anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes, including anthocyanin synthase and chalcone isomerase, were up-regulated in TfGLO-overexpressing plants and down-regulated in TfGLO-suppressed plants. The expression patterns of these 10 genes in TfDEF transgenic plants were diverse and classified into several groups. HPLC analysis indicated that sepals of TfGLO-overexpressing plants accumulate the same type of anthocyanins and flavones as wild-type plants. The difference in phenotypes and expression patterns of the 10 anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes between TfGLO and TfDEF transgenic plants indicated that TfGLO and TfDEF have partial functional divergence, while they basically work synergistically in torenia.
    MGG Molecular & General Genetics 11/2010; 284(5):399-414. · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • Plant Biotechnology 03/2008; 25:37-43. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    Plant Biotechnology 03/2008; 25:45-53. · 0.94 Impact Factor