J. B. Ketterson

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States

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Publications (829)1873.38 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Rashba-Edelstein effect stems from the interaction between the electron's spin and its momentum induced by spin-orbit interaction at an interface or a surface. It was shown that the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect can be used to convert a spin- into a charge current. Here, we demonstrate that a Bi/Ag Rashba interface can even drive an adjacent ferromagnet to resonance. We employ a spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance excitation/detection scheme which was developed originally for a bulk spin-orbital effect, the spin Hall effect. In our experiment, the direct Rashba-Edelstein effect generates an oscillating spin current from an alternating charge current driving the magnetization precession in a neighboring permalloy (Py, Ni80Fe20) layer. Electrical detection of the magnetization dynamics is achieved by a rectification mechanism of the time dependent multilayer resistance arising from the anisotropic magnetoresistance.
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    ABSTRACT: Due to its transverse nature, spin Hall effects (SHE) provide the possibility to excite and detect spin currents and magnetization dynamics even in magnetic insulators. Magnetic insulators are outstanding materials for the investigation of nonlinear phenomena and for novel low power spintronics applications because of their extremely low Gilbert damping. Here, we report on the direct imaging of electrically driven spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in the ferrimagnetic insulator Y$_3$Fe$_5$O$_{12}$ based on the excitation and detection by SHEs. The driven spin dynamics in Y$_3$Fe$_5$O$_{12}$ is directly imaged by spatially-resolved microfocused Brillouin light scattering (BLS) spectroscopy. Previously, ST-FMR experiments assumed a uniform precession across the sample, which is not valid in our measurements. A strong spin-wave localization in the center of the sample is observed indicating the formation of a nonlinear, self-localized spin-wave `bullet'.
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    ABSTRACT: Phase-pure cuprous oxide (Cu2O) crystals are difficult to grow since cupric oxide can form within the crystal as the crystal is cooled to ambient conditions. Vacancies are the solute which causes precipitation of macroscopic defects. Therefore, even when a mostly phase-pure single crystal is used as a feed rod, cupric oxide inclusions persist in the recrystallized solid. Control of the thermal profile during crystal growth, however, can improve phase-purity; a slow counter-rotation rate of the feed and seed rods results in fewer inclusions. Cupric oxide can be removed by annealing, which produces a factor of 540 ± 70 increase in phase-purity.
    Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 06/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1088/1468-6996/16/3/034901 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report experimental results on characteristics of SFIFS junctions and multiterminal SFIFSIS and SISFIS devices (where S, I, and F denote a superconductor (Nb), an insulator (AlOx), and a ferromagnetic material (Ni), respectively). The SFIFS (SFIS) junctions serve as injectors in the SFIFSIS (SISFIS) devices, which have transistorlike properties; for this reason, we call them superconducting-ferromagnetic transistors. We have found the F (Ni) thickness at which the SFIFS current-voltage characteristic becomes linear. For three-terminal SFIFSIS devices, we focused on studying the influence of the injection current through the SFIFS junction on the maximum Josephson current of the SIS acceptor. For four-terminal SISFIS devices, we studied dependence of the transport current through the middle Nb electrode on injection current level through the SFIS junction. In both cases, we found that the output superconducting current (either Josephson or transport) can be efficiently modulated by the quasiparticle injection from SFIFS or SFIS input junction. The experiments indicate that, after optimization of the device parameters, they can be used as input/output isolators and amplifiers for memory, digital, and RF applications.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 06/2015; 25(3):1-1. DOI:10.1109/TASC.2015.2390143 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the generation and detection of spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance in Pt/YIG bilayers. A unique attribute of this system is that the spin Hall effect lies at the heart of both the generation and detection processes and no charge current is passing through the insulating magnetic layer. When the YIG undergoes resonance, a dc voltage is detected longitudinally along the Pt that can be described by two components. One is the mixing of the spin Hall magnetoresistance with the microwave current. The other results from spin pumping into the Pt being converted to a dc current through the inverse spin Hall effect. The voltage is measured with applied magnetic field directions that range in-plane to nearly perpendicular. We find that for magnetic fields that are mostly out-of-plane, an imaginary component of the spin mixing conductance is required to model our data.
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis and properties of the hybrid organic/inorganic germanium perovskite compounds, AGeI3, are reported (A = Cs, organic cation). The systematic study of this reaction system led to the isolation of 6 new hybrid semiconductors. Using CsGeI3 (1) as the prototype compound, we have prepared methylammonium, CH3NH3GeI3 (2), formamidinium, HC(NH2)2GeI3 (3), acetamidinium, CH3C(NH2)2GeI3 (4), guanidinium, C(NH2)3GeI3 (5), trimethylammonium, (CH3)3NHGeI3 (6), and isopropylammonium, (CH3)2C(H)NH3GeI3 (7) analogues. The crystal structures of the compounds are classified based on their dimensionality with 1-4 forming 3D perovskite frameworks and 5-7 1D infinite chains. Compounds 1-7, with the exception of compounds 5 (centrosymmetric) and 7 (nonpolar acentric), crystallize in polar space groups. The 3D compounds have direct band gaps of 1.6 eV (1), 1.9 eV (2), 2.2 eV (3), and 2.5 eV (4), while the 1D compounds have indirect band gaps of 2.7 eV (5), 2.5 eV (6), and 2.8 eV (7). Herein, we report on the second harmonic generation (SHG) properties of the compounds, which display remarkably strong, type I phase-matchable SHG response with high laser-induced damage thresholds (up to ∼3 GW/cm2). The second-order nonlinear susceptibility, χS(2), was determined to be 125.3 ± 10.5 pm/V (1), (161.0 ± 14.5) pm/V (2), 143.0 ± 13.5 pm/V (3), and 57.2 ± 5.5 pm/V (4). First-principles density functional theory electronic structure calculations indicate that the large SHG response is attributed to the high density of states in the valence band due to sp-hybridization of the Ge and I orbitals, a consequence of the lone pair activation.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 05/2015; 137(21). DOI:10.1021/jacs.5b01025 · 11.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quantification of spin-charge interconversion has become increasingly important in the fast-developing field of spin-orbitronics. Pure spin current generated by spin pumping acts as a sensitive probe for many bulk and interface spin-orbit effects, which has been indispensable for the discovery of many promising new spin-orbit materials. We apply spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect experiments, as a useful metrology, and study spin-orbit effects in a variety of metals and metal interfaces. We quantify the spin Hall effects in Ir and W using the conventional bilayer structures and discuss the self-induced voltage in a single layer of ferromagnetic permalloy. Finally, we extend our discussions to multilayer structures and quantitatively reveal the spin current flow in two consecutive normal metal layers.
    Journal of Applied Physics 05/2015; 117(17):172610. DOI:10.1063/1.4913887 · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • J. H. Song · Y. Cui · J. J. Lee · J. B. Ketterson
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    ABSTRACT: Using molecular-beam epitaxy, we grew a MnAs/GaAs multilayer on a GaAs(100) substrate and compared its magneto-transport characteristics to those of a single-layer MnAs thin film. The crystal orientation of the MnAs layers in both samples was type-B. M-H measurements revealed two-fold symmetric magnetic anisotropy on the surface with the easy and hard direction of magnetization. When the current flowed along the hard direction, the MnAs/GaAs multilayer exhibited negative magnetoresistance below Curie temperature; when the current flowed along the easy direction, it turned positive. We suggest that this peculiar anisotropic magneto-transport behavior in the multilayer originated from two-dimensional carrier confinement and spin-orbit coupling.
    Journal of Applied Physics 04/2015; 117(17). DOI:10.1063/1.4913288 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The static and dynamic magnetic responses of patterned ferromagnetic thin films are uniquely altered in the case of aperiodic patterns that retain long-range order (e.g., quasicrystals). We have fabricated permalloy wire networks based on periodic square antidot lattices (ADLs) distorted according to an aperiodic Fibonacci sequence applied to two lattice translations, d1 = 1618 nm and d2 = 1000 nm. The wire segment thickness is fixed at t = 25 nm, and the width W varies from 80 to 510 nm. We measured the DC magnetization between room temperature and 5 K. Room-temperature, narrow-band (9.7 GHz) ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra were acquired for various directions of applied magnetic field. The DC magnetization curves exhibited pronounced step anomalies and plateaus that signal flux closure states. Although the Fibonacci distortion breaks the fourfold symmetry of a finite periodic square ADL, the FMR data exhibit fourfold rotational symmetry with respect to the applied DC magnetic field direction.
    Journal of Applied Physics 04/2015; 117(17). DOI:10.1063/1.4913820 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A major focus within the field of magnonics involves the manipulation and control of spin-wave modes. This is usually done by patterning continuous soft magnetic films. Here, we report on work in which we use topographic modifications of a continuous magnetic thin film, rather than lithographic patterning techniques, to modify the ferromagnetic resonance spectrum. To demonstrate this technique we have performed in-plane, broadband, ferromagnetic resonance studies on a 100-nm-thick permalloy film sputtered onto a colloidal crystal with individual sphere diameters of 200 nm. Effects resulting from the, ideally, sixfold-symmetric underlying colloidal crystal were studied as a function of the in-plane field angle through experiment and micromagnetic modeling. Experimentally, we find two primary modes; the ratio of the intensities of these two modes exhibits a sixfold dependence. Detailed micromagnetic modeling shows that both modes are quasiuniform and nodeless in the unit cell but that they reside in different demagnetized regions of the unit cell. Our results demonstrate that topographic modification of magnetic thin films opens additional directions for manipulating ferromagnetic resonant excitations.
    Physical Review B 04/2015; 91(13). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevB.91.134424 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new series of metal chalcogenides with the formula Ba6Ag2.67+4δSn4.33−δS16-xSex (x = 0 for 1, x = 6.47 for 2, and x = 16 for 3) were synthesized. Compounds 1-3 are isotypic with a three-dimensional structure and crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric space group I4̅3d. The framework in 1 is constructed by alternative corner-sharing of AgS4 and SnS4 tetrahedra with Ba2+ cations distributed within the channels. The Ag+ atoms are disordered with two neighboring silver sites trapped in various coordination environments. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns from samples of 1 indicate that the structural lattice is ordered without evidence of long-range ordering. High resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images of 1 along the [001] direction display the body-centered arrangement of barium atoms and the periodic appearance of lines between barium atoms that correspond to part of the array of disordered silver atoms. Within the sulfide composition range, the solid solutions are Ba6Ag2.67+4δSn4.33−δS16 with δ = 0.13 for 1, 0.31 for 1a, and 0.33 for 1b; the crystal colors range from dark-red to orange and yellow, respectively. All compounds are transparent in the mid-infrared region and have absorption edges ranging from 1.27 to 2.37 eV. The significant second harmonic generation (SHG) intensities of the five materials are optimized at wavelengths ranging from 600 to 800 nm. The outstanding ones are 1a and 2 which display strong intensities 4.4-11.6 times and 2.2-10.4 times that of AgGaSe2 in the ranges 600-700 nm and 675-800 nm, respectively. Raman spectroscopic characterization is reported.
    Chemistry of Materials 02/2015; 27(4-4):1316-1326. DOI:10.1021/cm504348z · 8.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the spin-wave propagation in a micro-structured yttrium iron garnet waveguide of $40$ nm thickness. Utilizing spatially-resolved Brillouin light scattering microscopy, an exponential decay of the spin-wave amplitude of $(10.06 \pm 0.83)$ $\mu$m was observed. This leads to an estimated Gilbert damping constant of $\alpha=(8.79\pm 0.73)\times 10^{-4}$, which is larger than damping values obtained through ferromagnetic resonance measurements in unstructured films. The theoretically calculated spatial interference of waveguide modes was compared to the spin-wave pattern observed experimentally by means of Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy.
    Journal of Applied Physics 12/2014; 117(17). DOI:10.1063/1.4916027 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The various decay mechanisms of excitons in cuprous oxide (Cu2O) are highly sensitive to defects which can relax selection rules. Here we report cryogenic hyperspectral imaging of exciton luminescence from cuprous oxide crystals grown via the floating zone method showing the samples have few defects. Some locations, however, show strain splitting of the 1s orthoexciton triplet polariton luminescence. Strain is reduced by annealing. In addition, annealing causes annihilation of oxygen and copper vacancies, which leads to a negative correlation between luminescence of unlike vacancies.
    Journal of Luminescence 12/2014; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.jlumin.2014.11.035 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    Shi-Qiang Li · Kazuaki Sakoda · John B. Ketterson · Robert P. H. Chang
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    ABSTRACT: In the nanophotonics community, there is an active discussion regarding the origin of the selective absorption/scattering of light by the resonances with nanorod arrays. Here we report a study of the resonances in ordered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanorod arrays from the perspective of waveguides. We discover that with only 2.4% geometrical coverage, the micron-length nanorod arrays strongly interact with light across an extra-wide band from visible to mid-infrared resulting in less than 10% transmission at the first order destructive interference. Simulations show excellent agreement with our experimental observation. Near-field profile obtained from simulation reveals the electric field is mainly localized on the surfaces of the nanorods at all the resonances. Theoretical analysis is then applied to explain the resonances and it was found that the resonances in the visible are different from those in the infrared. The former resonances are the result of the interference between guided wave and wave propagated in the free space, while the latter ones are standing wave formation determined by the length of nanorods and the propagating constant of the guided wave (antenna modes). These differences observed in the wavelength range studied are attributed to the unique permittivity dispersion of ITO, which monotonically decreases from positive to negative right at the near infrared. The simple analytical formulae developed can be used to predict and design the resonances, which can be subsequently applied to devices like wavelength-selective photodetector, modulators, and nanorod-based solar cells. The discussion in this report should apply equally well to other semiconductor nanorod/nanowire arrays and help to clarify experimental interpretations in those published systems.
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    ABSTRACT: We report experimental results on characteristics of SFIFS junctions and multi-terminal SFIFSIS devices (where S, I, and F denote a superconductor (Nb), an insulator (AlOx), and a ferromagnetic material (Ni), respectively). The SFIFS junctions serve as injectors in the SFIFSIS devices which have transistor-like properties; for this reason we call them Superconducting-Ferromagnetic Transistors (SFTs). We have found the F (Ni) thickness at which the SFIFS current-voltage characteristic (CVC) becomes linear. Furthermore, we investigated the DC and AC characteristics of SFTs of two types: ordinary devices with a single acceptor (SIS) junction, and devices with a double acceptor. In the first case, we focused on studying the influence of the injection current through the SFIFS junction on the maximum Josephson current of the SIS acceptor. For devices of the second type, we studied voltage amplification properties when the operating point was chosen in the sub-gap region of the acceptor CVC. By applying an AC signal (in the kHz range) while biasing the injector (SFIFS) junction with a constant DC current, we observed a voltage gain above 25 on the double acceptor. In the reverse transmission experiment, we applied DC current and an AC modulation to the acceptor junction and, within the accuracy of the experiment, observed no response on the injector junction, which implies an excellent input-output isolation in our SFIFSIS devices. The experiments indicate that, after optimization of the device parameters, they can be used as input/output isolators and amplifiers for memory, digital, and RF applications.
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    ABSTRACT: We report our recent development in pursuing high Quality-Factor (high-Q factor) plasmonic resonances, with vertically aligned two dimensional (2-D) periodic nanorod arrays. The 2-D vertically aligned nano-antenna array can have high-Q resonances varying arbitrarily from near infrared to terahertz regime, as the antenna resonances of the nanorod are highly tunable through material properties, the length of the nanorod, and the orthogonal polarization direction with respect to the lattice surface,. The high-Q in combination with the small optical mode volume gives a very high Purcell factor, which could potentially be applied to various enhanced nonlinear photonics or optoelectronic devices. The 'hot spots' around the nanorods can be easily harvested as no index-matching is necessary. The resonances maintain their high-Q factor with the change of the environmental refractive index, which is of great interest for molecular sensing.
    SPIE NanoScience & Engineering, San Diego; 09/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Electro-, magneto-, and other rheological effects can be used to externally control fluid viscosity. However, they are largely reversible and in addition subject to colloidal settling, electrostatic breakdown, or high cost. In the experiments described here the dependence of the viscosity of a polymer solution under pulsed laser photocrosslinking as a function of radiation dose is determined using the Brownian motion of colloidal polystyrene tracers that were optically confined to a one dimensional channel. The system studied was a transparent aqueous solution of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate together with a 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone photoinitiator. An increase in the viscosity of the solution with the laser fluence was observed. The growth was exponential, stable between pulses, and spanned nearly three orders of magnitude. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40690.
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 09/2014; 131(17). DOI:10.1002/app.40690 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report experimental results on the dc and ac characterization of multiterminal SFIFSIS devices (where S, I, and F denote a superconductor (Nb), an insulator (AlOx), and a ferromagnetic material (Ni), respectively), which display transistor-like properties. We investigated two types of such superconducting-ferromagnetic transistors (SFTs): ordinary devices with a single acceptor (SIS) junction, and devices with a double acceptor. The devices with the single SIS acceptor were investigated and demonstrated a modulation of the maximum Josephson current as a function of the SFIFS current injection level. For devices of the second type, by applying an ac signal (in the kilohertz range) with a constant dc bias current to the injector (SFIFS) junction, we observed a voltage gain of about 25 on the double acceptor with the operating point chosen in the subgap region of the acceptor current-voltage characteristic. We also observed an excellent input-output isolation in our SFIFSIS devices. The experiments indicate that, after optimization of the device parameters, they can be used as input/output isolators and amplifiers for memory, digital, and RF applications.
    IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 08/2014; 24(4):1-6. DOI:10.1109/TASC.2014.2318317 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies of artificial spin ice have been largely restricted to periodic dot lattices. Ferromagnetic switching of segments in an applied magnetic field is stochastic in periodic spin ice systems, which makes emergent phenomena, such as the formation of vortex loops, hard to control or predict. We fabricated finite, aperiodic Penrose P2 tilings as antidot lattices with fivefold rotational symmetry in permalloy thin films. Measurements of the field dependence of the static magnetization reveal reproducible knee anomalies whose number and form are temperature dependent, which suggests they mark cooperative rearrangements of the tiling magnetic texture. Our micromagnetic simulations of the P2 tiling are in good agreement with experimental magnetization data and exhibit non-stochastic magnetic switching of segments in applied field, and vortex loops that are stable over an extended field interval during magnetic reversal.
    Physica C Superconductivity 08/2014; 503. DOI:10.1016/j.physc.2014.04.043 · 1.11 Impact Factor
  • Zhengling Wang · Shiqiang Li · R.P.H. Chang · John B. Ketterson
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    ABSTRACT: Using the finite difference time domain method, it is demonstrated that perfect coupling can be achieved between normally incident light and a periodic dielectric/metal/dielectric structure. The structure serves as a diffraction grating that excites modes related to the long range surface plasmon and short range surface plasmon modes that propagate on continuous metallic films. By optimizing the structural dimensions, perfect coupling is achieved between the incident light and these modes. A high Q of 697 and an accompanying ultrasharp linewidth of 0.8 nm are predicted for a 10 nm silver film for optimal conditions.
    Journal of Applied Physics 07/2014; 116(3):033103-033103-5. DOI:10.1063/1.4890511 · 2.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,873.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1970–2015
    • Northwestern University
      • • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
      • • Center for AIDS Research
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2010
    • Rice University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • Northwest University
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 1963–2009
    • Argonne National Laboratory
      • • Division of Materials Science
      • • Division of Physics
      Lemont, Illinois, United States
  • 2004
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne
      • Department of Physics
      Fort Wayne, Indiana, United States
  • 2002
    • Yerevan State University
      Ayrivan, Yerevan, Armenia
  • 1994
    • Cornell University
      • Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 1989–1992
    • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      • Department of Physics
      Milwaukee, WI, United States
  • 1990
    • NASA
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
  • 1981
    • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
      H̱efa, Haifa, Israel
  • 1969
    • Iowa State University
      Ames, Iowa, United States