[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the aim of studying the agronomic and phytopathological behavior, as well as the industrial quality and grain yield stability of 20 bread wheat varieties that are grown under rainfed conditions in the Central Plateau of Mexico, we set up assays in 11 localities of the State of Mexico which are representative of the rainfed environments of this region. We identified two groups of varieties, one with high and the other with moderate yield; the first group included the varieties Chicalote "S", Rebeca F2000, Náhuatl F2000, Pastor F2000, Triunfo F2004 and Tlaxcala F2000.The varieties developed for irrigated cultivation in the region of El Bajío did not have a good yield and were susceptible to diseases. Other varieties, such as Era F2000, Finsi 2000, Batan F96, Juchi F2000, Pavón F76, Gálvez M87, Temporalera M87 and Zacatecas VT74, which were released for rainfed cultivation, are no longer suitable to be planted due to their low yield and/or susceptibility to diseases. Rebeca F2000, Náhuatl F2000, Tlaxcala F2000, Triunfo F2004, Tollocan F05, and Pastor F2000 showed good resistance against foliar diseases. The varieties with better industrial qualities were: Chicalote "S", Rebeca F2000, Náhuatl F2000, Triunfo F2004, Tlaxcala F2000, Romoga F96, Tollocan, Gálvez M87, Finsi F2000, Era F2000 and Juchi F2000: The first five of this list were also the more stable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to analyze the socioeconomic conditions of families in Nanacamilpa, Tlaxcala, and the role of the generation and technology transfer in improving the living conditions of families as important elements of a strategy to promote regional agricultural development. This study was conducted in the community of Nanacamilpa, Tlaxcala, in 2008. Strategies for regional agricultural development legitimized by various international organizations, has been gaining theoretical consistency in the impact on the fight against poverty reduction, social and cultural marginalization, gender and environmental degradation; as to reduce the gap in the transfer of technology in rural development. At a regional and international level, the strategy of the National Institute of Research forAgriculture, Forestry and Livestock (INIFAP), has included the support for agricultural research focused on the farmers. It will be a challenge for the institutions to meet the changing demands of technology that emerges from a new macroeconomic context, under the neoliberal paradigm. The base information was obtained from a simple random sample and a questionnaire was applied to 50 farmers with closed and open questions. The salient findings are: i) technology transfer plays an important role in achieving successful actions for regional agricultural development; ii) the quality of life for families in Nanacamilpa has a higher level of income earned through wheat; iii) the technology transfer promoted by INIFAP stimulates an agricultural development in Nanacamilpa; iv) the generation of technology in the community is an important factor in the transfer and adoption of knowledge; and v) the strategy includes a participative action from all family members.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The varieties of bread wheat, Cortázar s94, Bárcenas S2002, Urbina S2007 y Maya S2007 were liberated for planting under irrigated conditions in "El Bajío". These varieties maintain a resistance to different races of yellow rust that were found in the country; however, the genetic bases of resistance are unknown. To determine the genetics of the resistance, these varieties were crossed with the susceptible parent 'Avocet- YrA', and the determination of similitude ofthe genes was conducted through allele testing. The four varieties and the families F3 of each cross was evaluated during the summer of 2009 in the Experimental Field 'Valle de Mexico', Chapingo, Mexico State, under an artificial epiphyte created with the isolation MEX96.11. With the results of the evaluation of the families F3, it was determined that the resistance of the adult plant to yellow rust in Cortázar S94, Bárcenas S2002 y Maya S2007 is conditioned for two or three genes of additive effects, while in Urbina S2007, the resistance is conditioned for three or four genes of the same composition. The absence of complete acceptable families in the crosses between resistant varieties indicates the existence of at least one gene of resistance in common.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oats cultivation is an important alternative in the region of the Highlands, because of its forage and grain production, requiring agronomic studies to optimize its management. In this study the objectives were to determine the optimal cutting time for obtaining more and better forage, and compare varieties in terms of forage yield. Twenty-four genotypes were evaluated (18 advanced lines of the oats breeding program of INIFAP and 6 commercial varieties) in eight rainfed environments of the high valleys of the States of Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, México City and México State in the spring- summer, 2007 and 2008, using an experimental design of randomized complete block with three replicates at each location. There were six samplings inthe stages of booting, half emerged inflorescence, anthesis, milk development and dough development. The variables measured were plant height in cm, total green área in kg ha -1, total dry matter in kg ha-1, protein percentage, calculated by the method of Larry and Charles, protein per hectare and dry matter accumulation kg ha-1 day1. A combined analysis of variance was made and, Tukey test was applied at 5 % for comparison of means. Highly significant differences were found in all the variables for the factors changing of locations, sampling and varieties as well as for the interactions localities by samplings and localities by varieties. Cutting stages with the highest forage quantity were the milky and dough development stages, harvesting up to 191 ha -1 of dry matter and, for quality, the best one was the booting stage, recording up to 24% protein. The best forage yield was obtained in Juchitepec in 2007, while Saia variety had the highest percentage of protein. Some lines exceeded the control varieties in quantity and quality of forage produced, indicating that there is potential to implement future selection schemes and, eventually for offering options to the farmers for greater quantity and quality of forage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic purity, health and physical quality of grain are important characteristics for marketing bread wheat. It is well known that environment affects some of its physical parameters; therefore the aim of this study was to determine environment influence in some physical quality parameters of three bread wheat populations developed by progenies from one single F2 to F6 seed, the first group was comprised by 69 lines of Rebeca F2000 x Salamanca S75 breed, the second was formed by 98 genotypes of Rebeca F2000 x Baviácora M92 breed, and the third was formed by 98 genotypes of Gálvez M87 x Rebeca F2000 breed, plus parents. The genotypes from the first group were sown at Roque, Guanajuato (autumn-winter 2006-2007) with normal (five irrigations) and restricted (three irrigations) irrigation. The genotypes of second and third breeds were sown at Santa Lucía de Prías and Chapingo, State of Mexico (2006 spring-summer). The following variables were assessed: hectolitre weight (kg hL-1), grain hardness (%), and protein content in grain (%). An analysis of variance and frequencies histogram were made and means with least significant difference were compared. The genotypes showed highly significant differences for all physical quality variables assessed, and this also occurred for hectolitre weight and protein content in grain for humidity levels and localities. In the hectolitre weight frequency histograms the three population groups show trend towards normal distribution which sugge sts that such variable involves high amount of genes and it is strongly affected by environment. Genotypes with better hectolitre weight than parents were identified; therefore materials are available to make selection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Norteña F2007 was developed by the INIFAP´s breeding program of wheat in collaboration with CIMMYT. This variety is of spring-growth habit, semi-dwarf with 86 cm high and 130 days to maturity; producing 7%, 8% and 12% more than Tacupeto F2001, Kronstad F2004 and Bárcenas S2002, respectively. On average, it outperformed other control varieties such as Saturno S86, Cortazar S96, Rayón F89 and Tarachi F2000, among others, in the regions of El Bajío and northern Mexico. Norteña F2007 is resistant to moderately susceptible to leaf rust and moderately resistant to stripe rust; its grain protein content is 11.5% to 13% and test weight of 77 kg hL-1 and a gluten force 510*10-4 J, which makes it suitable for making bread in the machine industry and as improved smooth gluten flour. It is recommended for wheat areas of El Bajío and northern Mexico, under regular watering planting and limited irrigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent efforts in El Bajío Experiment Station of the National Research Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock (INIFAP-Mexico) have allowed the development of wheat varieties of high performance and high levels of disease resistance. Among these superior genotypes is the new variety Anatoly C2011, which produces 10% higher yield than Gema C2004 besides, it is resistant to stripe rust, moderately resistant to leaf rust and has similar quality. Anatoly C2011 seeds are available in El Bajío, INIFAP´s experimental station.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monarca F2007 was developed by the collaborative program of wheat improvement of the INIFAP and CIMMYT. This cultivar was evaluated in the national assay of irrigated wheat (ENTRI) from 2004-2005 to 2007-2008 in 11 States and 84 different trials. This cultivar is of spring-growth habit, semi-dwarf with 99 cm high and 128 days to maturity. It produced 12% more yield than Bárcenas S2002 and Kronstad F2003 and, on average, outperformed other control varieties in the producing regions of The Bajío, North-West and North of the country. Monarca F2007 is resistant to leaf rust and moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to yellow rust. Its protein content in whole-meal flour is 12% and in white flour is 11%, with test weight of 77 kg hL-1, a gluten strength of 570*10-4 J and is classified as a cultivar with balanced strong gluten. It is recommended for wheat areas of El Bajío, the North and Northwest Mexico, under planting conditions of regular and limited irrigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of physiological races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae using differentials, is important in oat's genetic improvement programs, in order to obtain resistance to stem rust and learn about evolution and regional spread of the pathogen. In 2008-2009, in greenhouses of CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 50 monopustule isolates of P. graminis f. sp. avenae were tested in 24 genotypes of oat (Avena sativa L.), in order to determine the pathogen diversity in samples collected in six states of Mexico and see if these genotypes could be used as differential plants. Genotypes Avemex, Obsidiana, Papigochi, Diamante, Raramuri, Chihuahua and Progenitor 7, expressed different types of infection and can be used as differentials to study pathogen diversity and races prevalence. Using these differentials, 24 different races of the pathogen were found. This leads to the conclusion that there is great genetic variability of the fungus in the sampled regions. Against isolates tested, it was noted that Agata, Avena desnuda, Menonita and Saia varieties, showed the highest resistance level and progenitors 11, 12 and 13 and varieties 12, 14, 27, 28, 36, 43 and 44 had good resistance level, so they can be used as progenitors in future crosses plans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to know the possibilities of producing crystalline wheat with good yields and quality in rainfed areas of High Valleys of Mexico, an experiment was established in four different production environments, where wheat varieties Topacio C98, Júpare C2001 and Gema C2004 were tested and compared with bread wheat varieties Rebeca F2000 and Tlaxcala F2000, which were developed for rainfed conditions; genotypes were evaluated with and without fungicide application. The results indicate that the bread wheat varieties overcame for its agronomic and yield characteristics to the durum wheat in all the testing sites, obtaining higher yields up to 20% (1 200 kg ha-1). Bread wheat had higher yields and was the best option in evaluated favorable production environments and the best alternative in critical environments. Due to its agronomic performance and yield, Júpare C2001 was the durum wheat with better response and adaptation in the tested environments. The industrial quality of durum wheat in any condition, allowed obtaining suitable semolina for the manufacture of good quality products, but its production under rainfed conditions could be an alternative for using it as a flour mixtures improver.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The changes in the stability of wheat quality in response to agro-environmental variations affect the efficient selection in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of allele combinations of glutenins of high (G-BPM) and low (G-BPM) molecular weight upon the distribution of gliadinand glutenin-rich fractions, and the stability of industrial quality characteristics of flour from a group of 26 lines of seasonal wheat. Five agro-environmental conditions were generated for cultivation by agronomical management, in the autumn-winter 2006-2007 cycle, in Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico. Flour protein fractionation in 50% propanol was performed to obtain fractions rich in monomeric protein or gliadin (50PS) or rich in polymeric protein or glutenin (50PI), determining the 50PS/50PI ratio. Protein quantification was performed spectrophotometrically at 280nm. Mixograph mixing time (TMA), dough strength (ALVW) and stretchability (ALVPL) were evaluated. Most quality characteristics showed a lineal tendency through the environments, yielding a similar quality in the different agro-environmental conditions. The most stable combination for 50PS and 50PI was 2*,17+18,2+12/Glu-A3e,Glu-B3h,Glu-D3b. The combination 2*,17+18,2+12/Glu-A3e,Glu-B3g,Glu-D3b yielded a higher protein amount and a higher 50PS/50PI relation in restrictive environments. The ideal variety is that with an optimal value and a low variation in quality parameters along an ample environmental quality spectrum. It is difficult to find genotypes with good quality and great stability in all of the environments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Presence of translocation 1BL.1RS (rye secalin proteins) in wheat genome, it has been associated with differenteffects on grain quality and dough rheology, depending on genetic background in which is evaluated. This is reason why aim of the present investigation was to compare physical characteristics of grain of high and low molecular weight glutenins (HMWG and LMWG) combinations with and without translocation in F7 recombinant lines, derived from breeds Gálvez M87¿Bacanora T88 and Bacanora T88¿Salamanca S75. The materials were cultivated in the Experimental Field Bajío, Roque, Guanajuato, during 2008 spring-summer cycle. The identification of glutenins combinations with and without translocation (identified as allele Glu-B3j), and determination of grain physical parameters, was carried out in quality laboratory from International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (commonly known as CIMMYT for Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo). Measured variables were, hectoliter weigh, grain hardness, protein in grain and protein in flour. Translocation was identified in six and two different recombinant combinations in breed GálvezM87*Bacanora T88 and Bacanora T88*Salamanca S75, respectively. The analysis of allele Glu-B3j presence in different combinations of HMWG and LMWG, it allowed to identify lines that were associated to high and low values of hectoliter weigh, same behavior was seen for protein in grain and flour; while in both breeds translocation was associated to greater grain hardness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Land races of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var durum), called "ventureros", collected in the Oaxaca state of México, showed resistance to durum leaf rust (Puccinia triticina E.) race BBG/BN that affects mainly durum wheats. Four of these collections were crossed to the susceptible durum wheat cultivars "Altar C84" and "Atil C2001", in order to determine the genetics of the resistance to leaf rust in their offspring. The collections resulted genetically heterogeneous. Consequently, their response to resistance depended on the plant used as parent. In the collections "CWI52201" and "CWI52271" two cases of resistance were found: one conferred by a dominant gene and one conferred by two duplicated epistatic recessive genes; in the last one and in most crosses the resistance was conferred by two dominant genes; in the rest of the crosses resistances was due to two duplicated recessive genes. The same result regarding inheritance of resistance was found in collections "CWI52274" and "CWI52345", except that conferred by two duplicate recessive genes.
Revista fitotecnia mexicana publ. por la Sociedad Mexicana de Fitogenética 01/2011; 34(1):35-41. · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For to identify the causal agent of the rot of oat grain, infected grains of oat var. 'Chihuahua' were collected in Nanacamilpa, Tlaxcala, Mexico. Were carried out the Koch's postulates and the pathogen was identified using taxonomic keys for genus. Were observed dark brown spherical pycnidia, and bicellular and fusiform conidia with a papillated ostiole and measures of 17.6 to 26.4 x 4.4 to 8.8 microm. It was concluded that the fungus belong to genus Diplodia sp. The identification concerning species was not done for being the first report of this genus in oat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fungi were isolated from grain of eight bread wheat varieties sown under rainfed conditions in five locations in Mexico's Central Valleys, and from a commercial field under irrigation in Roque, Guanajuato in 2005. The phytopathogenic fungi identified were: Fusarium graminearum, F. avenaceum, F. equiseti, F. nivale, F. moniliforme, F. solani, F. oxysporum, Helminthosporium sativum and H. spiciferum; and the saprophytes Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp., Nigrospora sp., and Stemphylium sp. The highest fungal frequency, mostly saprophytes, was found in rainfed wheat grain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de factores ambientales y genotípicos sobre los parámetros de calidad industrial y sobre la cantidad y relación de proteínas monoméricas y poliméricas del gluten en 24 líneas recombinantes de trigos harineros de temporal. El cultivo se desarrolló en cinco condiciones ambientales generadas por manejo agronómico, ciclo otoño-invierno 2006/2007, en Roque, Guanajuato, México. Se evaluaron el tiempo de amasado (TMA), fuerza (ALVW), extensibilidad (ALVPL) de la masa, fracción rica en gliadina (50PS) y en glutenina (50PI), y su relación (50PS/50PI). Las mejores combinaciones de gluteninas de alto y bajo peso molecular para TMA y ALVW fueron los genotipos con 1, 17+18, 5+10/Glu-A3c, Glu-B3g, Glu-D3b; 1, 17+18, 5+10/Glu-A3c, Glu-B3h, Glu-D3b, y 2*, 17+18, 5+10/Glu-A3c, Glu-B3g, Glu-D3b; para ALVPL, 2*, 17+18, 2+12/Glu-A3e, Glu-B3h, Glu-D3b; para 50PS, 2*, 17+18, 2+12/Glu-A3e, Glu-B3h, Glu-D3b; y 1, 17+18, 5+10/Glu-A3e, Glu-B3h, Glu-D3b. La relación 50PS/50PI fue mayor en genotipos con 2*, 17+18, 2+12/Glu-A3e, Glu-B3g, Glu-D3b. El TMA es mayor cuando aumenta la temperatura y la mejor ALVPL se obtiene en el ambiente bajo condiciones normales. La fracción 50PS y la relación 50PS/50PI son mayores cuando se realiza la fertilización con azufre, y se obtiene incremento de 50PI con riego limitado y aumento de temperaturas durante el llenado de grano.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: El origen del gen de resistencia Lr14a a roya de la hoja causada por Puccinia triticina E. es el trigo tetraploide 'Yaroslav emmer' (Triticum dicoccum L.). En México, todas las razas de trigo harinero (T. aestivum) importantes son virulentas a este gen. Sin embargo, las razas que atacan trigos cristalinos o duros son avirulentas a Lr14a. Se ha determinado la presencia de Lr14a en trigo harinero y en especies silvestres tetraploides, pero no en trigos cristalinos o trigos duros (T. turgidum spp durum). El gen Lr14a se transfirió a la variedad cristalina 'Altar C84' a partir de la cruza de ésta con la línea monogénica de trigo harinero 'RL6013' (Selkirk/6*Thatcher) y una retrocruza hacia 'Altar C84'. Para determinar la genética de la resistencia de la variedad 'Jupare C2001', resistente a la raza de roya de la hoja que venció la resistencia de 'Altar C84', y determinar si 'Jupare C2001' posee Lr14a, se cruzó con 'Altar C84' y con 'Altar C84'+Lr14a. La respuesta del gen de resistencia a roya de la hoja Lr14a a la infección en plántula a las razas BBG/BN y BCG/BN que son virulentas en 'Altar C84', es de heterogénea con uredinios grandes (X a X+) en la escala de 0-4, tanto en trigos harineros como en 'Altar C84', mientras que confiere casi inmunidad en planta adulta a estas mismas razas. La cruza de 'Jupare C2001' con 'Altar C84'+Lr14a indicó que 'Jupare C2001' no posee Lr14a, y que la resistencia de esta última se basa en dos genes complementarios dominantes. Para el funcionamiento efectivo de la resistencia que el gen Lr14a confiere en trigos cristalinos en respuesta a las razas de roya de la hoja que preferentemente atacan trigos harineros, es necesaria la presencia del gen de 'Altar C84'.
Revista fitotecnia mexicana publ. por la Sociedad Mexicana de Fitogenética 01/2010; · 0.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. Avenae is considered the biotic factor that affects the most to oat cultivation (Avena sativa L.), decreasing yield and grain weight in susceptible varieties, in 75% and 60%, respectively. The strategy that has supported control of this disease is the use of resistant varieties, constantly requiring of resistance sources. The way resistance works, and the genes that give it to oat germoplasm, is still unknown, then is necessary to make more studies about number and similarity of genes as well as in their activity. The aim of the study was to determine similarity and number of resistance genes in mature plant and seedlings, in families F3 of crosses between oat parents, moderately resistant to stem rust; due their importance for the programs of improvement as resistance sources, by means of analysis of the derived progenies of cross between them from 2006 to 2009. In greenhouse seedling state, the parents, considering each one apart, had readings of 0, ";", and 1, indicating their resistance to isolation PgaMex99.13. The families F3 of all breeds didn't segregate susceptible families, indicating that these six parents have a gene in common conferring resistance against tested isolation. In field, even with inoculations of same isolation, the families in all breeds showed differentinfection levels, some above at 60% indicating the incidence of other breeds different to the one inoculated, for which the resistance gene common in the parents was not effective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Con el propósito de determinar las combinaciones alélicas de gluteninas de alto peso molecular (G-APM) y estudiar la estabilidad conferida por dichas combinaciones sobre las propiedades reológicas de la masa en trigos harineros mexicanos, se evaluaron las variedades 'Náhuatl F2000', 'Pavón F76', 'Temporalera M87', 'Rebeca F2000', 'Tlaxcala F2000', 'Gálvez M87', 'Zacatecas VT74','Romoga F96', 'Juchi F2000' y 'Batán F96'. Los genotipos se sembraron en 22 ambientes de temporal o secano en los Estados de México, Tlaxcala, Jalisco, Oaxaca, Puebla, Guanajuato, Morelos y Querétaro, durante los ciclos P-V/1999 y 2000, bajo un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con dos repeticiones. Se evaluaron las propiedades viscoelásticas (reológicas) de la masa mediante las variables tiempo de amasado (min), alveograma-W, alveograma-P/L y alveograma P/G. Se estimaron los parámetros de estabilidad mediante cuatro modelos diferentes. Las variedades 'Náhuatl F2000', 'Pavón F76' y 'Temporalera M87' poseen las subunidades de G-APM en Glu-A1 2*, Glu-B1 17+18 y Glu-D1 5+10 (combinación 1); las variedades 'Rebeca F2000', 'Tlaxcala F2000', 'Gálvez M87', 'Zacatecas VT74' y 'Romoga F96' en Glu-A1 1, Glu-B1 17+18 y Glu-D1 5+10 (combinación 2); y las variedades 'Juchi F2000' y 'Batán F96' en Glu-A1 2*, Glu-B1 7+9 y Glu-D1 5+10 (combinación 3). Hubo diferencias significativas (P lt; 0.01) en todas las propiedades viscoelásticas para las combinaciones de G-APM. La combinación alélica 2 fue la más estable sobre las propiedades reológicas de la masa, y fue superior en algunas características viscoeláticas como fuerza de la masa. Por tanto, las variedades que poseen esta combinación son muy deseables para la industria mecanizada.
Revista fitotecnia mexicana publ. por la Sociedad Mexicana de Fitogenética 01/2010; · 0.33 Impact Factor