[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant interactions with environmental factors cause changes in the metabolism and regulation of biochemical and physiological processes. Plant defense against pathogenic microorganisms depends on an innate immunity system that is activated as a result of infection. There are two mechanisms of triggering this system: basal immunity activated as a result of a perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns through pattern recognition receptors situated on the cell surface and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). An induced biosynthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites, in particular phytoalexins, is one of the mechanisms of plant defense to fungal infection. Results of the study on narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) plants infected with the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum lupini and treated with fungal phytotoxic metabolites are described in the paper. The C. lupini phytotoxins were isolated from liquid cultures, purified and partially characterized with physicochemical methods. Accumulation of secondary metabolites on leaf surface and within the tissues of plants either infected, treated with the fungal phytotoxin or submitted to both treatments was studied using GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. Substantial differences in isoflavone aglycones and glycoconjugate profiles occurred in response to different ways of plant treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forty three Bradyrhizobium strains isolated in Poland from root nodules of lupin species (Lupinus albus, L. angustifolius and L. luteus), and pink serradella (Ornithopus sativus) were examined based on phylogenetic analyses of three housekeeping (atpD, glnII and recA) and nodulation (nodA) gene sequences. Additionally, seven strains originating from root-nodules of yellow serradella (O. compressus) from Asinara Island (Italy) were included in this study. Phylogenetic trees revealed that 15 serradella strains, including all yellow serradella isolates, and six lupin strains grouped in Bradyrhizobium canariense (BC) clade, whereas eight strains from pink serradella and 15 lupin strains were assigned to Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BJ1). Apparently, these species are the two dominant groups in soils of central Europe, in the nodules of lupin and serradella plants. Only three strains belonged to other chromosomal lineages: one formed a cluster that was sister to B. canariense, one strain grouped outside the branch formed by B. japonicum super-group, and one strain occupied a distant position in the genus Bradyrhizobium, clustering with strains of the Rhodopseudomonas genus. All strains in nodulation nodA gene tree grouped in a cluster referred to as Clade II, which is in line with earlier data on this clade dominance among Bradyrhizobium strains in Europe. The nodA tree revealed four well-supported subgroups within Clade II (II.1-II.4). Interestingly, all B. canariense strains clustered in subgroup II.1 whereas B. japonicum strains dominated subgroups II.2-II.4.
Systematic and Applied Microbiology 07/2011; 34(5):368-75. · 3.29 Impact Factor