Douglas R. MacFarlane

Monash University (Australia), Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Are you Douglas R. MacFarlane?

Claim your profile

Publications (561)2411.09 Total impact

  • Raimund Koerver · Douglas R. MacFarlane · Jennifer M. Pringle ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in thermoelectrochemical cells, which are being developed for harvesting low grade waste heat, have shown the promise of cobalt bipyridyl salts as the active redox couple. The Seebeck coefficient, Se, of a redox couple determines the open circuit voltage achievable, for a given temperature gradient, across the thermoelectrochemical cell. Thus, the accurate determination of this thermodynamic parameter is key to the development and study of new redox electrolytes. Further, techniques for accurate determination of Se using only one half of the redox couple reduces the synthetic requirements. Here, we compare three different experimental techniques for measuring Se of a cobalt tris(bipyridyl) redox couple in ionic liquid electrolytes. The use of temperature dependent cyclic voltammetry (CV) in isothermal and non-isothermal cells was investigated in depth, and the Se values compared to those from thermo-electromotive force measurements. Within experimental error, the Se values derived from CV methods were found to be in accordance with those obtained from electromotive force (emf) measurements. The applicability of cyclic voltammetry techniques for determining Se when employing only one part of the redox couple was demonstrated.
  • Sowmiya Theivaprakasam · Douglas R MacFarlane · Sagar Mitra ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The electrochemistry of the electrolyte plays a significant role in the performance of lithium ion batteries. In order to further investigate the effect of combining an ionic liquid with a conventional electrolyte, a hybrid electrolyte (HE) based on a mixture of 38% N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluromethanesulfonyl) imide in an electrolyte consisting of LiPF6 in Ethylene Carbonate: Diethyl Carbonate (1:1) was studied and compared with the properties of a standard organic electrolyte in this work. Thermal measurements reveal that the addition of the ionic liquid improves the thermal stability of the hybrid electrolyte. The interfacial behavior was studied in lithium symmetric cells and it was found that the combined effects of the ionic liquid and the conventional electrolyte results in lower interfacial resistance. The charge-discharge behaviour of LiFePO4 / Li cells was investigated; at the end of 100 cycles, the discharge capacity of the cell with LP30, HE and [C3mpyr][TFSI] was 141 mAh/g, 148 mAh/g and 45mAh/g, respectively. Analysis of the separator recovered from Li/LiFePO4 cells that had been stored for 30 days at 20°C shows iron dissolution from the cathode into the LP30 electrolyte, but not into the hybrid electrolyte. Posthumous studies of the cycled electrodes were carried out using FTIR, XRD, FEG-SEM and HR-TEM analyses, show that the HE forms a permeable interface on the cathode material which prevents metal dissolution from the cathode structure, leading to better cyclic performance.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Coal solubilisation is often a necessary step for the alternative utilisation of the cheap and abundant brown coal resources in the State of Victoria, Australia, such as producing high quality fuel or chemicals. A series of ionic liquids (ILs), ammonium carbamates, formed by the association of carbon dioxide (CO2) with low molecular weight secondary amines, were investigated as solvents for the solubilisation of Victorian brown coal. The ionic liquid was mixed with a Loy Yang coal at a mass ratio of 20 to 1 (dry basis) for 24 h at ambient temperature. The solubilisation yields of the coal using three such ILs from dimethyl-, diallyl- and dipropyl-amines, respectively, were between 18% and 23%. Repeated solubilisation of the coal with fresh solvent achieved higher yields, with the highest at 66% by the carbamate formed from dimethylamine (DIMCARB). The variations in chemical structure between the products were compared by elemental analysis and a variety of spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, Solid State 13C NMR and Py-GC-MS). The soluble products of the initial solubilisation were more aliphatic than their parent coal. The less polar ILs formed from diallyl- and dipropyl-amines (DACARB and DPCARB) appeared to be more selective for high molecular weight triterpenoids than DIMCARB. Subsequent treatment tended to dissolve more aromatic components.
  • Manoj A Lazar · Danah Al-Masri · Douglas R MacFarlane · Jennifer M Pringle ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thermoelectrochemical cells are increasingly promising devices for harvesting waste heat, offering an alternative to the traditional semiconductor-based design. Advancement of these devices relies on new redox couple/electrolyte systems and an understanding of the interplay between the different factors that dictate device performance. The Seebeck coefficient (Se) of the redox couple in the electrolyte gives the potential difference achievable for a given temperature gradient across the device. Prior work has shown that a cobalt bipyridyl redox couple in ionic liquids (ILs) displays high Seebeck coefficients, but the thermoelectrochemical cell performance was limited by mass transport. Here we present the Se and thermoelectrochemical power generation performance of the cobalt couple in novel mixed IL/molecular solvent electrolyte systems. The highest power density of 880 mW m(-2), at a ΔT of 70 °C, was achieved with a 3 : 1 (v/v) MPN-[C2mim][B(CN)4] electrolyte combination. The significant power enhancement compared to the single solvent or IL systems results from a combination of superior ionic conductivity and higher diffusion coefficients, shown by electrochemical analysis of the different electrolytes. This is the highest power output achieved to-date for a thermoelectrochemical cell utilising a high boiling point redox electrolyte.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 09/2015; DOI:10.1039/c5cp04305k · 4.49 Impact Factor
  • Jiaye Li · Haijin Zhu · Xiaoen Wang · Douglas R. MacFarlane · Michel Armand · Maria Forsyth ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Solid-state polymer electrolytes, as an alternative to traditional liquid electrolytes, have been intensively investigated for energy conversion and storage devices. The transport rate of single ions is the key to their high performance. For application in emerging sodium batteries, we have developed three dual-cation polymeric ionomers, which contain bulky tetraalkylammonium ions in addition to the sodium ion. The sizes and relative contents of the ammonium ions vary relative to the sodium ion contents. Comparative studies of ion dynamics, thermal properties, phase behaviours and ionic conductivities were carried out, taking advantage of various spectroscopic and thermal chemistry methods. The ion conductivities of the ionomers are greatly enhanced by the introduction of bulky counterions, as a result of the additional free volume and decreased sodium ion association. Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis as well as the solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies are used to probe the conductivity behaviour. This journal is
    Journal of Materials Chemistry A 08/2015; 3(39). DOI:10.1039/C5TA04407C · 7.44 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The physical absorption of CO2 by protic and aprotic ionic liquids such as 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate was examined at the molecular level using symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) and density functional techniques through comparison of interaction energies of non-covalently bound complexes between the CO2 molecule and a series of ionic liquid ions and ion pairs. These energies were contrasted to complexes with model amines such as methylamine, dimethylamine and trimethylamine. Detailed analysis of the five fundamental forces that are responsible for stabilization of the complexes is discussed. It was confirmed that the nature of the anion had a greater effect upon the physical interaction energy in non functionalised ionic liquids, with dispersion forces playing an important role in CO2 solubility. Hydrogen bonding with protic cations was shown to impart additional stability to the non-covalently bound CO2···IL complex through inductive forces. Two solvation models, the Conductor-like Polarisable Continuum Model (CPCM) and the Universal Solvation Model (SMD), were used to estimate the impact of solvent effects on the CO2 binding. Both solvent models reduced interaction energies for all types of ions. These interaction energies appeared to favour imidazolium cations and carboxylic and sulfonic groups as well as bulky groups (e.g. NTf2) in anions for the physical absorption of CO2. The structure-reactivity relationships determined in this study may help in the optimization of the physical absorption process by means of ionic liquids.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 08/2015; 119(35). DOI:10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b05115 · 3.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Tristan J. Simons · Andrew K. Pearson · Steven J. Pas · Douglas R. MacFarlane ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The electrochemical behavior and deposition morphology of Pb2+ was investigated in the Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (RTIL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) containing the salt Pb(NTf2)2. Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) experiments were found to result in a range of electrochemical responses depending on the working electrode material being used, with both Pt and Pb based electrodes showing the highest current and lowest overpotential for deposition, respectively. Pb was found to undergo a single diffusion controlled reduction process at a coulombic efficiency of 95 % on a Pt working electrode. The deposition of Pb was found to follow a 3 dimensional progressive nucleation mechanism, regardless of the substrate material or the temperature during the experiment. During the deposition, the diffusion coefficient of Pb2+ was found to be 1.3 × 10−7 cm2.s−1 by chronoamperometric analysis. Finally, the resulting morphologies of the Pb metal deposits were found to be heavily dependent on the deposition substrate, ranging from pyramids of 3 μm in diameter on Pt, to fine sub-micron interwoven needles on glassy carbon. Interestingly, the potential of deposition appeared to make little difference to the resulting morphology on Cu substrates. Finally, to demonstrate the cycling ability of the Pb metal surfaces, Pb was cycled on Pb electrodes 200 times, showing that the resulting Pb films were compact and non-dendritic in nature. It is concluded that [C2mim][NTf2] containing Pb(NTf2)2 shows many favourable cycling characteristics.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The tris(2,2′-bipyridyl) complexes of cobalt(II) and (III) ([Co(bpy)3]2+/3+) produce a redox couple of great interest in thermoelectrochemical cells and dye sensitized solar cells including both types of devices based on ionic liquid electrolytes. We present a systematic study of the electrochemistry of [Co(bpy)3]2+ [NTf2]-2 in two ionic liquids (ILs) based on the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (C2mim) cation and two ILs based on the 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cation (C4mpyr), as well as three aprotic molecular solvents. Platinum (Pt) and glassy carbon (GC) working electrodes were compared. In all solvents better electrochemical responses were observed on GC, which yielded higher currents in the cyclic voltammograms and lower rate constants for the redox reaction. The [Co(bpy)3]1+/2+ couple is also readily observed, but this redox reaction is chemically irreversible, possibly because the [Co(bpy)3]1+ complex dissociates. However, the [Co(bpy)3]1+/2+ reaction is chemically reversible in all of the solvents studied, except 3-methoxypropionitrile, if excess of 2,2′-bipyridyl is added to the solution.
  • Haitao Li · Chenghua Sun · Muataz Ali · Fengling Zhou · Xinyi Zhang · Douglas R. MacFarlane ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acid catalytic processes play a classic and important role in modern organic synthesis. How well the acid can be controlled often plays the key role in the controllable synthesis of the products with high conversion yield and selectivity. The preparation of a novel, photo-switchable solid-acid catalyst based on carbon quantum dots is described. The carbon quantum dots are decorated with small amounts of hydrogensulfate groups and thus exhibit a photogenerated acidity that produces a highly efficient acid catalysis of the ring opening of epoxides with methanol and other primary alcohols. This reversible, light-switchable acidity is shown to be due to photoexcitation and charge separation in the carbon quantum dots, which create an electron withdrawing effect from the acidic groups. The catalyst is easily separated by filtration, and we demonstrate multiple cycles of its recovery and reuse.
    Angewandte Chemie 06/2015; DOI:10.1002/ange.201501698
  • Source
    Haitao Li · Chenghua Sun · Muataz Ali · Fengling Zhou · Xinyi Zhang · Douglas R. MacFarlane ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acid catalytic processes play a classic and important role in modern organic synthesis. How well the acid can be controlled often plays the key role in the controllable synthesis of the products with high conversion yield and selectivity. The preparation of a novel, photo-switchable solid-acid catalyst based on carbon quantum dots is described. The carbon quantum dots are decorated with small amounts of hydrogensulfate groups and thus exhibit a photogenerated acidity that produces a highly efficient acid catalysis of the ring opening of epoxides with methanol and other primary alcohols. This reversible, light-switchable acidity is shown to be due to photoexcitation and charge separation in the carbon quantum dots, which create an electron withdrawing effect from the acidic groups. The catalyst is easily separated by filtration, and we demonstrate multiple cycles of its recovery and reuse. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 06/2015; 54(29). DOI:10.1002/anie.201501698 · 11.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Manganese oxides (MnOx ) are considered to be promising catalysts for water oxidation. Building on our previous studies showing that the catalytic activity of MnOx films electrodeposited from aqueous electrolytes is improved by a simple heat treatment, we have explored the origin of the catalytic enhancement at an electronic level by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The Mn L-edge XA spectra measured at various heating stages were fitted by linear combinations of the spectra of the well-defined manganese oxides-MnO, Mn3 O4 , Mn2 O3 , MnO2 and birnessite. This analysis identified two major manganese oxides, Mn3 O4 and birnessite, that constitute 97 % of the MnOx films. Moreover, the catalytic improvement on heat treatment at 90 °C is related to the conversion of a small amount of birnessite to the Mn3 O4 phase, accompanied by an irreversible dehydration process. Further dehydration at higher temperature (120 °C), however, leads to a poorer catalytic performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    ChemSusChem 05/2015; 8(11). DOI:10.1002/cssc.201500330 · 7.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ionic liquids formed by association of carbon dioxide (CO2) with low molecular weight secondary amines to form carbamate salts (e.g. N,N-dimethylammonium N′,N′-dimethylcarbamates, or DIMCARB) as solvents have been identified as ‘distillable’ as they reform their volatile precursor components upon heating at relatively low temperature and, thus, can be recovered by condensation. DIMCARB was selected for the solubilisation of a number of Victorian brown coals including Loy Yang coal, a dark, a medium light and a light lithotype and a Yallourn woody coal. The coal was mixed with DIMCARB at a mass ratio of 1:20 for 24 h at room temperature. The soluble product was recovered by centrifugation followed by acid washing to remove residual DIMCARB. The solubilisation yields achieved were between 10% and 63% in the order of woody coal < dark lithotype < medium light lithotype < Loy Yang < light lithotype. The soluble and non-soluble products were characterised by FTIR, NMR and pyrolysis GC–MS. Results revealed a positive correlation between the solubility and aliphatic content in the coals. Polycyclic aliphatic and aromatic compounds, specifically the triterpenoid group, were selectively dissolved by DIMCARB.
    Fuel 05/2015; 158. DOI:10.1016/j.fuel.2015.04.060 · 3.52 Impact Factor
  • Yogita V. Oza · Douglas R. MacFarlane · Maria Forsyth · Luke A. O’Dell ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two sulfonated ionomers based on poly(triethylmethyl ammonium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) and containing mixtures of Li+ and quaternary ammonium cations are characterised. The first system contains Li+ and the methyltriethyl ammonium cation (N1222) in a 1:9 molar ratio, and the 7Li NMR line widths showed that the Li+ ions are mobile in this system below the glass transition temperature (105 °C) and are therefore decoupled from the polymer segmental motion. The conductivity in this system was measured as 10−5 Scm−1 at 130 °C. A second PAMPS system containing Li+ and the dimethylbutylmethoxyethyl ammonium cation (N114(2O1)) in a 2:8 molar ratio showed much lower conductivities despite a significantly lower Tg (60 °C), possibly due to associations between the Li+ and the ether group on the ammonium cation, or between the latter cations and the sulfonate groups.
    Electrochimica Acta 04/2015; 175. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2015.03.218 · 4.50 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Efficient catalysis of water oxidation represents one of the major challenges en route to efficient sunlight-driven water splitting. Cobalt oxides (CoOx ) have been widely investigated as water oxidation catalysts, although the incorporation of these materials into photoelectrochemical devices has been hindered by a lack of transparency. Herein, the electrosynthesis of transparent CoOx catalyst films is described by utilizing cobalt(II) aminopolycarboxylate complexes as precursors to the oxide. These complexes allow control over the deposition rate and morphology to enable the production of thin, catalytic CoOx films on a conductive substrate, which can be exploited in integrated photoelectrochemical devices. Notably, under a bias of 1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the film deposited from [Co(NTA)(OH2 )2 ](-) (NTA=nitrilotriacetate) decreased the transmission by only 10 % at λ=500 nm, but still generated >80 % of the water oxidation current produced by a [Co(OH2 )6 ](2+) -derived oxide film whose transmission was only 40 % at λ=500 nm. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    ChemSusChem 03/2015; 8(8). DOI:10.1002/cssc.201403188 · 7.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Alison L. Chong · Maria Forsyth · Douglas R. MacFarlane ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The preparation and physical properties of a novel family of ionic liquids and organic salts based on the imidazolinium cation are described, and compared with their imidazolium analogues in some cases. Ionic liquids were obtained with the triflate, formate and salicylate anions, while > 100 °C melting points were observed with acetate and several other benzoate derivatives. The triflate salt was less ion-conductive than the corresponding imidazolium salt, but less so than expected on the basis of its viscosity, suggesting a contribution from proton conductivity. The electrochemical window of the imidazolinium was slightly extended in the reductive direction, due to the lower proton activity produced by the cation in this case. Imidazolinium salts are also known to exhibit anti-corrosion properties and hence a preliminary study of this property is also reported; 2-methylimidazolinium 4-hydroxycinnamate was found to show strong anodic corrosion inhibition on mild steel.
    Electrochimica Acta 03/2015; 159:219-226. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2015.01.180 · 4.50 Impact Factor
  • Jiaye Li · Haijin Zhu · Xiaoen Wang · Michel Armand · Douglas R. MacFarlane · Maria Forsyth ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sodium-based batteries are being considered to replace Li-based batteries for the fabrication of large-scale energy storage devices. One of the main obstacles is the lack of safe and conductive solid Na-ion electrolytes. A Na-ion polymer based on the (4-styrenesulfonyl(trifluromethylsulfonyl) imide anion, Na[STFSI], has been prepared by a radical polymerization process and its conductive properties determined. In addition, a number of multi-component polymers were synthetized by co-reaction of two monomers: Na[STFSI] and ethyl acrylate (EA) at different ratios. The structural and phase characterizations of the polymers were probed by various techniques (DSC, TGA, NMR, GPC, Raman, FTIR and Impedance spectroscopy). Comparative studies with blends of the homopolymers Na[PSTFSI] and poly(ethylacrylate) (PEA) have also been performed. The polymers are all thermally stable up to 300 °C and the ionic conductivity of EA copolymers and EA blends are about 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than that of Na[PSTFSI]. The highest conductivity measured at 100 °C was found for Na[PSTFSI-blend-5EA] at 7.9 × 10−9 S cm−1, despite being well below its Tg. Vibrational spectroscopy indicates interaction between Na+ and the EA carbonyl groups, with a concomitant decrease in the sulfonyl interaction, facilitating Na+ motion, as well as lowering Tg.
    Electrochimica Acta 03/2015; 175. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2015.03.075 · 4.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane-sulphonate) (PAMPS) ionomer containing both sodium and quaternary ammonium cations functionalised with an ether group, has been characterised in terms of its thermal properties, ionic conductivity and sodium ion dynamics. The ether oxygen was incorporated to reduce the Na+ association with the anionic sulfonate groups tethered to the polymer backbone, thereby promoting ion dissociation and ultimately enhancing the ionic conductivity. This functionalised ammonium cation led to a significant reduction in the ionomer Tg compared to an analogue system without an ether group, resulting in an increase in ionic conductivity of approximately four orders of magnitude. The sodium ion dynamics were probed by 23Na solid-state NMR, which allowed the signals from the dissociated (mobile) and bound Na+ cations to be distinguished. This demonstrates the utility of 23Na solid-state NMR as a probe of sodium dynamics in ionomer systems.
    Electrochimica Acta 03/2015; 175. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2015.03.131 · 4.50 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three new cobalt(II) complexes, [Co(L-12)(2)](BF4)(2) (1), [Co(L-14)(2)](BF4)(2)center dot H2O (2) and [Co(L-16)(2)](BF4)(2)center dot H2O (3), where L12-16 are N-3-Schiff bases appended with linear C12-16 carbon chains at the nitrogen atoms, were obtained in good yields by facile one-pot reactions. The single crystal X-ray structure of complex 1 shows a tetragonally compressed CoN6 coordination geometry. The melting temperatures of 1-3 were lower than 373 K, while their decomposition temperatures were above 473 K. All complexes have high-spin Co(II) centres at 300 K and exhibit a columnar mesophase above 383 K. Complexes 1 and 3 showed normal thermal spin-crossover behaviour with weak hysteresis loops at about 320 K. Hence, these complexes showed uncoupled phase transitions (class iiia). The values for the Seebeck coefficient (S-e) of the cobalt redox couples formed from 1 and 2 were 1.89 +/- 0.02 mV K-1 and 1.92 +/- 0.08 mV K-1, respectively, identifying them as potential thermoelectrochemical materials.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry C 03/2015; 3(11):2491-2499. DOI:10.1039/c4tc02923b · 4.70 Impact Factor
  • Siti Aminah Mohd Noor · Hyungook Yoon · Maria Forsyth · Douglas R MacFarlane ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Owing to the unique properties of certain Ionic liquids (ILs) as safe and green solvents, as well as the potential of sodium as an alternative to lithium as charge carriers, we investigate gel sodium electrolytes as safe, low cost and high performance materials with sufficient mechanical properties for application in sodium battery technologies. We investigate the effect of formation of two types of gel electrolytes on the properties of IL electrolytes known to support Na/Na+ electrochemistry. The ionic conductivity is only slightly decreased by 0.0005 and 0.0002 S cm−1 in the case of 0.3 and 0.5 M NaNTf2 systems respectively as the physical properties transition from liquid to gel. We observed facile plating and stripping of Na metal around 0 V vs. Na/Na+ through the cyclic voltammetry. A wide-temperature range of the gelled IL state, of more than 100 K around room temperature, is achieved in the case of 0.3 and 0.5 M NaNTf2. We conclude that the formation of a gel does not significantly affect the liquid-like ion dynamics in these materials, as further evidenced by DSC and FTIR analysis.
    Electrochimica Acta 03/2015; 169. DOI:10.1016/j.electacta.2015.03.024 · 4.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Xinyi Zhang · Yuanhui Zheng · Xin Liu · Wei Lu · Jiyan Dai · Dang Yuan Lei · Douglas R. MacFarlane ·
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hierarchical porous plasmonic metamaterials consisting of periodic nanoholes with tunable diameter and uniformly distributed mesopores over the bulk are developed as a new class of 3D surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. This multiscale architecture not only facilitates efficient cascaded electromagnetic enhancement but also provides an enormous number of Raman-active binding sites, exhibiting excellent reproducibility and ultrasensitive detection of aromatic molecules down to 10−13 M.
    Advanced Materials 02/2015; 27(6):1090. DOI:10.1002/adma.201404107 · 17.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

18k Citations
2,411.09 Total Impact Points


  • 1990-2015
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • • Department of Materials Engineering, Clayton
      • • School of Chemistry, Clayton
      • • Centre for Green Chemistry
      • • Centre for Reproduction and Development
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1988-2015
    • University of Vic
      Vic, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2006-2014
    • University of Wollongong
      • ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2007
    • Sophia University
      • Division of Chemistry
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1989-2004
    • Monash University (Malaysia)
      Labuan, Labuan, Malaysia