David Chant

Queensland Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

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Publications (95)246.81 Total impact

  • Geoffrey Waghorn, David Chant
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    ABSTRACT: Standard treatments for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and anxiety disorders are generally expected to benefit individuals, employers, and the wider community through improvements in work-functioning and productivity. We repeated a previous secondary investigation of receiving treatment, labor force activity and self-reported work performance among people with ICD-10 psychiatric disorders, in comparison to people with other types of health conditions. Data were collected by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 2003 repeating a survey administered in 1998 using representative multistage sampling strategies. The 2003 household probability sample consisted of 36,241 working age individuals. Consistent with the previous secondary investigation based on the 1998 survey administration, receiving treatment was consistently associated with non-participation in the labor force, and was negatively associated with work performance. At a population level, receiving treatment was negatively associated with labor force activity and work performance. The stability of these results in two independent surveys highlights the need to investigate the longitudinal relationships between evidence-based treatments for psychiatric conditions as applied in real-world settings, and labor force participation and work performance outcomes.
    Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 12/2011; 21(4):547-58. · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Geoffrey Waghorn, David Chant
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the characteristics of people with psychiatric disorders who work excessive hours compared to those with other health conditions, or compared to others with no health conditions or disabilities. We conducted a secondary analysis of data files provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics from a 2003 population survey (N = 23,851 in scope). We investigated candidate correlates of working excessive hours as the main dependent variable. Although, people with psychiatric disorders were less likely overall than healthy adults to work excessive hours, partnered males with dependant children, and males with higher educational attainment; were at greatest risk of working 49 or more hours per week. People with psychiatric disorders have a substantial risk of over working, and this should be considered in their long term treatment and care.
    Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 10/2011; 22(2):252-61. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At a population level the extent that psychiatric disorders and other health conditions disrupt participation in education and employment is rarely considered simultaneously and remains largely unknown. This is an important issue because policy makers are as concerned with educational attainment, school to work transitions, and workforce skills, as they are with overall labour force participation. We investigated earning or learning, and educational attainment, among Australian community residents by age group and by category of psychiatric disorder. Data files were provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from a population survey conducted in 2003 using a multi-stage probability sample (N=23,787). Adults with schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety disorders were compared to (1) working age adults with other non-psychiatric health conditions and disabilities; and (2) healthy adults of working age. Participation in formal education and employment was extensively disrupted by all health conditions and by psychiatric disorders in particular. The extent of career-related disruption provides benchmarks for policy makers and service providers attempting to increase participation in formal education and in the labour force.
    Psychiatry Research 03/2011; 186(1):109-16. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents preliminary analysis of the endorsement of the CIDI Psychosis Screening items in a large Australian community sample. CIDI interviews were completed on a representative sample of 10,641 individuals living in private dwellings in Australia. The items examined constructs related to thought control/interference (G1), ideas of reference (G2), and special powers (G3). If endorsed, each item had a follow-up probe (G1A telepathy; G2A things arranged with special meaning; G3A -- group acceptability). The final item (G4) asked if the respondent had been told that they had schizophrenia. This paper presents the frequency of endorsement, and examines the impact of age and sex on these items. Endorsement of the items was G1 =5.86°/,,, G1A=0.70%, G2=4.84%, G2A=l.31%, G3=3.41%, G3A=2.65%, and G4=0.65%. If screen-positives are defined as two or more 'hits', then 0.41% of the sample met this criterion. Younger participants were significantly more likely to be screen-positive. Items G1, G1A, G2 and G2A were endorsed more frequently by younger participants while there were no significant age effects identified in items G3 or G4. There was a nonsignificant trend for females to endorse item G1 more frequently than males (p = 0.07), but there were no signficant gender differences on the other items. Many individuals who were 'screen-negative' for psychosis endorsed CIDI items related to thought controls, ideas of reference and special powers, suggesting that there may be a 'continuum' of experiences in the population. The impact of age on the distribution of these measures suggests either differential biological vulnerability to these experiences and/or differential cultural factors influencing endorsement of the items. The implications of these findings on our understanding of the symptoms of psychosis will be discussed. The survey was funded by the Commonwealth Dept. of Health and Family Services. The Stanley Foundation supported this project.
    Schizophrenia Research 01/2011; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The offspringof older fathers have an increased risk of various disorders that may be due to the accumulation of DNA mutations during spermatogenesis. Previous studies have suggested increased paternal age may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to examine paternal age as a risk factor for schizophrenia andror psychosis. We used data from three sources: a population-based cohort studyŽDenmark., and two case-control studiesŽSweden and Australia.. In the Danish and Australian studies, we examined both psychosis and schizophrenia. In the Swedish study we examined psychosis only. After controllingfor the effect of maternal age, increased paternal age was significantly associated with increased risk of both psychosis and schizophrenia in the Danish study and of psychosis in the Swedish study. The Australian study found no association between paternal age and risk of psychosis or schizophrenia. In all three studies the relationship between paternal age and risk of disorder in the offspring was AUB-shaped. In addition to an increased risk for the offspringof older father Ž)35 years., there was a non-significant increase for the offspringof fathers aged less than 20 years. The possible role of paternally derived DNA mutations andror other psychosocial factors associated with older paternal age warrants further research. The ‘U’-shaped relationship suggests that factors other than DNA mutations may warrant consideration in this research. The Stanley Foundation supported this project.
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    ABSTRACT: Comorbidity among people with psychiatric disorders with respect to other health conditions is extensive yet is rarely explored in-depth in occupational studies. We investigated how other ICD-10 comorbidity impacted on the labor force activity of people with psychiatric disorders. A secondary analysis of data files was conducted provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from a 2003 population survey (N = 36,088). The reference group was working age community residents without long-term health conditions. Comorbidity with a broad range of ICD-10 health conditions can be characterized by both type and extent of comorbidity. Both dimensions are needed to explain impacts on labor force activity. Health professionals, policymakers, and administrators can utilize these results to identify people with psychiatric disorders and comorbidity profiles most likely to need more intensive vocational services.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 01/2011; 53(1):68-73. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously found an association between variations in schizophrenia birth rates and varyinglevels of perinatal sunshine duration. This study examines whether such an association can also be found for Ža. affective psychosis, and Žb. broadly defined nonaffective psychoses. Data for individuals born between 1931 and 1970 in Australia with ICD9 Other PsychosisŽ295–299.were obtained from the Queensland Mental Health Statistical System. ‘Affective psychosis’ included affective psychosis, schizo-affective psychosis, and depressive and excitative non-organic psychoses. ‘Non-affective psychosis’ included chizophrenia, paranoid disorders and other non-organic psychoses. Those receiving both affective and non-affective psychotic diagnoses were excluded. Rates per 10,000 live monthly general population births were calculated. For each month, we assessed the agreementŽusing the kappa statistic. between trends in Ža. birth rates and Žb. long-term trends in seasonally adjusted perinatal sunshine duration. The analyses were performed separately for males and females. There were 6265 with non-affective psychosis ŽMs3964 rate 66r10,000; Fs2299 44r10,000. and 2858 with affective psychosisŽMs1392 24r10,000; Fs1466 28r10,000.. There were no significant associations between Ža. affective psychosis birth rates for either males or females and Žb. sunshine duration. There was a significant association between nonaffective psychosis birth rates for males only and Žb. sunshine duration Žkappas0.15 p-0.001.. This suggests that, as a risk factor, the effect of reduced perinatal sunshine is specifically associated with males who develop non-affective psychosis. The Stanley Foundation supported this project.
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  • Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that individuals with schizophrenia who are born in summer have an increased odds of have deficit syndrome versus nondeficit syndrome. This study extends this work to examiningthis issue in patients from the Southern Hemisphere. Data which included OPCRITrSCAN items and demographic information was obtained for Australian-born cases from the Australian National Mental Health Survey. Followingpreviously published methods, cases were assigned to the deficit group Žns153.or non-deficit groupŽns228.. A logistic regression analysis was used to ascertain whether beingborn in summer ŽDecember, January, February.in the Southern Hemisphere altered the odds of havingdeficit syndrome. There was no association between summer birth and odds of havingdeficit versus non-deficit schizophrenia ŽOdds Ratios0.75, 95% CI 0.49–1.16.. Based on our previous work showingthat the size of the winterrspringbirth excess in schizophrenia is reduced in the Southern Hemisphere, we speculate that factors that influence the association between summer birth and non-deficit syndrome may also vary across geography andror latitude. The Stanley Foundation supported this project.
    01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic complexity of schizophrenia may be compounded by the diagnostic imprecision inherent in distinguishing schizophrenia from closely related mood and substance use disorders. Further complexity may arise from studying genetically and/or environmentally diverse ethnic groups. Reported here are the ascertainment, demographic features and clinical characteristics, of a diagnostically and ethnically homogeneous schizophrenia pedigree sample from Tamil Nadu, India. Also reported is the theoretical power to detect genetic linkage in the subset of affected sibling pairs. Affected sibling pair and trio pedigrees were identified by caste/ethnicity. Affected probands and siblings fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The present sample consisted of 159 affected sibling pairs and 187 parent-offspring trios originating primarily from the Tamil Brahmin caste, but also incorporating pedigrees from genetically similar, geographically proximal caste groups. Consistent with previous studies in Tamil Nadu, a very low prevalence of affective psychoses such as schizoaffective disorder, was observed, with most affected individuals having schizophrenia (499/504). Also observed were extremely low rates of nicotine (12.4%), alcohol (1.1%) and illicit drug use (0%). Most affected individuals exhibited negative symptoms (>90%) and a severe, chronic course. All participants lived in the same geographic and climatic region and most affected individuals resided with close family members, increasing uniformity of the sociocultural environment. In affected sibling pairs, power to detect linkage to small-effect risk loci was modest, but this homogeneous sample may be enriched for loci of larger effect. This Indian schizophrenia sample exhibits diagnostic and ethnic homogeneity with high consistency of sociocultural environmental features. These characteristics should assist efforts to identify risk genes for schizophrenia.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 06/2009; 43(6):561-70. · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • G Waghorn, D Chant, M G Harris
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the stability of correlates of labour force activity among people with affective and anxiety disorders, compared with healthy adults, between 1998 and 2003. Secondary analyses of multi-stage probability samples of community residents (n(1998)=37,580 and n(2003)=36,088) obtained from repeat administrations of an Australian population survey. Proportionally, fewer people with affective or anxiety disorders were employed compared with well controls. Extent of employment restrictions, sex, age left school, country of birth, age and educational attainment were strong correlates of labour force participation and current employment. These effects were stable despite improved labour market conditions in 2003. These results can inform decisions about access to substantial forms of employment assistance. Subgroups of people with anxiety and depression, with severe employment restrictions, low education, low language proficiency, aged 15-24 years, or aged 55 years or more, may require greater access to substantial employment assistance.
    Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 12/2008; 119(5):393-405. · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At a population level, the extent that labour market conditions influence labour force activity among people with psychiatric disorders, remains equivocal. Similarly equivocal is the hypothesised relationship between economic conditions and the reported prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders. We investigated these issues by examining the extent that labour market conditions were associated with change in labour force activity among people with anxiety disorders, affective disorders, and schizophrenia, in comparison to healthy working age adults. Data files were provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from a population survey conducted in 1998 and replicated in 2003. Multi-stage probability samples were obtained in 1998 (N(1) = 37,580) and 2003 (N(2) = 36,088). Adults with schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety disorders were compared to healthy working age adults. Greater labour demand in 2003 was positively associated with increased labour force participation among healthy adults. The proportions actively looking for work declined among healthy adults and among those with anxiety disorders. Full-time employment significantly increased among healthy working age residents. The proportions employed part-time significantly increased in all groups except among people with schizophrenia. These results support policies which remove disincentives and increase access to the more intensive evidence-based employment programs even when labour market conditions are improving.
    Social Psychiatry 09/2008; 44(3):171-8. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is limited occupational health industry data pertaining to 1) the prevalence of psychological distress in various employee subtypes and 2) risk factors for employee psychological distress. The employees of 58 large public and private sector employers were invited to complete the Kessler 6 (K6) as part of the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire. A K6 score of > or =13 was chosen to indicate high psychological distress. Data on 60,556 full-time employees indicate that 4.5% of employees have high psychological distress of which only 22% were in current treatment. Occupational risk factors identified include long working hours, sales staff and non-traditional gender roles. High psychological distress is pervasive across all employee subtypes and remains largely untreated. Risk factors identified will guide the targeting of mental health promotion, prevention and screening programs.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 07/2008; 50(7):746-57. · 1.88 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
246.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2011
    • Queensland Health
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Royal Adelaide Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 2009
    • Schizophrenia Research Foundation
      Chennai, Tamil Nādu, India
  • 2006
    • Queensland Government
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2002–2004
    • University of Queensland
      • Queensland Centre for Schizophrenia Research
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia