[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of three personal breathalyser devices available for sale to the public marketed to test safety to drive after drinking alcohol.
Prospective comparative diagnostic accuracy study comparing two single-use breathalysers and one digital multiuse breathalyser (index tests) to a police breathalyser (reference test).
Establishments licensed to serve alcohol in a UK city.
Of 222 participants recruited, 208 were included in the main analysis. Participants were eligible if they were 18 years old or over, had consumed alcohol and were not intending to drive within the following 6 h.
Sensitivity and specificity of the breathalysers for the detection of being at or over the UK legal driving limit (35 µg/100 mL breath alcohol concentration).
18% of participants (38/208) were at or over the UK driving limit according to the police breathalyser. The digital multiuse breathalyser had a sensitivity of 89.5% (95% CI 75.9% to 95.8%) and a specificity of 64.1% (95% CI 56.6% to 71.0%). The single-use breathalysers had a sensitivity of 94.7% (95% CI 75.4% to 99.1%) and 26.3% (95% CI 11.8% to 48.8%), and a specificity of 50.6% (95% CI 40.4% to 60.7%) and 97.5% (95% CI 91.4% to 99.3%), respectively. Self-reported alcohol consumption threshold of 5 UK units or fewer had a higher sensitivity than all personal breathalysers.
One alcohol breathalyser had sensitivity of 26%, corresponding to false reassurance for approximately one person in four who is over the limit by the reference standard, at least on the evening of drinking alcohol. The other devices tested had 90% sensitivity or higher. All estimates were subject to uncertainty. There is no clearly defined minimum sensitivity for this safety-critical application. We conclude that current regulatory frameworks do not ensure high sensitivity for these devices marketed to consumers for a decision with potentially catastrophic consequences.
Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
BMJ Open 12/2014; 4(12):e005811. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
This paper discusses whether baseline demographic, socio-economic, health variables, length of follow-up and method of contacting the participants predict non-response to the invitation for a second assessment of lifestyle factors and body weight in the European multi-center EPIC-PANACEA study.
Over 500.000 participants from several centers in ten European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were contacted 2-11 years later to update data on lifestyle and body weight. Length of follow-up as well as the method of approaching differed between the collaborating study centers. Non-responders were compared with responders using multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Overall response for the second assessment was high (81.6%). Compared to postal surveys, centers where the participants completed the questionnaire by phone attained a higher response. Response was also high in centers with a short follow-up period. Non-response was higher in participants who were male (odds ratio 1.09 (confidence interval 1.07; 1.11), aged under 40 years (1.96 (1.90; 2.02), living alone (1.40 (1.37; 1.43), less educated (1.35 (1.12; 1.19), of poorer health (1.33 (1.27; 1.39), reporting an unhealthy lifestyle and who had either a low (<18.5 kg/m2, 1.16 (1.09; 1.23)) or a high BMI (>25, 1.08 (1.06; 1.10); especially ≥30 kg/m2, 1.26 (1.23; 1.29)).
Cohort studies may enhance cohort maintenance by paying particular attention to the subgroups that are most unlikely to respond and by an active recruitment strategy using telephone interviews.
BMC Medical Research Methodology 09/2012; 24(12):148. · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hip fracture risk is known to increase with physical inactivity and decrease with obesity, but there is little information on their combined effects. We report on the separate and combined effects of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on hospital admissions for hip fracture among postmenopausal women in a large prospective UK study. Baseline information on body size, physical activity, and other relevant factors was collected in 1996-2001, and participants were followed for incident hip fractures by record linkage to National Health Service (NHS) hospital admission data. Cox regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks of hip fracture. Among 925,345 postmenopausal women followed for an average of 6.2 years, 2582 were admitted to hospital with an incident hip fracture. Hip fracture risk increased with decreasing BMI: Compared with obese women (BMI of 30+ kg/m(2) ), relative risks were 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-1.97)] for BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2) and 2.55 (95% CI 2.22-2.94) for BMI of 20.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2). The increase in fracture risk per unit decrease in BMI was significantly greater among lean women than among overweight women (p < .001). For women in every category of BMI, physical inactivity was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. There was no significant interaction between the relative effects of BMI and physical activity. For women who reported that they took any exercise versus no exercise, the adjusted relative risk of hip fracture was 0.68 (95% CI 0.62-0.75), with similar results for strenuous exercise. In this large cohort of postmenopausal women, BMI and physical activity had independent effects on hip fracture risk.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 06/2011; 26(6):1330-8. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the development of the Oxford WebQ, a web-based 24 h dietary assessment tool developed for repeated administration in large prospective studies; and to report the preliminary assessment of its performance for estimating nutrient intakes.
We developed the Oxford WebQ by repeated testing until it was sufficiently comprehensive and easy to use. For the latest version, we compared nutrient intakes from volunteers who completed both the Oxford WebQ and an interviewer-administered 24 h dietary recall on the same day.
A total of 116 men and women.
The WebQ took a median of 12·5 (interquartile range: 10·8-16·3) min to self-complete and nutrient intakes were estimated automatically. By contrast, the interviewer-administered 24 h dietary recall took 30 min to complete and 30 min to code. Compared with the 24 h dietary recall, the mean Spearman's correlation for the 21 nutrients obtained from the WebQ was 0·6, with the majority between 0·5 and 0·9. The mean differences in intake were less than ±10 % for all nutrients except for carotene and vitamins B12 and D. On rare occasions a food item was reported in only one assessment method, but this was not more frequent or systematically different between the methods.
Compared with an interviewer-based 24 h dietary recall, the WebQ captures similar food items and estimates similar nutrient intakes for a single day's dietary intake. The WebQ is self-administered and nutrients are estimated automatically, providing a low-cost method for measuring dietary intake in large-scale studies.
Public Health Nutrition 06/2011; 14(11):1998-2005. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the association of body mass index (BMI) and weight gain with eating at restaurants and similar establishments or eating at work among 10 European countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
This study included a representative sample of 24,310 randomly selected EPIC participants.
Single 24-h dietary recalls with information on the place of consumption were collected using standardized procedures between 1995 and 2000. Eating at restaurants was defined to include all eating and drinking occasions at restaurants, cafeterias, bars and fast food outlets. Eating at work included all eating and drinking occasions at the workplace. Associations between eating at restaurants or eating at work and BMI or annual weight changes were assessed using sex-specific linear mixed-effects models, controlling for potential confounders.
In southern Europe energy intake at restaurants was higher than intake at work, whereas in northern Europe eating at work appeared to contribute more to the mean daily intake than eating at restaurants. Cross-sectionally, eating at restaurants was found to be positively associated with BMI only among men (β=+0.24, P=0.003). Essentially no association was found between BMI and eating at work among both genders. In a prospective analysis among men, eating at restaurants was found to be positively, albeit nonsignificantly, associated with weight gain (β=+0.05, P=0.368). No association was detected between energy intake at restaurants and weight changes, controlling for total energy intake.
Among men, eating at restaurants and similar establishments was associated with higher BMI and possibly weight gain.
International journal of obesity (2005) 03/2011; 35(3):416-26. · 5.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until now, studies examining the relationship between socioeconomic status and pancreatic cancer incidence have been inconclusive.
To prospectively investigate to what extent pancreatic cancer incidence varies according to educational level within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
In the EPIC study, socioeconomic status at baseline was measured using the highest level of education attained. Hazard ratios by educational level and a summary index, the relative indices of inequality (RII), were estimated using Cox regression models stratified by age, gender, and center and adjusted for known risk factors. In addition, we conducted separate analyses by age, gender and geographical region.
Within the source population of 407, 944 individuals at baseline, 490 first incident primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases were identified in 9 European countries. The crude difference in risk of pancreatic cancer according to level of education was small and not statistically significant (RII=1.14, 95% CI 0.80-1.62). Adjustment for known risk factors reduced the inequality estimates to only a small extent. In addition, no statistically significant associations were observed for age groups (adjusted RII(≤ 60 years)=0.85, 95% CI 0.44-1.64, adjusted RII(>60 years)=1.18, 95% CI 0.73-1.90), gender (adjusted RII(male)=1.20, 95% CI 0.68-2.10, adjusted RII(female)=0.96, 95% CI 0.56-1.62) or geographical region (adjusted RII(Northern Europe)=1.14, 95% CI 0.81-1.61, adjusted RII(Middle Europe)=1.72, 95% CI 0.93-3.19, adjusted RII(Southern Europe)=0.75, 95% CI 0.32-1.80).
Despite large educational inequalities in many risk factors within the EPIC study, we found no evidence for an association between educational level and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer in this European cohort.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic evidence for an association between colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and total dietary fat, saturated fat (SF), monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) is inconsistent. Previous studies have used food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) to assess diet, but data from food diaries may be less prone to severe measurement error than data from FFQ.
We conducted a case-control study nested within seven prospective UK cohort studies, comprising 579 cases of incident CRC and 1996 matched controls. Standardized dietary data from 4- to 7-day food diaries and from FFQ were used to estimate odds ratios for CRC risk associated with intake of fat and subtypes of fat using conditional logistic regression. We also calculated multivariate measurement error corrected odds ratios for CRC using repeated food diary measurements.
We observed no associations between intakes of total dietary fat or types of fat and CRC risk, irrespective of whether dietary data were obtained using food diaries or FFQ.
Our results do not support the hypothesis that intakes of total dietary fat, SF, MUFA or PUFA are linked to risk of CRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have suggested that excessive alcohol intake increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, findings regarding tumour subsites and sex differences have been inconsistent.
We investigated the prospective associations between alcohol intake on overall and site- and sex-specific CRC risk. Analyses were conducted on 579 CRC cases and 1996 matched controls nested within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium using standardised data obtained from food diaries as a main nutritional method and repeated using data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).
Compared with individuals in the lightest category of drinkers (>0-<5 g per day), the multivariable odds ratios of CRC were 1.16 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.88, 1.53) for non-drinkers, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.24) for drinkers with 5-<15 g per day, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.25) for drinkers with 15-<30 g per day, 1.02 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.58) for drinkers with 30-<45 g per day and 1.19 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.91) for drinkers with >or=45 g per day. No clear associations were observed between site-specific CRC risk and alcohol intake in either sex. Analyses using FFQ showed similar results.
We found no significantly increased risk of CRC up to 30 g per day of alcohol intake within the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium.
British Journal of Cancer 08/2010; 103(5):747-56. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on study center, age, sex, time of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase, and hormone replacement therapy. In conditional logistic regression with adjustment for education, smoking, nutritional factors, body mass index, and waist circumference, CRP showed a significant nonlinear association with colon cancer risk but not rectal cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks for CRP concentrations of > or = 3.0 mg/L versus <1.0 mg/L were 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.85; P-trend = 0.01) for colon cancer and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.57; P-trend = 0.65) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk was significantly increased in men (relative risk = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.73; P-trend = 0.01) but not in women (relative risk = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68; P-trend = 0.13). Additional adjustment for C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not attenuate these results. These data provide evidence that elevated CRP concentrations are related to a higher risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer, predominantly among men and independently of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.
American journal of epidemiology 08/2010; 172(4):407-18. · 4.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Results of epidemiological studies of dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk have not been consistent, possibly because of attenuation of associations due to measurement error in dietary exposure ascertainment.
To examine the association between dietary fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk, we conducted a prospective case-control study nested within seven UK cohort studies, which included 579 case patients who developed incident colorectal cancer and 1996 matched control subjects. We used standardized dietary data obtained from 4- to 7-day food diaries that were completed by all participants to calculate the odds ratios for colorectal, colon, and rectal cancers with the use of conditional logistic regression models that adjusted for relevant covariates. We also calculated odds ratios for colorectal cancer by using dietary data obtained from food-frequency questionnaires that were completed by most participants. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Intakes of absolute fiber and of fiber intake density, ascertained by food diaries, were statistically significantly inversely associated with the risks of colorectal and colon cancers in both age-adjusted models and multivariable models that adjusted for age; anthropomorphic and socioeconomic factors; and dietary intakes of folate, alcohol, and energy. For example, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of colorectal cancer for highest vs the lowest quintile of fiber intake density was 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.45 to 0.96). However, no statistically significant association was observed when the same analysis was conducted using dietary data obtained by food-frequency questionnaire (multivariable odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.57 to 1.36).
Intake of dietary fiber is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Methodological differences (ie, study design, dietary assessment instruments, definition of fiber) may account for the lack of convincing evidence for the inverse association between fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk in some previous studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some but not all epidemiological studies have reported that high intakes of red and processed meat are associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. In the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium, we examined associations of meat, poultry and fish intakes with colorectal cancer risk using standardised individual dietary data pooled from seven UK prospective studies.
Four- to seven-day food diaries were analysed, disaggregating the weights of meat, poultry and fish from composite foods to investigate dose-response relationships. We identified 579 cases of colorectal cancer and matched with 1,996 controls on age, sex and recruitment date. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for colorectal cancer associated with meat, poultry and fish intakes, adjusting for relevant covariables.
Disaggregated intakes were moderately low, e.g. mean red meat intakes were 38.2 g/day among male and 28.7 g/day among female controls. There was little evidence of association between the food groups examined and risk for colorectal cancer: Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for a 50 g/day increase were 1.01 (0.84-1.22) for red meat, 0.88 (0.68-1.15) for processed meat, 0.97 (0.84-1.12) for red and processed meat combined, 0.80 (0.65-1.00) for poultry, 0.92 (0.70-1.21) for white fish and 0.89 (0.70-1.13) for fatty fish.
This study using pooled data from prospective food diaries, among cohorts with low to moderate meat intakes, shows little evidence of association between consumption of red and processed meat and colorectal cancer risk.
Cancer Causes and Control 05/2010; 21(9):1417-25. · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant tumor and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The crucial role of fatty acids for a number of important biological processes suggests a more in-depth analysis of inter-individual differences in fatty acid metabolizing genes as contributing factor to colon carcinogenesis. We examined the association between genetic variability in 43 fatty acid metabolism-related genes and colorectal risk in 1225 CRC cases and 2032 controls participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Three hundred and ninety two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were selected using pairwise tagging with an r(2) cutoff of 0.8 and a minor allele frequency of >5%. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Haplotype analysis was performed using a generalized linear model framework. On the genotype level, hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD) (HPGD), phospholipase A2 group VI (PLA2G6) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 were associated with higher risk for CRC, whereas prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) was associated with lower CRC risk. A significant inverse association (P < 0.006) was found for PTGER2 GGG haplotype, whereas HPGD AGGAG and PLA2G3 CT haplotypes were significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively) associated with higher risk of CRC. Based on these data, we present for the first time the association of HPGD variants with CRC risk. Our results support the key role of prostanoid signaling in colon carcinogenesis and suggest a relevance of genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism-related genes and CRC risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have provided convincing evidence that obesity increases the risk for cancers of the oesophagus (adenocarcinoma), colon, pancreas, breast (post-menopausal), endometrium and kidney. The magnitude of the increase in risk varies between cancer sites. For an increase in BMI of 10 kg/m2 relative risks are approximately 2.3 for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus, 1.5 for colon cancer in men, 1.2 for colon cancer in women, 1.4 for post-menopausal breast cancer, 2.9 for endometrial cancer and >1.5 for kidney cancer, while the size of the effect on cancer of the pancreas is uncertain. There is also evidence that obesity increases the risks for cancers of the gallbladder, malignant melanoma, ovary, thyroid, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma and leukaemia. Estimates of the percentage of cancers that can be attributed to excess body weight suggest that in the UK and similar countries approximately 5% of all cancers are attributable to overweight and obesity.
Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 12/2009; 69(1):86-90. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the population participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study according to food groups, nutrients and lifestyle characteristics.
Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) from 33 566 subjects were used to calculate dietary GI and GL, and an ad hoc database was created as the main reference source. Mean GI and GL intakes were adjusted for age, total energy intake, height and weight, and were weighted by season and day of recall.
GI was the lowest in Spain and Germany, and highest in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and Denmark for both genders. In men, GL was the lowest in Spain and Germany and highest in Italy, whereas in women, it was the lowest in Spain and Greece and highest in the UK health-conscious cohort. Bread was the largest contributor to GL in all centres (15-45%), but it also showed the largest inter-individual variation. GL, but not GI, tended to be lower in the highest body mass index category in both genders. GI was positively correlated with starch and intakes of bread and potatoes, whereas it was correlated negatively with intakes of sugar, fruit and dairy products. GL was positively correlated with all carbohydrate components and intakes of cereals, whereas it was negatively correlated with fat and alcohol and with intakes of wine, with large variations across countries.
GI means varied modestly across countries and genders, whereas GL means varied more, but it may possibly act as a surrogate of carbohydrate intake.
European journal of clinical nutrition 11/2009; 63 Suppl 4:S188-205. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary supplement use is increasing, but there are few comparable data on supplement intakes and how they affect the nutrition and health of European consumers. The aim of this study was to describe the use of dietary supplements in subsamples of the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Specific questions on dietary supplement use were asked as a part of single 24-h recalls performed on 36,034 men and women aged 35-74 years from 1995 to 2000.
Between countries, the mean percentage of dietary supplement use varied almost 10-fold among women and even more among men. There was a clear north-south gradient in use, with a higher consumption in northern countries. The lowest crude mean percentage of use was found in Greece (2.0% among men, 6.7% among women), and the highest was in Denmark (51.0% among men, 65.8% among women). Use was higher in women than in men. Vitamins, minerals or combinations of them were the predominant types of supplements reported, but there were striking differences between countries.
This study indicates that there are wide variations in supplement use in Europe, which may affect individual and population nutrient intakes. The results underline the need to monitor consumption of dietary supplements in Europe, as well as to evaluate the risks and benefits.
European journal of clinical nutrition 11/2009; 63 Suppl 4:S226-38. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate <0.88 or >2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied.
Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays.
These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.
European journal of clinical nutrition 11/2009; 63 Suppl 4:S3-15. · 3.07 Impact Factor