[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crucial role of oxygen during the complex process of wound healing has been extensively described. In chronic or nonhealing wounds, much evidence has been reported indicating that a lack of oxygen is a major contributing factor. Although still controversial, the therapeutic application of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can aid the healing of chronic wounds. However, how HBO affects reepithelization, involving processes such as keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, remains unclear. We therefore used a three-dimensional human skin-equivalent (HSE) model to investigate the effects of daily 90-minute HBO treatments on the reconstruction of an epidermis. Epidermal markers of proliferation, differentiation, and basement membrane components associated with a developing epidermis, including p63, collagen type IV, and cytokeratins 6, 10, and 14, were evaluated. Morphometric analysis of hematoxylin and eosin-stained cross sections revealed that HBO treatments significantly accelerated cornification of the stratum corneum compared with controls. Protein expression as determined by immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the accelerated epidermal maturation. In addition, early keratinocyte migration was enhanced by HBO. Thus, HBO treatments stimulate epidermal reconstruction in an HSE. These results further support the importance of oxygen during the process of wound healing and the potential role of HBO therapy in cutaneous wound healing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elevated vascular plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels are associated with atherosclerosis. In vitro, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has anti-proliferative effects and inhibits the production of PAI-1 in cultured vascular cells. Whether CNP can affect PAI-1 in vivo, particularly in the setting of atherosclerosis, has not been reported.
Using the rabbit carotid arterial collar model of intimal hyperplasia (collar in place for 7 days), PAI-1 protein was compared in normal, vehicle (saline)-collared, and CNP-treated-collared arteries from the same animal. PAI-1 levels were measured by immunohistochemistry and densitometry and by Western blot. CNP was either infused into the peri-arterial space within one collar (10 fmol/h) or infused directly into the arterial lumen under one collar (100 pmol/h). In some rabbits (n=8), superoxide production in collared and normal artery segments was measured in vitro by chemiluminescence.
PAI-1 was present throughout the vascular wall. Endothelial PAI-1 was elevated in saline-collared arteries (approximately 16%, P<0.05; n=7 rabbits) compared with normal carotid segments. The collar induced both a neointima that contained PAI-1 and the accumulation of macrophages in the adventitia. Peri-arterial CNP reduced PAI-1 (P<0.05) in the endothelium (33%), adventitia (47%) and neointima (39%), compared with levels in the contralateral, saline-collared carotid artery, while macrophage infiltration was reduced. Elevated superoxide production in collared arteries was not altered by chronic in vivo treatment with CNP (n=8). Peri-arterial CNP treatment did not reduce intimal thickening. Intra-luminal CNP (n=6) reduced endothelial, neointimal and total vessel (Western blot) PAI-1, macrophage accumulation, and intimal thickening (all P<0.05).
CNP treatment of collared carotid arteries in vivo for 1 week suppressed endothelial and neointimal PAI-1, independently of intimal thickening. The CNP effects were not via superoxide. This is the first evidence that CNP inhibits activated PAI-1, in vivo.
Cardiovascular Research 06/2005; 66(3):574-82. DOI:10.1016/j.cardiores.2005.01.024 · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrial and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP and CNP), acting through different receptors, have antiproliferative effects in vitro. Beneficial effects of CNP in vivo on early atherosclerosis have been described, but it is not known if ANP is antiproliferative in vivo. In the present study, the effects of chronic in vivo ANP were tested and compared with CNP on endothelial dysfunction and intimal thickening caused by peri-arterial collars.
Non-occlusive collars were placed bilaterally around the common carotid arteries of rabbits. One collar was filled with saline vehicle. The contralateral collar was filled with ANP or CNP (1 or 10 microM, n = 5-7) with slow replacement of peptide via mini-pump (1 or 10 fmol/h).
After 7 days, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in saline-collared arteries was 33 +/- 3% of maximum [averaged over 0.03-1 muM acetylcholine (ACh)] compared to 64 +/- 2% in normal (uncollared) arteries (p < 0.05, n = 23). In vivo ANP restored the ACh relaxation to normal (e.g., 57 +/- 6%, 1 microM ANP), similar to effects seen with CNP in vivo. Endothelium-independent vasorelaxation of collared-vessels was not altered by either peptide. Intimal hyperplasia induced by the collars was not prevented by peri-arterial natriuretic peptides. In additional rabbits (n = 6), CNP (100 pmol/h) given directly into the lumen of collared carotid arteries for 7 days reduced neointima formation by 16 +/- 5% (p < 0.05), whereas ANP given intraluminally (100 pmol/h; n = 6) did not.
The more potent actions of CNP on vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation (established in vitro) may explain differences between the peptides on intimal hyperplasia in vivo. The major hallmark of atherosclerosis and restenosis, endothelial dysfunction, was prevented by chronic, peri-arterial administration of ANP or CNP.
Journal of Vascular Research 03/2005; 42(2):101-10. DOI:10.1159/000083429 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic ulcers are a major problem affecting a significant number of people around the world. The condition is difficult to heal and often leads to amputation. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been used clinically for the treatment of chronic ulcers and positive outcomes have been reported. However, owing to the lack of large randomised controlled trials and some conflicting data, controversy regarding the effectiveness of HBO in chronic wound healing persists. Besides randomised controlled clinical trials, in vitro studies hold promise in providing further insight into the role of HBO in wound healing and in aiding the establishment of a scientific foundation upon which more rational and efficacious HBO therapeutic regimes may be developed. The present article provides an overview of the available in vitro data on HBO with regards to wound healing. In particular, it focuses on experimental design issues and future opportunities using human skin equivalent models to study HBO-mediated wound healing.