Daniel Timms

Texas Heart Institute, Houston, Texas, United States

Are you Daniel Timms?

Claim your profile

Publications (70)106.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The low preload and high afterload sensitivities of rotary ventricular assist devices (VADs) may cause ventricular suction events or venous congestion. This is particularly problematic with rotary biventricular support (BiVAD), where the Starling response is diminished in both ventricles. Therefore, VADs may benefit from physiological control systems to prevent adverse events. This study compares active, passive and combined physiological controllers for rotary BiVAD support with constant speed mode. Systemic (SVR) and pulmonary (PVR) vascular resistance changes and exercise were simulated in a mock circulation loop to evaluate the capacity of each controller to prevent suction and congestion and increase exercise capacity. All controllers prevented suction and congestion at high levels of PVR (900 dynes s cm(-5)) and SVR (3000 dynes s cm(-5)), however these events occurred in constant speed mode. The controllers increased preload sensitivity (0.198-0.34 L min(-1) mmHg(-1)) and reduced afterload sensitivity (0.0001-0.008 L min(-1) mmHg(-1)) of the VADs when compared to constant speed mode (0.091 and 0.072 L min(-1) mmHg(-1) respectively). The active controller increased pump speeds (400-800 rpm) and pump flow by 2.8 L min(-1) during exercise, thus increasing exercise capacity. By reducing suction and congestion and by increasing exercise capacity, the control systems presented in this study may help increase quality of life of VAD patients.
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10439-015-1425-1 · 3.20 Impact Factor
  • William E Cohn · Daniel L Timms · O H Frazier
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A practical artificial heart has been sought for >50 years. An increasing number of people succumb to heart disease each year, but the number of hearts available for transplantation remains small. Early total artificial hearts mimicked the pumping action of the native heart. These positive-displacement pumps could provide adequate haemodynamic support and maintain the human circulation for short periods, but large size and limited durability adversely affected recipients' quality of life. Subsequent research into left ventricular assist devices led to the use of continuous-flow blood pumps with rotating impellers. Researchers have attempted to integrate this technology into modern total artificial hearts with moderate clinical success. The importance of pulsatile circulation remains unclear. Future research is, therefore, needed into positive-displacement and rotary total artificial hearts.
    Nature Reviews Cardiology 06/2015; 12(10). DOI:10.1038/nrcardio.2015.79 · 9.18 Impact Factor
  • Yu Yamada · Toru Masuzawa · Daniel L Timms
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An innovative Bi-Ventricular Artificial Heart (IB-Heart) has been successfully developed with a single magnetically suspended motor. The device has auto flow regulation function which reacts to atrial pressure change in order to balance the flow rate of left and right pump. The zero power control is adopted to control axial position of levitated impeller in the IB-Heart. The rate of change of the axial position of the impeller on the atrial pressure change is the key factor of this device's flow regulation function since the flow rate of the pumps is regulated with axial position changing of the levitated impeller. The flow regulating ability of the IB-Heart and the relationship between the rod cross-sectional area and the flow regulation function was investigated. The maglev motor was redesigned with 3-D magnetic field analysis to improve the flow regulation function.
    01/2015; 23(1):157-162. DOI:10.14243/jsaem.23.157
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study investigates the response of implantable rotary blood pump (IRBP)-assisted patients to exercise and head-up tilt (HUT), as well as the effect of alterations in the model parameter values on this response, using validated numerical models. Furthermore, we comparatively evaluate the performance of a number of previously proposed physiologically responsive controllers, including constant speed, constant flow pulsatility index (PI), constant average pressure difference between the aorta and the left atrium, constant average differential pump pressure, constant ratio between mean pump flow and pump flow pulsatility (ratioPI or linear Starling-like control), as well as constant left atrial pressure control, with regard to their ability to increase cardiac output during exercise while maintaining circulatory stability upon HUT. Although native cardiac output increases automatically during exercise, increasing pump speed was able to further improve total cardiac output and reduce elevated filling pressures. At the same time, reduced venous return associated with upright posture was not shown to induce left ventricular (LV) suction. Although control outperformed other control modes in its ability to increase cardiac output during exercise, it caused a fall in the mean arterial pressure upon HUT, which may cause postural hypotension or patient discomfort. To the contrary, maintaining constant average pressure difference between the aorta and the left atrium demonstrated superior performance in both exercise and HUT scenarios. Due to their strong dependence on the pump operating point, PI and ratioPI control performed poorly during exercise and HUT. Our simulation results also highlighted the importance of the baroreflex mechanism in determining the response of the IRBP-assisted patients to exercise and postural changes, where desensitized reflex response attenuated the percentage increase in cardiac output during exercise and substantially reduced the arterial pressure upon HUT.
    Artificial Organs 11/2014; 39(2). DOI:10.1111/aor.12370 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rotary blood pumps are emerging as a viable technology for total artificial hearts, and the development of physiological control algorithms is accelerated with new evaluation environments. In this article, we present a novel hybrid mock circulation loop (HMCL) designed specifically for evaluation of rotary total artificial hearts (rTAH). The rTAH is operated in the physical domain while all vasculature elements are embedded in the numerical domain, thus combining the strengths of both approaches: fast and easy exchange of the vasculature model together with improved controllability of the pump. Parameters, such as vascular resistance, compliance, and blood volume, can be varied dynamically in silico during operation. A hydraulic–numeric interface creates a real-time feedback loop between the physical and numerical domains. The HMCL uses computer-controlled resistance valves as actuators, thereby reducing the size and number of hydraulic elements. Experimental results demonstrate a stable interaction over a wide operational range and a high degree of flexibility. Therefore, we demonstrate that the newly created design environment can play an integral part in the hydraulic design, control development, and durability testing of rTAHs.
    Artificial Organs 09/2014; 38(9). DOI:10.1111/aor.12380 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although there is limited consensus about the strict requirement to deliver pulsatile perfusion to the human circulatory system, speed modulation of rotary blood pumps is an approach that may capture the benefits of both positive displacement and continuous flow blood pumps. In the current stage of development of the BiVACOR Total Artificial Heart emphasis is placed on providing pulsatile outflow from the pump. Multiple pulsatile speed profiles have been applied in preliminary in-vivo operation in order to assess the capability of the TAH to recreate a physiologic pulse. This paper provides an overview about recent research towards pulsatile BiVACOR operation with special emphasis on motor and control requirements and developments.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A mock circulatory loop was constructed to facilitate total artificial heart development. The loop includes many novel features such as a pressure-regulated tank to simulate exercise conditions, controllable systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance to create left-right flow imbalances as seen in postural change and breathing, and a left atrial suction valve. Dual HeartMate II pumps and the BiVACOR® rotary total artificial heart were used to generate pressure and flow data characterizing the flow loop.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biventricular support with dual rotary ventricular assist devices (VADs) has been implemented clinically with restriction of the right VAD (RVAD) outflow cannula to artificially increase afterload and, therefore, operate within recommended design speed ranges. However, the low preload and high afterload sensitivity of these devices increase the susceptibility of suction events. Active control systems are prone to sensor drift or inaccurate inferred (sensor-less) data, therefore an alternative solution may be of benefit. This study presents the in vitro evaluation of a compliant outflow cannula designed to passively decrease the afterload sensitivity of rotary RVADs and minimize left-sided suction events. A one-way fluid-structure interaction model was initially used to produce a design with suitable flow dynamics and radial deformation. The resultant geometry was cast with different initial cross-sectional restrictions and concentrations of a softening diluent before evaluation in a mock circulation loop. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was increased from 50 dyne s/cm5 until left-sided suction events occurred with each compliant cannula and a rigid, 4.5 mm diameter outflow cannula for comparison. Early suction events (PVR ∼ 300 dyne s/cm5) were observed with the rigid outflow cannula. Addition of the compliant section with an initial 3 mm diameter restriction and 10% diluent expanded the outflow restriction as PVR increased, thus increasing RVAD flow rate and preventing left-sided suction events at PVR levels beyond 1000 dyne s/cm5. Therefore, the compliant, restricted outflow cannula provided a passive control system to assist in the prevention of suction events with rotary biventricular support while maintaining pump speeds within normal ranges of operation.
    Artificial Organs 08/2014; 39(2). DOI:10.1111/aor.12338 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dual rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) can provide biventricular mechanical support during heart failure. Coordination of left and right pump speeds is critical not only to avoid ventricular suction and to match cardiac output with demand, but also to ensure balanced systemic and pulmonary circulatory volumes. Physiological control systems for dual LVADs must meet these objectives across a variety of clinical scenarios by automatically adjusting left and right pump speeds to avoid catastrophic physiological consequences. In this study we evaluate a novel master/slave physiological control system for dual LVADs. The master controller is a Starling-like controller, which sets flow rate as a function of end-diastolic ventricular pressure (EDP). The slave controller then maintains a linear relationship between right and left EDPs. Both left/right and right/left master/slave combinations were evaluated by subjecting them to four clinical scenarios (rest, postural change, Valsalva maneuver, and exercise) simulated in a mock circulation loop. The controller's performance was compared to constant-rotational-speed control and two other dual LVAD control systems: dual constant inlet pressure and dual Frank–Starling control. The results showed that the master/slave physiological control system produced fewer suction events than constant-speed control (6 vs. 62 over a 7-min period). Left/right master/slave control had lower risk of pulmonary congestion than the other control systems, as indicated by lower maximum EDPs (15.1 vs. 25.2–28.4 mm Hg). During exercise, master/slave control increased total flow from 5.2 to 10.1 L/min, primarily due to an increase of left and right pump speed. Use of the left pump as the master resulted in fewer suction events and lower EDPs than when the right pump was master. Based on these results, master/slave control using the left pump as the master automatically adjusts pump speed to avoid suction and increases pump flow during exercise without causing pulmonary venous congestion.
    Artificial Organs 05/2014; 38(9). DOI:10.1111/aor.12303 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Animal models of critical illness are vital in biomedical research. They provide possibilities for the investigation of pathophysiological processes that may not otherwise be possible in humans. In order to be clinically applicable, the model should simulate the critical care situation realistically, including anaesthesia, monitoring, sampling, utilising appropriate personnel skill mix, and therapeutic interventions. There are limited data documenting the constitution of ideal technologically advanced large animal critical care practices and all the processes of the animal model. In this paper, we describe the procedure of animal preparation, anaesthesia induction and maintenance, physiologic monitoring, data capture, point-of-care technology, and animal aftercare that has been successfully used to study several novel ovine models of critical illness. The relevant investigations are on respiratory failure due to smoke inhalation, transfusion related acute lung injury, endotoxin-induced proteogenomic alterations, haemorrhagic shock, septic shock, brain death, cerebral microcirculation, and artificial heart studies. We have demonstrated the functionality of monitoring practices during anaesthesia required to provide a platform for undertaking systematic investigations in complex ovine models of critical illness.
    03/2014; 2014:468309. DOI:10.1155/2014/468309
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dual rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have been used clinically to support patients with biventricular failure. However, due to the lower vascular resistance in the pulmonary circulation compared with its systemic counterpart, excessively high pulmonary flow rates are expected if the right ventricular assist device (RVAD) is operated at its design LVAD speed. Three possible approaches are available to match the LVAD to the pulmonary circulation: operating the RVAD at a lower speed than the LVAD (mode 1), operating both pumps at their design speeds (mode 2) while relying on the cardiovascular system to adapt, and operating both pumps at their design speeds while restricting the diameter of the RVAD outflow graft (mode 3). In this study, each mode was characterized using in vitro and in vivo models of biventricular heart failure supported with two VentrAssist LVADs. The effect of each mode on arterial and atrial pressures and flow rates for low, medium, and high vascular resistances and three different contractility levels were evaluated. The amount of speed/diameter adjustment required to accommodate elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) during support with mode 3 was then investigated. Mode 1 required relatively low systemic vascular resistance to achieve arterial pressures less than 100 mm Hg in vitro, resulting in flow rates greater than 6 L/min. Mode 2 resulted in left atrial pressures above 25 mm Hg, unless left heart contractility was near-normal. In vitro, mode 3 resulted in expected arterial pressures and flow rates with an RVAD outflow diameter of 6.5 mm. In contrast, all modes were achievable in vivo, primarily due to higher RVAD outflow graft resistance (more than 500 dyn·s/cm(5) ), caused by longer cannula. Flow rates could be maintained during instances of elevated PVR by increasing the RVAD speed or expanding the outflow graft diameter using an externally applied variable graft occlusion device. In conclusion, suitable hemodynamics could be produced by either restricting or not restricting the right outflow graft diameter; however, the latter required an operation of the RVAD at lower than design speed. Adjustments in outflow restriction and/or RVAD speed are recommended to accommodate varying PVR.
    Artificial Organs 03/2014; 38(11). DOI:10.1111/aor.12289 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The application of rotary left ventricular (LV) assist devices (LVADs) is expanding from bridge to transplant, to destination and bridge to recovery therapy. Conventional constant speed LVAD controllers do not regulate flow according to preload, and can cause over/underpumping, leading to harmful ventricular suction or pulmonary edema, respectively. We implemented a novel adaptive controller which maintains a linear relationship between mean flow and flow pulsatility to imitate native Starling-like flow regulation which requires only the measurement of VAD flow. In vitro controller evaluation was conducted and the flow sensitivity was compared during simulations of postural change, pulmonary hypertension, and the transition from sleep to wake. The Starling-like controller's flow sensitivity to preload was measured as 0.39 L/min/mm Hg, 10 times greater than constant speed control (0.04 L/min/mm Hg). Constant speed control induced LV suction after sudden simulated pulmonary hypertension, whereas Starling-like control reduced mean flow from 4.14 to 3.58 L/min, maintaining safe support. From simulated sleep to wake, Starling-like control increased flow 2.93 to 4.11 L/min as a response to the increased residual LV pulsatility. The proposed controller has the potential to better match device outflow to patient demand in comparison with conventional constant speed control.
    Artificial Organs 12/2013; 38(3). DOI:10.1111/aor.12221 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The accurate representation of rotary blood pumps in a numerical environment is important for meaningful investigation of pump-cardiovascular system interactions. Although numerous models for ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been developed, modeling methods for rotary total artificial hearts (rTAHs) are still required. Therefore, an rTAH prototype was characterized in a steady flow, hydraulic test bench over a wide operational range for pump and hydraulic parameters. In order to develop a generic modeling method, a data-driven modeling approach was chosen. k-Nearest-neighbors, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines (SVMs) were the machine learning approaches evaluated. The best performing parameters for each algorithm were determined via optimization. The resulting multiple-input-multiple-output models were subsequently assessed under identical conditions, and a SVM with a radial basis function kernel was identified as the best performing. The achieved root mean squared errors were 0.03 L/min, 0.06 L/min, and 0.18 W for left and right flow and motor power consumption, respectively. In comparison with existing models for VADs, the flow errors are more than 70% lower. Further advantages of the SVM model are the robustness to measurement noise and the capability to operate outside of the trained parameter range. This proposed modeling method will accelerate further device refinements by providing a more appropriate numerical environment in which to evaluate the pump-cardiovascular system interaction.
    Artificial Organs 08/2013; 38(3). DOI:10.1111/aor.12142 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aortic insufficiency (AI) is usually repaired prior to rotary blood pump (RBP) implantation but can develop during support due, in part, to the sustained RBP-induced high pressure gradient across the aortic valve. Repair of the aortic valve before or during RBP support predisposes these critically ill patients to even higher risks. This study used an in vitro mock circulation loop to identify the severity of AI and/or left heart failure (LHF) that might benefit from valve repair while investigating RBP operating strategies to reduce the hemodynamic influence of AI. Reproduction of AI with RBP-supported LHF reduced device efficiency, particularly in the more severe cases of AI and LHF. The requirement for repair or closure of the aortic valve was demonstrated in all conditions other than those with only mild AI. When a sinusoidal RBP speed pulse was induced, small changes in systemic flow rate and regurgitant volume were observed with all degrees of AI. Variation of the pulse phase delay only resulted in minor changes to systemic flow rate, with a maximum difference of 0.17 L/min. Although the clinical implications of these small changes may be insignificant, changes in systemic flow rate and transvalvular pressure were shown when the sinusoidal RBP speed pulse was applied with no AI. In these cases, transvalvular pressure was reduced by up to 8% through sinusoidal copulsation of the RBP, which may prevent or delay the onset of AI. This in vitro study suggests that surgical intervention is required with moderate or worse AI and that RBP operating strategies should be further explored to delay the onset and reduce the harmful effects of AI.
    Artificial Organs 08/2013; 37(9). DOI:10.1111/aor.12143 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This multicenter study examines in detail the spontaneous increase in pump flow at fixed speed that occurs in exercise. Eight patients implanted with the VentrAssist rotary blood pump were subjected to maximal and submaximal cycle ergometry studies, the latter being completed with patients supine and monitored with right heart catheter and echocardiography. Maximal exercise studies conducted in each patient at three different pump speeds on separate days established initially the magnitude and consistency of increases in pump flow that correlated well with changes in heart rate. However, there was considerable variation, coefficients of variation for mean heart rate and pump flow being 47.9 and 49.3%, respectively. Secondly, these studies indicated that increasing pump flows caused significant improvements in maximal exercise capacity. An increase of 2.1 L/min (35%) in maximum blood flow caused 12 W (16%) further increase in achievable work, 1.26 (9.3%) mL/kg/min in maximal oxygen uptake, and 2.3 (23%) mL/kg/min in anaerobic threshold. Mean increases in lactate were 0.85 mm (24%), but mean B-type natiuretic peptide fell by 126 mm, (-78%). From submaximal supine exercise studies, multiple linear regression of pump flow on factors thought to underlie the spontaneous increase in pump flow indicated that it was associated with increases in heart rate (P = 0.039), pressure gradient across the left ventricle (P = 0.032), and right atrial pressure (P = 0.003). These changes have implications for the recently reported Starling-like controller for pump flow based on pump pulsatility values, which emulates the Starling curve relating pump output to left ventricular preload. Unmodified, the controller would not permit the full benefits of this effect to be afforded to patients implanted with rotary blood pumps. A modification to the pump control algorithm is proposed to eliminate this problem.
    Artificial Organs 05/2013; 37(8). DOI:10.1111/aor.12070 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rotary blood pumps (RBPs) have demonstrated considerable promise while treating heart failure patients, such that they are being placed at an earlier stage of the disease. These devices may therefore be required to operate for prolonged durations which yields the need for RBPs exhibiting high durability, reliability, and blood compatibility. Noncontacting bearings, utilizing magnetic and/or hydrodynamic suspension techniques, appear to provide a suitable solution to these challenges. Hydrodynamic suspension has the advantage that it does not need feedback control systems. Among various hydrodynamic bearing types, the circular journal bearing has the particular benefit of easy manufacturing. This study presents methods to evaluate the performance of short (length to diameter ratio <1) circular hydrodynamic journal bearings (HJBs) for RBPs. Analytical calculations with specific boundary conditions are presented to predict the rotor's eccentricity under equilibrium states and thus the related performance parameters such as load capacity, power loss, and shear rates. These results and boundary conditions were confirmed experimentally in a specially designed test set-up. The bearing performance was found to correlate to analytical solutions using the full Sommerfeld boundary condition instead of the half Sommerfeld condition conventionally used for such applications. Geometrical and operational parameter variations showed that HJB designs with a short Sommerfeld Number SS >0.02 can provide sufficient fluid film thicknesses and low shear rates. The measurements were further used to evaluate the bearings' stability. The estimation of the stability threshold drawn in relation to a modified stability index and the equilibrium eccentricity of the rotor allows the prediction of stability for short circular HJB designs under full Sommerfeld condition.
    Artificial Organs 05/2013; 37(10). DOI:10.1111/aor.12076 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rapid evolution of rotary blood pump (RBP) technology in the last few decades was shaped by devices with increased durability, frequently employing magnetic or hydrodynamic suspension techniques. However, the potential for low flow in small gaps between the rotor and pump casing is still a problem for hemocompatibility. In this study, a spiral groove hydrodynamic bearing (SGB) is applied with two distinct objectives: first, as a mechanism to enhance the washout in the secondary flow path of a centrifugal RBP, lowering the exposure to high shear stresses and avoiding thrombus formation; and second, as a way to allow smaller gaps without compromising the washout, enhancing the overall pump efficiency. Computational fluid dynamics was applied and verified via bench-top experiments. An optimization of selected geometric parameters (groove angle, width and depth) focusing on the washout in the gap rather than generating suspension force was conducted. An optimized SGB geometry reduced the residence time of the cells in the gap from 31 to 27 ms, an improvement of 14% compared with the baseline geometry of 200 μm without grooves. When optimizing for pump performance, a 15% smaller gap yielded a slightly better rate of fluid exchange compared with the baseline, followed by a 22% reduction in the volumetric loss from the primary pathway. Finally, an improved washout can be achieved in a pulsatile environment due to the SGB ability to pump inwardly, even in the absence of a pressure head.
    Artificial Organs 05/2013; 37(10). DOI:10.1111/aor.12081 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Shaun D Gregory · Mark J Pearcy · John Fraser · Daniel Timms
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Right heart dysfunction is one of the most serious complications following implantation of a left ventricular assist device, often leading to the requirement for short- or long-term right ventricular assist device (RVAD) support. The inflow cannulation site induces major hemodynamic changes and so there is a need to optimize the site used depending on the patient's condition. Therefore, this study evaluated and compared the hemodynamic influence of right atrial cannulation (RAC) and right ventricular cannulation (RVC) inflow sites. An in vitro variable heart failure mock circulation loop was used to compare RAC and RVC in mild and severe biventricular heart failure (BHF) conditions. In the severe BHF condition, higher ventricular ejection fraction (RAC: 13.6%, RVC: 32.7%) and thus improved heart chamber and RVAD washout were observed with RVC, which suggested this strategy might be preferable for long-term support (i.e., bridge-to-transplant or destination therapy) to reduce the risk of thrombus formation. In the mild BHF condition, higher pulmonary valve flow (RAC: 3.33 L/min, RVC: 1.97 L/min) and lower right ventricular stroke work (RAC: 0.10 W, RVC: 0.13 W) and volumes were recorded with RAC. These results indicate an improved potential for myocardial recovery, thus RAC should be chosen in this condition. This in vitro study suggests that RVAD inflow cannulation site should be chosen on a patient-specific basis with a view to the support strategy to promote myocardial recovery or reduce the risk of long-term complications.
    Artificial Organs 04/2013; 37(8). DOI:10.1111/aor.12067 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Successful anatomic fitting of a total artificial heart (TAH) is vital to achieve optimal pump hemodynamics after device implantation. Although many anatomic fitting studies have been completed in humans prior to clinical trials, few reports exist that detail the experience in animals for in vivo device evaluation. Optimal hemodynamics are crucial throughout the in vivo phase to direct design iterations and ultimately validate device performance prior to pivotal human trials. In vivo evaluation in a sheep model allows a realistically sized representation of a smaller patient, for which smaller third-generation TAHs have the potential to treat. Our study aimed to assess the anatomic fit of a single device rotary TAH in sheep prior to animal trials and to use the data to develop a three-dimensional, computer-aided design (CAD)-operated anatomic fitting tool for future TAH development. Following excision of the native ventricles above the atrio-ventricular groove, a prototype TAH was inserted within the chest cavity of six sheep (28-40 kg). Adjustable rods representing inlet and outlet conduits were oriented toward the center of each atrial chamber and the great vessels, with conduit lengths and angles recorded for future analysis. A three-dimensional, CAD-operated anatomic fitting tool was then developed, based on the results of this study, and used to determine the inflow and outflow conduit orientation of the TAH. The mean diameters of the sheep left atrium, right atrium, aorta, and pulmonary artery were 39, 33, 12, and 11 mm, respectively. The center-to-center distance and outer-edge-to-outer-edge distance between the atria, found to be 39 ± 9 mm and 72 ± 17 mm in this study, were identified as the most critical geometries for successful TAH connection. This geometric constraint restricts the maximum separation allowable between left and right inlet ports of a TAH to ensure successful alignment within the available atrial circumference.
    Artificial Organs 03/2013; 37(8). DOI:10.1111/aor.12060 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Nobuhiko Nishimura · Toru Masuzawa · Daniel L Timms
    01/2013; 21(2):152-159. DOI:10.14243/jsaem.21.152

Publication Stats

366 Citations
106.15 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2015
    • Texas Heart Institute
      • Division of Cardiovascular Surgery
      Houston, Texas, United States
  • 2011–2014
    • University of Queensland
      • Department of Medicine
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2008–2014
    • The Prince Charles Hospital (Queensland Health)
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2009–2013
    • RWTH Aachen University
      • Institute of Applied Medical Engineering
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2005
    • Queensland University of Technology
      • Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia