Francisco Javier Gracia

University of Valencia, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (22)14.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Safety compliance is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. However, it depends mostly on procedures that do not always involve the safest outcomes. This article introduces an empirical model based on the organizational role theory to analyze the influence of legitimate sources of expectations (procedures formalization and leadership) on workers' compliance behaviors. The sample was composed of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants. Structural equation analysis showed that, in spite of some problematic effects of proceduralization (such as role conflict and role ambiguity), procedure formalization along with an empowering leadership style lead to safety compliance by clarifying a worker's role in safety. Implications of these findings for safety research are outlined, as well as their practical implications.
    Risk Analysis 02/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included.
    Accident; analysis and prevention 08/2013; 60C:231-244. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the large body of work on team leadership, hardly any literature has dealt with team leadership in safety performance settings. The goal of the present study is to analyze how team leader behaviors influence team members’ safety performance in nuclear power plants. For this purpose, an empowering leadership approach was assessed. We consider a multilevel model in which safety performance is divided into three types of behaviors. The sample was composed of 479 workers in 54 groups from two Spanish nuclear power plants. The results suggested that leaders’ empowering behaviors generated higher safety compliance behaviors and higher safety participation behaviors by team members, whereas risky behaviors were reduced. Empirical support was found for hierarchical linear modeling linking leadership and safety performance behaviors. Practical implications, study limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
    Safety Science. 01/2013; 51(1):293–301.
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    ABSTRACT: Safety participation is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. The present study examined the effects of empowering leadership on safety participation. Based on a sample of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants, structural equation modeling showed that empowering leadership has a significant relationship with safety participation, which is mediated by collaborative team learning. In addition, the results revealed that the relationship between empowering leadership and collaborative learning is partially mediated by the promotion of dialogue and open communication. The implications of these findings for safety research and their practical applications are outlined. An empowering leadership style enhances workers' safety performance, particularly safety participation behaviors. Safety participation is recommended to detect possible rule inconsistencies or misunderstood procedures and make workers aware of critical safety information and issues.
    Journal of safety research 07/2012; 43(3):215-21. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Résumé. Cette étude empirique sur quatre types de travailleurs temporaires (et un groupe de travailleurs permanents aux fins de comparaison) utilise une typologie innovante basée sur la préférence pour le travail temporaire et la perception de l'employabilité. Sur un échantillon de 1 300 salariés de six pays, et au moyen de variables comprenant des caractéristiques démographiques et relatives à l'emploi, le comportement et l'insécurité, les auteurs observent des différences significatives entre les quatre types, mais pas sur la satisfaction personnelle et le bien-être. Ils argumentent contre l'idée reçue du travail temporaire affectant des travailleurs peu qualifiés incapables de trouver un travail permanent, et soulignent l'intérêt de recherches plus fines sur les politiques de flexicurité.
    Revue internationale du Travail 12/2011; 150(3‐4).
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    ABSTRACT: . Applying an innovative typology based on preference for temporary employment and perceived employability, the authors empirically examine four types of temporary workers (and a group of permanent workers for comparison). In a sample of 1,300 employees from six countries, they find significant differences between the four types on a broad set of variables – including demographic and job characteristics, attitude and insecurity – but not in life satisfaction and well-being. They conclude with an argument against the equation of temporary employment with low-skilled workers unable to find a permanent job, stressing the valuable implications of more sensitive research for policy-making on flexicurity.
    International Labour Review 12/2011; 150(3‐4). · 0.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resumen. Valiéndose de una tipología novedosa, los autores analizan empíricamente cuatro tipos de trabajadores temporales y los comparan con un grupo de trabajadores fijos. En la muestra, que comprende 1.300 personas de seis países, hallan diferencias significativas en numerosas variables —como características demográficas y del puesto de trabajo, actitudes e inseguridad laboral—, pero no en la satisfacción vital y el bienestar. Es erróneo considerar que los trabajadores eventuales son personas poco cualificadas incapaces de encontrar un empleo fijo; ahora bien, conviene afinar las investigaciones al respecto para perfeccionar las políticas de «flexiseguridad».
    Revista Internacional del Trabajo 12/2011; 130(3‐4).
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    ABSTRACT: Leadership is considered an essential element in guaranteeing the safe running of organizations. The purpose of the present study is to find out how leader behaviours influence employees’ safety behaviours (perceived safety behaviours) in the nuclear field. In an attempt to answer this question, the authors of this research have considered the way this influence is exercised, taking into consideration some important factors like safety culture and safety climate. To achieve this, the empowerment leadership model, based on a behavioural approach to leadership, was used. The sample was made up of 566 employees from a Spanish nuclear power plant. The results indicated that when safety culture was strong, leader behaviour generated a higher safety climate among the members, which predicted their perceived safety behaviours. Support was found for a structural model linking leadership and safety behaviour to safety culture and safety climate. The implications of these findings for the theory of safety and the way they can be put into practice are outlined.
    Safety Science - SAF SCI. 01/2011; 49(8):1118-1129.
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    ABSTRACT: A great amount of research has illustrated the evident prevalence of job insecurity in working life and its harmful outcomes for employees and organizations. Some authors have identified factors that can reduce this negative influence. However, up until now, most of these factors have only been studied at an individual level, without taking into account the fact that contextual conditions can play a moderating role in organizations. Following this perspective, this article analyses the moderator role of organizational justice and organizational justice climate in the relationship between job insecurity and its outcomes. The study was carried out with a sample of 942 employees from 47 Spanish organizations and a subsample composed of 597 employees from 29 of these organizations. The results showed that both organizational justice and organizational justice climate moderated the relationship between job insecurity and job satisfaction and intention to leave the organization.
    Economic and Industrial Democracy 11/2010; 31(4):613-637. · 0.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between both job insecurity and fairness and employees' attitudes (job satisfaction, organisational commitment and turnover intention). Moreover, of even greater interest, it aims to test whether fairness mitigates the negative correlates associated with job insecurity. Design/methodology/approach – The aproach takes the form of a cross-sectional study based on self-reported data. The sample was composed of 697 employees from a Spanish public organisation. Findings – The findings showed that job insecurity is detrimental to employees' attitudes, whereas fairness is beneficial. Moreover, the results showed the negative correlates of job insecurity to be less strong in the presence of fairness. Research limitations/implications – First, this is a cross-sectional study, and therefore no causal relationships can be assumed. Second, the study is based on self-reported data, which could lead to common variance source and method problems. Practical implications – Job insecurity is a widespread concern in contemporary societies. Thus, research on how to palliate its negative correlates is valued. This study suggests fairness judgements might buffer the negative correlates associated with job insecurity. Originality/value – Previous research has shown job insecurity to be detrimental to both individuals and organisations (e.g. job satisfaction, organisational commitment and turnover intention). Nonetheless, differences observed across studies in the strength of these relationships suggest the presence of moderating factors. The study provides evidence on the moderating role of fairness judgements.
    International Journal of Manpower 01/2010; 4(July):449-465. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a changing and flexible labour market it is important to clarify the role of environmental and personal variables that contribute to obtaining adequate levels of job satisfaction. The aim of the present study is to analyze the direct effects of employability and personal initiative on intrinsic, extrinsic and social job satisfaction, clarifying their cumulative and interactive effects. The study has been carried out in a sample of 1319 young Spanish workers. Hypotheses were tested by means of the moderated hierarchical regression analysis. Results show that employability and personal initiative predict in a cumulative way the intrinsic, extrinsic and social job satisfaction. Moreover, the interaction between employability and personal initiative increases the prediction of these two variables on intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Results also indicate that higher values of employability when initiative is also high are associated to higher levels of intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction. These results have implications for theory and practice in a context of new employment relations.
    The Spanish Journal of Psychology 11/2009; 12(2):632-40. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As employers respond to intensive global competition through the deregulation of labor, job insecurity has become a widespread problem. It has been shown to have significant health impacts in a growing number of workers, but less is known about its social distribution, the mechanisms through which it may act, and the moderating effects of gender, socioeconomic position, and company size. Utilizing data from a national survey of a representative sample of paid employees in Taiwan, we examined the prevalence of job insecurity and its associations with psychosocial work characteristics and health status. A total of 8705 men and 5986 women aged between 25 and 65 years old were studied. Information on perceived job insecurity, industrial and occupational types, psychosocial work characteristics as assessed by the Job Strain model, and various measures of health status were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The overall prevalence of job insecurity was high (50%). Job insecurity was more prevalent among employees with lower education attainment, in blue-collar and construction workers, those employed in smaller companies, and in older women. Insecure employees also reported lower job control, higher job demands, and poor workplace social support, as compared with those who held secure positions. Regression analyses showed that job insecurity was strongly associated with poor health, even with adjustment of age, job control, job demands, and work place social support. The deleterious effects of job insecurity appeared to be stronger in men than women, in women who held managerial or professional jobs than women in other employment grades, and in those working in larger companies than smaller ones. The findings of this study suggest that perceived job insecurity is an important source of stress, and it is accompanied with adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor health. High-risk groups were identified for further investigation.
    Journal of Happiness Studies 01/2009; 10(6):739-751. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigates the relationship between job insecurity and well-being (psychological distress and life satisfaction), and the potential role of employability in this relationship. With regard to job insecurity, we hypothesize that job insecurity may be related to poor well-being. Regarding employability, two avenues are taken. First, we argue that employability may be beneficial in much the same way that job security is. Second, we suggest that employability may mitigate likely unfavourable consequences of job insecurity for employees’ well-being. Hypotheses are tested with a sample of 639 Belgian employees from six organizations. The results suggest that job insecurity is related to poor well-being, while no such association is found for employability. Furthermore, employability moderates the relationship between job insecurity and life satisfaction, as expected. Specifically, the model accounts for 8% of the explained variance. However, this pattern of results is not replicated for psychological distress.
    Journal of Happiness Studies 12/2008; 10(6):739-751. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present paper the role of the state of the psychological contract to predict psychological health results is studied in a sample of 385 employees of different Spanish companies. Results indicate that the state of the psychological contract significantly predicts life satisfaction, work-family conflict and well-being beyond the prediction produced by the content of the psychological contract. In addition, trust and fairness, two dimensions of the state of psychological contract, all together contribute to explain these psychological health variables adding value to the role as predictor of fulfillment of the psychological contract. The results support the approach argued by Guest and colleagues.
    Psicothema 06/2006; 18(2):256-62. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – To analyze the direct and combined effects of the communication media and time pressure in group work on the affective responses of team members while performing intellective tasks Design/methodology/approach – A laboratory experiment was carried out with 124 subjects working in 31 groups. The task performed by the groups was an intellective one. A 2?×?3 factorial design with three media (face-to-face, video-conference, and e-mail) and time pressure (with and without time pressure) was used to determine the direct and combined effects of these two variables on group members' satisfaction with the process and with the results, and on members' commitment with the decision. Findings – Results show a direct effect of communication media on satisfaction with the process, which confirms the prediction of the media-task fit model, and a negative effect of time pressure on satisfaction with group results and commitment to those results. Most interestingly, the interaction effects for the three dependent variables are significant and show that the most deleterious effects of time pressure are produced in groups working face-to-face, while groups mediated by video-conference improve their affective responses under time pressure. Research limitations/implications – Some limitations are the use of a student sample, so generalizability of the findings is limited, and the use of only one task type. Practical implications – It can help one to know how to design work to improve satisfaction and implication of workers. Originality/value – This paper shows some innovations as the combined effects of media and time pressure, controlling for the task type on group members' affective responses to their work and achievements.
    Journal of Managerial Psychology 03/2005; 20(3/4):245-260. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    Inmaculada Silla, Francisco J. Gracia, José María Peiró
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past few decades, the number of flexible workers has increased, a situation that has captured researchers’ attention. Traditionally, temporary workers were portrayed as being disadvantaged compared to permanent workers. But in the new era, temporary workers cannot be treated as a homogeneous group. This study distinguishes between four types of temporaries based on their contract preference and employability level. Furthermore, it compares them with a permanent group. Whether these groups differ on job insecurity and health-related outcomes in a sample of 383 Spanish employees was tested. Differences in well-being and life satisfaction were found, and the hypotheses were supported. The results point out that the temporary workforce is diverse. Therefore, in order to attain a better understanding of the experiences and situations of these workers, it is preferable not to consider them as one homogeneous group.
    Economic and Industrial Democracy - ECON IND DEMOCRACY. 01/2005; 26(1):89-117.
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    ABSTRACT: La flexibilité est souvent vue comme condition nécessaire à la survie des marchés de travail nationaux et à celle des organisations dans un monde en rapide changement où s’accroît la compétition globale. Elle a adopté diverses formes tels les contrats à durée déterminée, l’externalisation, les horaires flexibles, le temps partiel, les heures complémentaires, le roulement fonctionnel. De plus, il a été déclaré que la flexibilité organisationnelle se doit d’être accompagnée d’une flexibilité personnelle. Quoi qu’il en soit, face aux nouvelles opportunités de travail, les gens diffèrent tant sur le plan de leurs préférences que sur celui de leur comportement.Le but de cette étude est d’identifier les antécédents psychologiques et démographiques de la résistance individuelle à accepter les demandes de flexibilité tels qu’un emploi sous qualifié, le manque d’occasions d’apprendre, un emploi exigent (challenging job), un travail en tant qu’indépendant, un emploi qui requière un changement de localité.L’étude a été menée sur un échantillon représentatif de 2512 espagnols âgés de 16 à 30 ans de la région de Valence, de Madrid et de Barcelone. Les résultats relatifs aux antécédents démographiques indiquent que l’age et le sexe (féminin) accroissent la probabilité de résistance au travail en tant qu’indépendant; le statut marital (marié) accroît la probabilité d’une résistance à la flexibilité de lieu; le niveau d’éducation accroît celle aux emplois sous qualifiés et n’offrant pas la possibilité d’apprendre et décroît la probibilité de résistance à la flexibilité de lieu. Enfin, le type d’habitat (résider dan une ville de plus de 100 000 habitants) accroît la probabilité de résistance à un emploi exigent et à celle à un travail en tant qu’indépendant et décroît la probabilité de résistance aux emplois sous qualifiés et à ceux qui n’offrent pas de possibilité d’apprendre. Les variable psychologiques jouent aussi un rôle significatif pour prédire la résistance à la flexibilité du travail. Des valeurs extrinsèques atténuent la probabilité de résistance aux emplois sous qualifiés et à ceux qui n’offrent pas de possibilité d’apprendre alors que des valeurs sociales ou intrinsèques accroissent la probabilité de résistance aux emplois sous qualifiés, à ceux qui n’offrent pas de possibilité d’apprendre et décroissent la probabilité de résistance à un emploi exigent. L’initiative personnelle favorise la résistance aux emplois sans possibilité d’apprendre et, à l’inverse décroît celle de résister à un emploi exigent, à la flexibilité de lieu et au travail en tant qu’indépendant.Ces résultants sont discutés à partir de l’économic (théorie du capital humain) et des résultants de recherches antérieures en psychologie du travail. Sont également indiquées les implications de ces résultants pour les individus et les organisations et leur utilité en vue d’améliorer les stratégics permettant de faire face aux flexibiliés du marché du travail.Flexibility is considered to be a necessary response to global competition and it clearly has an impact on labour markets and organisations. It has adopted several forms such as temporary and fixed term contracts, outsourcing, flexible time, part-time working, overtime, job rotation, or functional mobility. Furthermore, it has been claimed that organisational flexibility must be accompanied by personal flexibility. However, people differ in their preferences and behaviours in face of the new job opportunities. The goal of the present study is to identify demographic and psychological antecedents of individual resistance to accept job flexibility demands such as: underqualified job, lack of opportunities to learn, a challenging job, self-employment and jobs that require moving from the city of residence. The study was carried out on a representative sample of 2,512 Spanish youngsters, aged between 16 and 30 years from the Valencian region, Madrid and Barcelona. Results on demographic antecedents show that age and sex (women) increase the probability of resisting self-employment. Marital status (married) increases the probability of resisting locational flexibility. Education level increases the probability of resisting an underqualified job and one that does not give opportunities to learn and decreases the probability of resisting locational flexibility. Finally, habitat (living in a city bigger than 100,000 population) increases the probability of resisting a challenging job and self-employment and decreases the probability of resisting an underqualified job and one that does not give opportunities to learn. Psychological variables also play a significant role in predicting resistance to job flexibility. Extrinsic work values decrease the probabilities of resisting an underqualified job and one that does not offer opportunities to learn, while intrinsic or social values increase the probabilities of resisting an underqualified job and one that does not offer opporunemtunities to learn and decrease the one of resisting a challenging job. Personal Initiative increases the probability of resisting a job without opportunities to learn and conversely decreases the one of resisting a challenging job. Finally, passivity in career planing decreases the probability of resisting an underqualified job and one without learning opportunities and increases the chances of resisting a challenging job, locational flexibility, and self-employment. These results are discussed from economic (human capital theory) and work psychology previous research findings. The implications of these findings for individuals and organisations and their usefulness in improving strategies to cope with labour market flexibility in the future are also pointed out.
    Applied Psychology 12/2001; 51(1):43 - 66. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: En el presente trabajo se analiza la evolución que experimenta el significado del trabajo que poseen los jóvenes durante sus primeros tres años de empleo a partir del estudio de sus componentes. La muestra estaba formada por 238 jóvenes de primer empleo pertenecientes a dos grupos ocupacionales (administrativos y trabajadores del metal). Estos jóvenes fueron encuestados en tres momentos a lo largo de un período aproximado de tres años. Los resultados indican que los diferentes componentes del significado del trabajo varían en diferente grado a lo largo del tiempo. La dirección de los resultados apunta que las primeras experiencias de empleo les está afectando negativa-mente. En general, los resultados suponen un apoyo a la tesis interaccionista en la controversia respecto a la estabilidad de dicho constructo.
    Anales de psicología, ISSN 0212-9728, Vol. 17, Nº. 2, 2001, pags. 201-218. 01/2001;
  • Francisco Javier Gracia, Isabel Rodríguez, Fernando Prieto
    Revista De Psicologia Social - REV PSICOL SOC. 01/1999; 14(2):347-365.
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    Psicothema, ISSN 0214-9915, Vol. 18, Nº. 2, 2006, pags. 256-262.