[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The modification of single layer graphene due to intense, picoseconds
near-infrared laser pulses is investigated. We monitor the stable changes
introduced to graphene upon photoexcitation using Raman spectroscopy. We find
that photoexcitation leads to both a local increase in hole doping and a
reduction in compressive strain. Possible explanations for these effects, due
to photo-induced oxygenation and photo-induced buckling of the graphene, are
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acoustic transmittance of two closely spaced solid plates, each perforated with a square array of cylindrical holes, exhibits a band of near-perfect acoustic attenuation originating from hybridization between a resonance in the gap separating the plates and pipe resonances in the holes. Displacement of one plate relative to the other, such that the holes are no longer aligned, or an increase in the plate separation leads to an increased center frequency of the stop band. This ability to easily tune the frequency of the stop band may prove advantageous.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 09/2013; 134(3):1754-9. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We show theoretically that localized surface plasmons can generate optical fields with a chirality exceeding that of circularly polarized light by a factor of 50. This superchiral optical field can be formed from linearly polarized light incident on nonchiral metal structures. We identify three mechanisms that lead to large optical chirality involving the coupling between the incident light and the evanescent fields of the surface plasmons. Two of these mechanisms create superchiral regions with nonzero average chirality suitable for the excitation of chiral molecules in solution.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The “acoustic double fishnet” is a structure with holes
running from its front to back faces, yet at a characteristic frequency
it transmits very little sound. The transmittance of this structure,
which is comprised of a pair of closely spaced, periodically perforated
plates, is determined experimentally and analytically. The surprising
acoustic properties are due to hybridization between a two-dimensional
resonance within the gap between the plates, and pipe modes within the
holes. At the center of the stop band the input impedance is imaginary,
interpreted as a negative product of effective bulk modulus and density.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a modal matching theory, we demonstrate the generation of short-range, chiral electromagnetic fields via the excitation of arrays of staggered nanoslits that are chiral in two dimensions. The electromagnetic near fields, which exhibit a chiral density greater than that of circularly polarized light, can enhance the chiroptical interactions in the vicinity of the nanoslits. We discuss the features of nanostructure symmetry required to obtain the chiral fields and explicitly show how these structures can give rise to detection and characterization of materials with chiral symmetry.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have experimentally studied the nonlinear nature of electrical conduction
in monolayer graphene devices on silica substrates. This nonlinearity manifests
itself as a nonmonotonic dependence of the differential resistance on applied
DC voltage bias across the sample. At temperatures below ~70K, the differential
resistance exhibits a peak near zero bias that can be attributed to
self-heating of the charge carriers. We show that the shape of this peak arises
from a combination of different energy dissipation mechanisms of the carriers.
The energy dissipation at higher carrier temperatures depends critically on the
length of the sample. For samples longer than 10um the heat loss is shown to be
determined by optical phonons at the silica-graphene interface.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a new approach for creating chiral plasmonic nanomaterials. A previously unconsidered, far-field mechanism is utilized which enables chirality to be conveyed from a surrounding chiral molecular material to a plasmonic resonance of an achiral metallic nanostructure. Our observations break a currently held preconception that optical properties of plasmonic particles can most effectively be manipulated by molecular materials through near-field effects. We show that far-field electromagnetic coupling between a localized plasmon of a nonchiral nanostructure and a surrounding chiral molecular layer can induce plasmonic chirality much more effectively (by a factor of 10(3)) than previously reported near-field phenomena. We gain insight into the mechanism by comparing our experimental results to a simple electromagnetic model which incorporates a plasmonic object coupled with a chiral molecular medium. Our work offers a new direction for the creation of hybrid molecular plasmonic nanomaterials that display significant chiroptical properties in the visible spectral region.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the generation of THz pulses when arrays of silver nanoparticles are irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses, providing the first reproducible experimental evidence in support of recent theoretical predictions of such an effect. We assess our results in the context of a model where photoelectrons are produced by plasmon-mediated multiphoton excitation, and THz radiation is generated via the acceleration of the ejected electrons by ponderomotive forces arising from the inhomogeneous plasmon field. By exploring the dependence of the THz emission on the femtosecond pulse intensity and as a function of metal nanoparticle morphology, and by comparing measurements to numerical modeling, we are able to verify the role of the particle plasmon mode in this process.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental verification of the “domino plasmon,” recently proposed by Cano &etal; [Opt. Express 18(2), 754, (2010)] is presented. Using microwaves, it is demonstrated that this mode propagates along a periodic chain of metallic cuboids (“dominos”) and the dispersion of the mode is determined with results being compared to the predictions of analytical and numerical models. This mode is found to be surprisingly insensitive to the lateral width of the chain, even on a subwavelength scale. Having such tight confinement, “domino plasmons” show considerable promise for one-dimensional subwavelength guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using phase sensitive microwave frequency measurements, we obtain the dispersion of spoof surface plasmon waves on a highly conducting sheet perforated with a two-dimensional array of subwavelength holes, and compare our results to an explicit analytical dispersion relation obtained by the modal matching method. We observe splitting into symmetric and antisymmetric surface modes, a behavior analogous to that of surface plasmons in thin metallic films at optical frequencies. We show that spoof surface modes play an important role in both near and far field transmissions. Specifically, we show that superfocussing effects which are present for surface plasmons in metallic films are absent for hole arrays (i.e., no amplification of near fields is possible for spoof surface plasmons). While many of the apparent properties of spoof surface plasmons resemble those of surface plasmons in thin metallic films, the analogy is therefore incomplete in the high frequency limit.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The microwave transmission through hole arrays in thick metal plates for both large holes (cut-off below onset of diffraction) and small holes (cut-off above onset of diffraction) have been compared through both experiment and modelling. Enhanced transmission is in part mediated by the excitation of diffractively coupled surface waves. Large holes, with cut-off below the onset of diffraction (due to the hole periodicity), are able to support multiple modes in transmission when the depth of the holes is sufficient to support quantisation in the propagation direction. Small holes, with cut-off above the onset of diffraction however only support two coupled surface modes (symmetric and anti-symmetric) below diffraction.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the generation of THz pulses from arrays of silver nanoparticles when irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. We suggest that this effect arises from the emission of photoelectrons by multi-photon excitation and subsequent acceleration of these emitted electrons by ponderomotive forces associated with the optical fields of the plasmons in the metallic nanostructures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this contribution we concentrate on two aspects of THz science related to surface and particle plasmons. Firstly, we report on the generation of THz pulses via irradiation of arrays of silver nanoparticles by femtosecond laser pulses. We propose that this effect arises from the emission of photoelectrons by multi-photon excitation and subsequent acceleration of these emitted electrons by ponderomotive forces associated with the optical fields of the plasmons in the metallic nanostructures. Secondly, we demonstrate that semiconductors supports strongly confined surface plasmons in the THz frequency range. We show that these SPs can be utilized to enhance the light-matter interaction with dielectric layers above the semiconductor surface, thereby allowing us to detect the presence of layers around one thousand times thinner than the free space wavelength of the THz light. We discuss the viability of using semiconductor SPs for the purposes of THz sensing and spectroscopy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Near infrared pump-probe spectroscopy has been used to measure the ultrafast
dynamics of photoexcited charge carriers in monolayer and multilayer graphene.
We observe two decay processes occurring on 100 fs and 2 ps timescales. The
first is attributed to the rapid electron-phonon thermalisation in the system.
The second timescale is found to be due to the slow decay of hot phonons. Using
a simple theoretical model we calculate the hot phonon decay rate and show that
it is significantly faster in monolayer flakes than in multilayer ones. In
contrast to recent claims, we show that this enhanced decay rate is not due to
the coupling to substrate phonons, since we have also seen the same effect in
suspended flakes. Possible intrinsic decay mechanisms that could cause such an
effect are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a theory of the effective permeability of multilayered metamaterials containing thin ferromagnetic layers with magnetization pinned on either one or both surfaces. Because of the pinning and small film thickness, the lowest frequency magnetic resonances are due to nonuniform exchange spin waves with fre-quencies far above those expected for uniform ferromagnetic resonance in known magnetic materials. Yet, the coupling of the nonuniform spin-wave modes to the electromagnetic field is shown to be strong enough to lead, for magnetic parameters characteristic for conventional transition metal alloys, to negative values of the effective permeability at frequencies of several hundred gigahertzs. The permittivity of metals is already negative in this frequency range. Hence, this system represents a negative refractive index metamaterial at subterahertz frequencies. The ways by which to maximize the frequency and the strength of the negative magnetic response are analyzed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spectroscopic analysis of large biomolecules is important in applications such as biomedical diagnostics and pathogen detection, and spectroscopic techniques can detect such molecules at the nanogram level or lower. However, spectroscopic techniques have not been able to probe the structure of large biomolecules with similar levels of sensitivity. Here, we show that superchiral electromagnetic fields, generated by the optical excitation of plasmonic planar chiral metamaterials, are highly sensitive probes of chiral supramolecular structure. The differences in the effective refractive indices of chiral samples exposed to left- and right-handed superchiral fields are found to be up to 10(6) times greater than those observed in optical polarimetry measurements, thus allowing picogram quantities of adsorbed molecules to be characterized. The largest differences are observed for biomolecules that have chiral planar sheets, such as proteins with high β-sheet content, which suggests that this approach could form the basis for assaying technologies capable of detecting amyloid diseases and certain types of viruses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the nonlinear optical properties of graphene flakes using four-wave mixing. The corresponding third-order optical susceptibility is found to be remarkably large and only weakly dependent on the wavelength in the near-infrared frequency range. The magnitude of the response is in good agreement with our calculations based on the nonlinear quantum response theory.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electromagnetic response of two-dimensional square arrays of perfectly conducting square patches, and their complementary structures, is modeled utilizing a modal matching technique and employing Babinet’s principle. This method allows for the introduction of progressively higher diffracted orders and waveguide modes to be included in the calculation, hence aiding understanding of the underlying causal mechanism for the observed response. At frequencies close to, but below, the onset of diffraction, a near-complete reflection condition is predicted, even for low filling fractions: conversely, for high filling fractions a near-complete transmission condition results. These resonance phenomena are associated with evanescent diffraction, which is sufficiently strong to reverse the step change in transmission upon establishment of electrical continuity; i.e., the connected structure demonstrates increased transmission with increasing filling fraction.