Tetsu Kitayama

Toho University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (85)251.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the results from Suzaku observations of the hottest Abell galaxy cluster A2163 at $z=0.2$. To study the physics of gas heating in cluster mergers, we investigated hard X-ray emission from the merging cluster A2163, which hosts the brightest synchrotron radio halo. We analyzed hard X-ray spectra accumulated from two-pointed Suzaku observations. Non-thermal hard X-ray emission should result from the inverse Compton (IC) scattering of relativistic electrons by the CMB photons. To measure this emission, the dominant thermal emission in the hard X-ray band must be modeled in detail. To this end, we analyzed the combined broad-band X-ray data of A2163 collected by Suzaku and XMM-Newton, assuming single- and multi-temperature models for thermal emission and the power-law model for non-thermal emission. From the Suzaku data, we detected significant hard X-ray emission from A2163 in the 12-60 keV band at the $28\sigma$ level (or at the $5.5\sigma$ level if a systematic error is considered). The Suzaku HXD spectrum alone is consistent with the single-T thermal model of gas temperature $kT=14$ keV. From the XMM data, we constructed a multi-T model including a very hot ($kT=18$ keV) component in the NE region. Incorporating the multi-T and the power-law models into a two-component model with a radio-band photon index, the 12-60 keV energy flux of non-thermal emission is constrained within $5.3 \pm 0.9 (\pm 3.8)\times 10^{-12}~{\rm erg\, s^{-1} cm^{-2}}$. The 90% upper limit of detected IC emission is marginal ($< 1.2\times 10^{-11}~{\rm erg\, s^{-1} cm^{-2}}$ in the 12-60 keV). The estimated magnetic field in A2163 is $B > 0.098~{\rm \mu G}$. While the present results represent a three-fold increase in the accuracy of the broad band spectral model of A2163, more sensitive hard X-ray observations are needed to decisively test for the presence of hard X-ray emission due to IC emission.
    12/2013;
  • T. Kitayama, S. Sasaki, Y. Suto
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss cosmological aspects of the abundances of clusters of galaxies. By comparing our theoretical predictions with the latest observations, we derive constraints on viable cosmological models. We also discuss the implications of future observations in X-ray and radio wavebands.
    Advances in Space Research 07/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the validity of the hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE) assumption for galaxy clusters using one of the highest-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We define and evaluate several effective mass terms corresponding to the Euler equations of the gas dynamics, and quantify the degree of the validity of HSE in terms of the mass estimate. We find that the mass estimated under the HSE assumption (the HSE mass) deviates from the true mass by up to ~ 30 %. This level of departure from HSE is consistent with the previous claims, but our physical interpretation is rather different. We demonstrate that the inertial term in the Euler equations makes a negligible contribution to the total mass, and the overall gravity of the cluster is balanced by the thermal gas pressure gradient and the gas acceleration term. Indeed the deviation from the HSE mass is well explained by the acceleration term at almost all radii. We also clarify the confusion of previous work due to the inappropriate application of the Jeans equations in considering the validity of HSE from the gas dynamics extracted from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 767(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe via a suite of four instruments, covering a very wide energy range, from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. These instruments include a high-resolution, high-throughput spectrometer sensitive over 0.3-2 keV with high spectral resolution of Delta E < 7 eV, enabled by a micro-calorimeter array located in the focal plane of thin-foil X-ray optics; hard X-ray imaging spectrometers covering 5-80 keV, located in the focal plane of multilayer-coated, focusing hard X-ray mirrors; a wide-field imaging spectrometer sensitive over 0.4-12 keV, with an X-ray CCD camera in the focal plane of a soft X-ray telescope; and a non-focusing Compton-camera type soft gamma-ray detector, sensitive in the 40-600 keV band. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution, will enable the pursuit of a wide variety of important science themes.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Stephan's Quintet (SQ, HCG92) is a well studied compact group of galaxies with a disturbed intergalactic medium (IGM). An ``intruder'' galaxy NGC 7318b is currently colliding with the IGM at a relative velocity of 1000 km s-1, causing a large-scale shock front. We observed SQ with the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) aboard AKARI in four far-infrared (far-IR) bands at 65, 90, 140, and 160μm. The 160μm image clearly shows an additional peak of emission overlying structure extending in the North-South direction along the shock ridge seen in the 140μm band, and in H2 and X-ray emission. Whereas most of the far-IR emission in the shocked region is from cold dust (20 K), the [CII]158μm emission - whose luminosity is comparable to that of the warm H2 gas - can significantly contribute to the single peak emission in the 160μm band. We conclude that the [CII] line emission comes from the warm H2 gas in the shock. Our result represents the first detection of shock-excited [CII] line emission.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2012; 7(S284):342-344.
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    ABSTRACT: We present imaging simulations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect of galaxy clusters for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) including the Atacama Compact Array (ACA). In its most compact configuration at 90GHz, ALMA will resolve the intracluster medium with an effective angular resolution of 5 arcsec. It will provide a unique probe of shock fronts and relativistic electrons produced during cluster mergers at high redshifts, that are hard to spatially resolve by current and near-future X-ray detectors. Quality of image reconstruction is poor with the 12m array alone but improved significantly by adding ACA; expected sensitivity of the 12m array based on the thermal noise is not valid for the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect mapping unless accompanied by an ACA observation of at least equal duration. The observations above 100 GHz will become excessively time-consuming owing to the narrower beam size and the higher system temperature. On the other hand, significant improvement of the observing efficiency is expected once Band 1 is implemented in the future.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 03/2012; · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    Gen Chiaki, Naoki Yoshida, Tetsu Kitayama
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    ABSTRACT: We study the formation of low-mass and extremely metal-poor stars in the early universe. Our study is motivated by the recent discovery of a low-mass (M < 0.8 Msun) and extremely metal-poor (Z <= 4.5 x 10^{-5} Zsun) star in the Galactic halo by Caffau et al. We propose a model that early supernova (SN) explosions trigger the formation of low-mass stars via shell fragmentation. We first perform one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of an early SN remnant. We show that the shocked shell undergoes efficient radiative cooling and then becomes gravitationally unstable to fragment and collapse in about ten million years. We then follow the thermal evolution of the collapsing fragments using a one-zone code. Our one-zone calculation treats chemistry and radiative cooling self-consistently in low-metallicity gas. The collapsing gas cloud evolves roughly isothermally, until it cools rapidly by dust continuum emission at the density 10^{13}-10^{14} /cc. The cloud core then becomes thermally and gravitationally unstable and fragments. We argue that early SNe can trigger the formation of low-mass stars in the extremely metal-poor environment as Caffau et al. discovered recently.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2012; 762(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z=10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts (z ~ 0.2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the same instrument, we can also study the so far only partially detected baryons in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The less dense part of the WHIM will be studied using absorption lines at low redshift in the spectra for GRBs.
    Experimental Astronomy 04/2011; 34(2):519. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Stephan's Quintet (SQ, HCG92) was observed with the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) aboard AKARI in four far-infrared (IR) bands at 65, 90, 140, and 160 um. The AKARI four-band images of the SQ show far-IR emission in the intergalactic medium (IGM) of the SQ. In particular, the 160 um band image shows single peak emission in addition to the structure extending in the North-South direction along the shock ridge as seen in the 140 um band, H2 emission and X-ray emission. Whereas most of the far-IR emission in the shocked region comes from the cold dust component, shock-powered [CII]158um emission can significantly contribute to the emission in the 160 um band that shows a single peak at the shocked region. In the shocked region, the observed gas-to-dust mass ratio is in agreement with the Galactic one. The color temperature of the cold dust component (~20 K) is lower than that in surrounding galaxies (~30 K). We discuss a possible origin of the intergalactic dust emission.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2011; 731(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe by performing high-resolution, high-throughput spectroscopy with moderate angular resolution. ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. ASTRO-H allows a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (5-80 keV) provided by multilayer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3-12 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope (0.4-12 keV) and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector (40-600 keV) . The micro-calorimeter system is developed by an international collaboration led by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution of Delta E ~7 eV provided by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued. Comment: 18 pages, 12 figures, Proceedings of the SPIE Astronomical Instrumentation "Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray"
    10/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We perform a uniform, systematic analysis of a sample of 38 X-ray galaxy clusters with three different Chandra calibrations. The temperatures change systematically between calibrations. Cluster temperatures change on average by roughly ~6% for the smallest changes and roughly ~13% for the more extreme changes between calibrations. We explore the effects of the changing cluster spectral properties on Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and X-ray determinations of the Hubble constant. The Hubble parameter changes by +10% and -13% between the current calibration and two previous Chandra calibrations, indicating that changes in the cluster temperature basically explain the entire change in H_0. Although this work focuses on the difference in spectral properties and resultant Hubble parameters between the calibrations, it is intriguing to note that the newer calibrations favor a lower value of the Hubble constant, H_0 ~ 60 km s-1 Mpc-1, typical of results from SZE/X-ray distances. Both galaxy clusters themselves and the details of the instruments must be known precisely to enable reliable precision cosmology with clusters, which will be feasible with combined efforts from ongoing observations and planned missions and observatories covering a wide range of wavelengths. Comment: 18 pages, 5 figures; updated to match published version
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2010; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spitzer and AKARI observations have found that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in nearby elliptical galaxies, but their spatial distributions are still unknown. In order to investigate their distributions, we performed deep spectral mapping observations of the PAH-detected elliptical galaxy NGC 4589, a merger remnant with a minor-axis optical dust lane. As a result, we obtain clear evidence that the PAH 11.3 μm emission comes predominantly from the dust lane of the galaxy. We also detect molecular hydrogen line emissions from the dust lane. The PAH 17 μm emission is distributed differently from the PAH 11.3 μm emission, and more similarly to the dust continuum emission. From their distinctive distributions, we suggest that the PAHs responsible for the 11.3 μm feature are secondary products through the evolution of the interstellar medium brought in by the merger.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2010; 716(2):L161. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spitzer and AKARI observations have found that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in nearby elliptical galaxies, but their spatial distributions are still unknown. In order to investigate their distributions, we performed deep spectral mapping observations of the PAH-detected elliptical galaxy NGC4589, a merger remnant with a minor-axis optical dust lane. As a result, we obtain clear evidence that the PAH 11.3 um emission comes predominantly from the dust lane of the galaxy. We also detect molecular hydrogen line emissions from the dust lane. The PAH 17 um emission is distributed differently from the PAH 11.3 um emission, and more similarly to the dust continuum emission. From their distinctive distributions, we suggest that the PAHs responsible for the 11.3 um feature are secondary products through the evolution of the ISM brought in by the merger. Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, accepted for publication in the ApJL
    05/2010;
  • 02/2010;
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    Kenji Hasegawa, Masayuki Umemura, Tetsu Kitayama
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    ABSTRACT: We present a novel scenario for globular cluster (GC) formation, where the ultraviolet (UV) background radiation effectively works so as to produce compact star clusters. Here, we explore the formation of GCs in UV radiation fields. For this purpose, we calculate baryon and dark matter (DM) dynamics in spherical symmetry, incorporating the self-shielding effects by solving the radiative transfer of UV radiation. In addition, we prescribe the star formation in cooled gas components and pursue the dynamics of formed stars. As a result, we find that the evolution of subgalactic objects in UV background radiation are separated into three types, that is, (1) prompt star formation, where less massive clouds ~10^{5-8} M_sun are promptly self-shielded and undergo star formation, (2) delayed star formation, where photoionized massive clouds >10^8 M_sun collapse despite high thermal pressure and are eventually self-shielded to form stars in a delayed fashion, and (3) supersonic infall, where photoionized less massive clouds ~10^{5-8} M_sun contract with supersonic infall velocity and are self-shielded when a compact core forms. In particular, the type (3) is a novel type found in the present simulations, and eventually produces a very compact star cluster. The resultant mass-to-light ratios, half-mass radii, and velocity dispersions for the three types are compared to the observations of GCs, dwarf spheroidals (dSphs), and ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs). It turns out that the properties of star clusters resulting from supersonic infall match well with those of observed GCs, whereas the other two types are distinct from GCs. Hence, we conclude that supersonic infall in a UV background is a promising mechanism to form GCs. Comment: 11pages, 9figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS, a few typos are fixed
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2009; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have undertaken a search for the infrared emission from the intracluster dust in the Coma cluster of galaxies by the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. Our observations yield the deepest mid and far-infrared images of a galaxy cluster ever achieved. In each of the three bands, we have not detected a signature of the central excess component in contrast to the previous report on the detection by Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We still find that the brightness ratio between 70 μm and 160 μm shows a marginal sign of the central excess, in qualitative agreement with the ISO result. Our analysis suggests that the excess ratio is more likely due to faint infrared sources lying on fluctuating cirrus foreground. Our observations yield the 2σ upper limits on the excess emission within 100 kpc of the cluster center as 5 × 10–3 MJy sr–1, 6 × 10–2 MJy sr–1, and 7 × 10–2 MJy sr–1, at 24, 70, and 160 μm, respectively. These values are in agreement with those found in other galaxy clusters and suggest that dust is deficient near the cluster center by more than 3 orders of magnitude compared with the interstellar medium.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2009; 695(2):1191. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Motivated by cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, the intracluster medium (ICM) inhomogeneity of galaxy clusters is modeled statistically with a lognormal model for density inhomogeneity. Through mock observations of synthetic clusters the relationship between density inhomogeneities and that of the X-ray surface brightness has been developed. This enables one to infer the statistical properties of the fluctuations of the underlying three-dimensional density distribution of real galaxy clusters from X-ray observations. We explore inhomogeneity in the intracluster medium by applying the above methodology to Chandra observations of a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. We also consider extensions of the model, including Poissonian effects and compare this hybrid lognormal-Poisson model to the nearby cluster Chandra data. EDR gratefully acknowledges support from JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Postdoctoral Fellowhip for Foreign Researchers award P07030. HK is supported by Grands-in-Aid for JSPS of Science Fellows. This work is also supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific research of Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Nos. 20.10466, 19.07030, 16340053, 20340041, and 20540235) and by JSPS Core-to-Core Program "International Research Network for Dark Energy".
    01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the formation and evolution of early H II/He III regions around the first stars. Cooling and recollapse of the gas in the relic H II region is also followed in a full cosmological context, until second-generation stars are formed. We first carry out ray-tracing simulations of ionizing radiation transfer from the first star. Hydrodynamics is directly coupled with photoionization heating as well as radiative and chemical cooling. The photoionized hot gas is evacuated out of the host halo at a velocity of ~30 km s-1. This radiative feedback effect quenches further star formation within the halo for over tens to a hundred million years. We show that the thermal and chemical evolution of the photoionized gas in the relic H II region is remarkably different from that of a neutral primordial gas. Efficient molecular hydrogen production in the recombining gas enables it to cool to ~100 K, where fractionation of HD/H2 occurs. The gas further cools by HD line cooling down to a few tens of kelvins. Interestingly, at high redshifts (z > 10), the minimum gas temperature is limited by that of the cosmic microwave background with TCMB = 2.728(1 + z). The gas cloud experiences runaway collapse when its mass is ~40 M☉, which is significantly smaller than a typical clump mass of ~200-300 M☉ for early primordial gas clouds. We argue that massive, rather than very massive, primordial stars may form in the relic H II region. Such stars might be responsible for early metal enrichment of the interstellar medium from which recently discovered hyper-metal-poor stars were born.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 663(2):687. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out a target survey for Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and Lyα emitters (LAEs) around QSO SDSS J0211-0009 at z = 4.87. The deep and wide broadband and narrowband imaging simultaneously revealed the perspective structure of these two high-z populations. The LBGs without Lyα emission form a filamentary structure including the QSO, while the LAEs are distributed around the QSO but avoid it within a distance of ~4.5 Mpc. On the other hand, we serendipitously discovered a protocluster with a significant concentration of LBGs and LAEs, where no strongly UV ionizing source, such as a QSO or radio galaxy, is known to exist. In this cluster field, the two populations are spatially cross-correlated with each other. The relative spatial distribution of LAEs to LBGs in the QSO field is in stark contrast to that in the cluster field. We also found a weak trend showing that the number counts based on Lyα and UV continuum fluxes of LAEs in the QSO field are slightly lower than in the cluster field, whereas the number counts of LBGs are almost consistent with each other. The LAEs avoid the nearby region around the QSO where the local UV background radiation could be ~100 times stronger than the average for the epoch. The clustering segregation between LBGs and LAEs seen in the QSO field could be due to either enhanced early galaxy formation in an overdense environment, causing all the LAEs to evolve into LBGs, or local photoionization due to the strong UV radiation from the QSO, effectively causing a deficit in low-mass galaxies like LAEs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 663(2):765. · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
251.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002–2013
    • Toho University
      • Department of Physics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1999–2013
    • Tokyo Metropolitan University
      • Department of Physics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1997–2013
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Physics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2011–2012
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2004
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2003
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan