A. R. Rickard

The University of York, York, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (87)233.47 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The removal of SO2 in the presence of alkene-ozone systems has been studied for ethene, cis-but-2-ene, trans-but-2-ene and 2,3-dimethyl-but-2-ene, as a function of humidity, under atmospheric boundary layer conditions. The SO2 removal displays a clear dependence on relative humidity for all four alkene-ozone systems confirming a significant reaction for stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCI) with H2O. The observed SO2 removal kinetics are consistent with relative rate constants, k(SCI + H2O)/k(SCI + SO2), of 3.3 (±1.1) × 10(-5) for CH2OO, 26 (±10) × 10(-5) for CH3CHOO derived from cis-but-2-ene, 33 (±10) × 10(-5) for CH3CHOO derived from trans-but-2-ene, and 8.7 (±2.5) × 10(-5) for (CH3)2COO derived from 2,3-dimethyl-but-2-ene. The relative rate constants for k(SCI decomposition)/k(SCI + SO2) are -2.3 (±3.5) × 10(11) cm(-3) for CH2OO, 13 (±43) × 10(11) cm(-3) for CH3CHOO derived from cis-but-2-ene, -14 (±31) × 10(11) cm(-3) for CH3CHOO derived from trans-but-2-ene and 63 (±14) × 10(11) cm(-3) for (CH3)2COO. Uncertainties are ±2σ and represent combined systematic and precision components. These values are derived following the approximation that a single SCI is present for each system; a more comprehensive interpretation, explicitly considering the differing reactivity for syn- and anti-SCI conformers, is also presented. This yields values of 3.5 (±3.1) × 10(-4) for k(SCI + H2O)/k(SCI + SO2) of anti-CH3CHOO and 1.2 (±1.1) × 10(13) for k(SCI decomposition)/k(SCI + SO2) of syn-CH3CHOO. The reaction of the water dimer with CH2OO is also considered, with a derived value for k(CH2OO + (H2O)2)/k(CH2OO + SO2) of 1.4 (±1.8) × 10(-2). The observed SO2 removal rate constants, which technically represent upper limits, are consistent with decomposition being a significant, structure dependent, sink in the atmosphere for syn-SCI.
    Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 01/2015; 17(6). DOI:10.1039/c4cp04186k · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • M. E. Jenkin, J. C. Young, A. R. Rickard
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2015; 15(6):9709-9766. DOI:10.5194/acpd-15-9709-2015 · 4.88 Impact Factor
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2015; 15(6):9541-9571. DOI:10.5194/acpd-15-9541-2015 · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The α-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methyl glyoxal (CH3C(O)CHO) are produced in the atmosphere by the oxidation of hydrocarbons and emitted directly from pyrogenic sources. Measurements of ambient concentrations inform about the rate of hydrocarbon oxidation, oxidative capacity, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We present results from a comprehensive instrument comparison effort at two simulation chamber facilities in the US and Europe that included nine instruments, and seven different measurement techniques: broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (BBCEAS), cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy (CE-DOAS), white-cell DOAS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, two separate instruments), laser-induced phosphorescence (LIP), solid-phase micro extraction (SPME), and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS, two separate instruments; for methyl glyoxal only because no significant response was observed for glyoxal). Experiments at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) compare three independent sources of calibration as a function of temperature (293–330 K). Calibrations from absorption cross-section spectra at UV-visible and IR wavelengths are found to agree within 2% for glyoxal, and 4% for methyl glyoxal at all temperatures; further calibrations based on ion–molecule rate constant calculations agreed within 5% for methyl glyoxal at all temperatures. At the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE) all measurements are calibrated from the same UV-visible spectra (either directly or indirectly), thus minimizing potential systematic bias. We find excellent linearity under idealized conditions (pure glyoxal or methyl glyoxal, R2 > 0.96), and in complex gas mixtures characteristic of dry photochemical smog systems (o-xylene/NOx and isoprene/NOx, R2 > 0.95; R2 ∼ 0.65 for offline SPME measurements of methyl glyoxal). The correlations are more variable in humid ambient air mixtures (RH > 45%) for methyl glyoxal (0.58 < R2 < 0.68) than for glyoxal (0.79 < R2 < 0.99). The intercepts of correlations were insignificant for the most part (below the instruments' experimentally determined detection limits); slopes further varied by less than 5% for instruments that could also simultaneously measure NO2. For glyoxal and methyl glyoxal the slopes varied by less than 12 and 17% (both 3-σ) between direct absorption techniques (i.e., calibration from knowledge of the absorption cross section). We find a larger variability among in situ techniques that employ external calibration sources (75–90%, 3-σ), and/or techniques that employ offline analysis. Our intercomparison reveals existing differences in reports about precision and detection limits in the literature, and enables comparison on a common basis by observing a common air mass. Finally, we evaluate the influence of interfering species (e.g., NO2, O3 and H2O) of relevance in field and laboratory applications. Techniques now exist to conduct fast and accurate measurements of glyoxal at ambient concentrations, and methyl glyoxal under simulated conditions. However, techniques to measure methyl glyoxal at ambient concentrations remain a challenge, and would be desirable.
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 01/2015; 8(4):1835-1862. DOI:10.5194/amt-8-1835-2015 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2015; 15(2):1651-1702. DOI:10.5194/acpd-15-1651-2015 · 4.88 Impact Factor
  • Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2015; 15(6):8839-8881. DOI:10.5194/acpd-15-8839-2015 · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12/2014; 14:13755–13771. · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20–21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wild-land fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event, but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long-range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ∼ 24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present ob-serving network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 08/2014; 14:8449-8460. DOI:10.5194/acp-14-8449-2014 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The α-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methyl glyoxal (CH3C(O)CHO) are produced in the atmosphere by the oxidation of hydrocarbons, and emitted directly from pyrogenic sources. Measurements of ambient concentrations inform about the rate of hydrocarbon oxidation, oxidative capacity, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We present results from a comprehensive instrument comparison effort at 2 simulation chamber facilities in the US and Europe that included 9 instruments, and 7 different measurement techniques: Broadband Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (BBCEAS), Cavity Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS), White-cell DOAS, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR, two separate instruments), Laser Induced Phosphoresence (LIP), Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME), and Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS, two separate instruments; only methyl glyoxal as no significant response was observed for glyoxal). Experiments at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) compare 3 independent sources of calibration as a function of temperature (293 K to 330 K). Calibrations from absorption cross-section spectra at UV-visible and IR wavelengths are found to agree within 2% for glyoxal, and 4% for methyl glyoxal at all temperatures; further calibrations based on ion-molecule rate constant calculations agreed within 5% for methyl glyoxal at all temperatures. At the EUropean PHOtoREactor (EUPHORE) all measurements are calibrated from the same UV-visible spectra (either directly or indirectly), thus minimizing potential systematic bias. We find excellent linearity under idealized conditions (pure glyoxal or methyl glyoxal, R2 > 0.96), and in complex gas mixtures characteristic of dry photochemical smog systems (o-xylene/NOx and isoprene/NOx, R2 > 0.95; R2 ~ 0.65 for offline SPME measurements of methyl glyoxal). The correlations are more variable in humid ambient air mixtures (RH > 45%) for methyl glyoxal (0.58 < R2 < 0.68) than for glyoxal (0.79 < R2 < 0.99). The intercepts of correlations were insignificant for the most part; slopes varied by less than 5% for instruments that also measure NO2. For glyoxal and methyl glyoxal the slopes varied by less than 12% and 17% (both 3-sigma) between inherently calibrated instruments (i.e., calibration from knowledge of the absorption cross-section). We find a larger variability among in situ techniques that employ external calibration sources (75% to 90%, 3-sigma), and/or techniques that employ offline analysis. Our inter-comparison reveal existing differences in reports about precision and detection limits in the literature, and enables comparison on a common basis by observing a common airmass. Finally, we evaluate the influence of interfering species (e.g., NO2, O3 and H2O) of relevance in field and laboratory applications. Techniques now exist to conduct fast and accurate measurements of glyoxal at ambient concentrations, and methyl glyoxal under simulated conditions. However, techniques to measure methyl glyoxal at ambient concentrations remain a challenge, and would be desirable.
    08/2014; 7:8581. DOI:10.5194/amtd-7-8581-2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of a long range smoke transport event recorded on 20–21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 02/2014; 14:3395-3426. DOI:10.5194/acpd-14-3395-2014 · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A microfluidic lab-on-a-chip derivatisation technique has been developed to measure part per billion (ppbV) mixing ratios of gaseous glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY), and the method is compared with other techniques in a smog chamber experiment. The method uses o-(2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) as a derivatisation reagent and a microfabricated planar glass micro-reactor comprising an inlet, gas and fluid splitting and combining channels, mixing junctions, and a heated capillary reaction microchannel. The enhanced phase contact area-to-volume ratio and the high heat transfer rate in the micro-reactor resulted in a fast and highly efficient derivatisation reaction, generating an effluent stream ready for direct introduction to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). A linear response for GLY was observed over a calibration range 0.7 to 400 ppbV, and for MGLY of 1.2 to 300 ppbV, when derivatised under optimal reaction conditions. The analytical performance shows good accuracy (6.6% for GLY and 7.5% for MGLY), suitable precision (<12.0%) with method detection limits (MDLs) of 75 pptV for GLY and 185 pptV for MGLY, with a time resolution of 30 min. These MDLs are below or close to typical concentrations of these compounds observed in ambient air. The feasibility of the technique was assessed by applying the methodology to quantify α-dicarbonyls formed during the photo-oxidation of isoprene in the EUPHORE chamber. Good correlations were found between microfluidic measurements and Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR) with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.84, Broadband Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (BBCEAS) (r2 = 0.75), solid phase micro extraction (SPME) (r2 = 0.89), and a photochemical chamber box modelling calculation (r2 = 0.79) for GLY measurements. For MGLY measurements, the microfluidic technique showed good agreement with BBCEAS (r2 = 0.87), SPME (r2 = 0.76), and the modeling simulation (r2 = 0.83), FTIR (r2 = 0.72) but displayed a discrepancy with Proton-Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) with r2 value of 0.39.
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 02/2014; 7(2):373. DOI:10.5194/amt-7-373-2014 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing demand for palm oil for uses in biofuel and food products is leading to rapid expansion of oil palm agriculture. Methyl chavicol (also known as estragole and 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene) is an oxygenated biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) that was recently identified as the main floral emission from an oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo. The emissions of methyl chavicol observed may impact regional atmospheric chemistry, but little is known of its ability to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The photo-oxidation of methyl chavicol was investigated at the European Photoreactor chamber as a part of the atmospheric chemistry of methyl chavicol (ATMECH) project. Aerosol samples were collected using a particle into liquid sampler (PILS) and analysed offline using an extensive range of instruments including; high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-ITMS), high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOFMS) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The SOA yield was determined as 18 and 29% for an initial VOC mixing ratio of 212 and 460 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) respectively; using a VOC:NOx ratio of similar to 5:1. In total, 59 SOA compounds were observed and the structures of 10 compounds have been identified using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The addition of hydroxyl and/or nitro-functional groups to the aromatic ring appears to be an important mechanistic pathway for aerosol formation. This results in the formation of compounds with both low volatility and high O:C ratios, where functionalisation rather than fragmentation is mainly observed as a result of the stability of the ring. The SOA species observed can be characterised as semi-volatile to low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (SVOOA and LVOOA) components and therefore may be important in aerosol formation and growth.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2014; 14(11):5349-5368. DOI:10.5194/acp-14-5349-2014 · 5.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH) is the dominant removal mechanism for virtually all volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, however it can be difficult to reconcile measured OH reactivity with known sinks. Unresolved higher molecular weight VOCs contribute to OH sinks, of which monoaromatics are potentially an important sub-class. A method based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) has been developed that extends the degree with which larger VOCs can be individually speciated from whole air samples (WAS). The technique showed excellent sensitivity, resolution and good agreement with an established GC-FID method, for compounds amenable to analysis on both instruments. Measurements have been made of VOCs within the UK east coast marine boundary layer and free troposphere, using samples collected from five aircraft flights in winter 2011. Ten monoaromatic compounds with an array of different alkyl ring substituents have been quantified, in addition to the simple aromatics, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and σm- and p-xylene. These additional compounds were then included into constrained box model simulations of atmospheric chemistry occurring at two UK rural and suburban field sites in order to assess the potential impact of these larger monoaromatics species on OH reactivity; they have been calculated to contribute an additional 2-6% to the overall modelled OH loss rate, providing a~maximum additional OH sink of ~0.9 s-1.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12/2013; 13(12):32423-32457. DOI:10.5194/acpd-13-32423-2013 · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The gas-phase reaction of ozone with unsaturated VOCs, alkenes, is an important source of the critical atmospheric oxidant OH, especially at night when other photolytic radical initiation routes cannot occur. Alkene ozonolysis is also known to directly form HO2 radicals, which may be readily converted to OH through reaction with NO, but whose formation is poorly understood. We report a study of the radical (OH, HO2 and RO2) production from a series of small alkenes (propene, 1-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, 2-methylpropene, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene (tetramethyl ethene, TME) and isoprene). Experiments were performed in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE) atmospheric simulation chamber, with OH and HO2 levels directly measured by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and HO2 +  RO2 levels measured by peroxy-radical chemical amplification (PERCA). OH yields were found to be in good agreement with the majority of previous studies performed under comparable conditions (atmospheric pressure, long timescales) using tracer and scavenger approaches. HO2 yields ranged from 4 % (trans-2-butene) to 34 % (2-methylpropene), lower than previous experimental determinations. Increasing humidity further reduced the HO2 yields obtained, by typically 50 % for an RH increase from 0.5 to 30 %, suggesting that HOx production from alkene ozonolysis may be lower than current models suggest under (humid) ambient atmospheric boundary layer conditions. The mechanistic origin of the OH and HO2 production observed is discussed in the context of previous experimental and theoretical studies.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 10/2013; 117(47). DOI:10.1021/jp408745h · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data is particularly valuable to scientists when details of its provenance are known. This research concerned deploying a user-orientated electronic laboratory notebook (ELN) system within a scientific community. The ELN system supported the capture and retrieval of semantic metadata describing the provenance of the modelling activities of scientists within that community. The research was grounded within the atmospheric chemistry community but has applicability to other communities using an iterative model development process. The ELN system involved the automatic capture of metadata concerning the modelling process together with inline annotations added by the modeller explaining the reasoning for modelling decisions at each step of the process. A full realisation of the ELN system was built and evaluated by members of the atmospheric chemistry community. In order to promote reusability the ELN system architecture had domain-independent as well as domain-dependent elements. An ontology (in OWL) was used to ensure that the specific terminology of the community was used within the provenance metadata and also that it was used consistently. Other domain-independent elements of the architecture included a dynamic graphic interface that allowed the modeller to view his/her modelling history. This was recorded as a set of nodes each pointing to the stored provenance metadata associated with a specific simulation run. In addition, there was an innovative mechanism that enabled the modeller to navigate through the various nodes. The navigation process supported making comparisons between different nodes: a facility that users found particularly valuable. Members of the atmospheric chemistry community took part in a two-day summative evaluation of the ELN system. This confirmed its value to the modellers and it is now being introduced more widely across the modelling community. In addition, the research proposes a methodology for transferring this ELN system to other modelling communities making use of the domain-independent elements of the architecture.
    Future Generation Computer Systems 10/2013; 29(8):2182-2196. DOI:10.1016/j.future.2013.04.011 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of ozone (O3) photochemistry observed by aircraft measurements of boreal biomass burning plumes over eastern Canada in the summer of 2011. Measurements of O3 and a number of key chemical species associated with O3 photochemistry, including non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and total nitrogen containing species (NOy), were made from the UK FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft as part of the "quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites" (BORTAS) experiment between 12 July and 3 August 2011. The location and timing of the aircraft measurements put BORTAS into a unique position to sample biomass burning plumes from the same source region in Northwestern Ontario with a range of ages. We found that O3 mixing ratios measured in biomass burning plumes were indistinguishable from non-plume measurements, but evaluating them in relationship to measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), total alkyl nitrates (ΣAN) and the surrogate species NOz (= NOy-NOx) revealed that the potential for O3 production increased with plume age. We used NMHC ratios to estimate photochemical ages of the observed biomass burning plumes between 0 and 10 days. The BORTAS measurements provided a wide dynamic range of O3 production in the sampled biomass burning plumes with ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratios increasing from 0.020 ± 0.008 ppbv ppbv−1 in plumes with photochemical ages less than 2 days to 0.55 ± 0.29 ppbv ppbv−1 in plumes with photochemical ages greater than 5 days. We found that the main contributing factor to the variability in the ΔO3/ΔCO enhancement ratio was ΔCO in plumes with photochemical ages less than 4 days, and that was a transition to ΔO3 becoming the main contributing factor in plumes with ages greater than 4 days. In comparing O3 mixing ratios with components of the NOy budget, we observed that plumes with ages between 2 and 4 days were characterised by high aerosol loading, relative humidity greater than 40%, and low ozone production efficiency (OPE) of 7.7 ± 3.5 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to ΣAN and 1.6 ± 0.9 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to NOz. In plumes with ages greater than 4 days, OPE increased to 472 ± 28 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to ΣAN and 155 ± 5 ppbv ppbv−1 relative to NOz. From the BORTAS measurements we estimated that aged plumes with low aerosol loading were close to being in photostationary steady state and O3 production in younger plumes was inhibited by high aerosol loading and greater production of ΣAN relative to O3. The BORTAS measurements of O3 photochemistry in boreal biomass burning plumes were found to be consistent with previous summertime aircraft measurements made over the same region during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere (ARCTAS-B) in 2008 and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 3B) in 1990.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 08/2013; 13:7321–7341. DOI:10.5194/acp-13-7321-2013 · 5.51 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

990 Citations
233.47 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2015
    • The University of York
      • Department of Chemistry
      York, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2014
    • University of Leeds
      • School of Chemistry
      Leeds, England, United Kingdom
  • 1999–2011
    • University of Leicester
      • Department of Chemistry
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2000
    • University of Reading
      • Department of Chemistry
      Reading, England, United Kingdom