[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on a study of the principal operation aspects of standard ICRF heating antennas in the
ion cyclotron wall conditioning (ICWC) mode: (i) ability of the antenna to ignite the cleaning discharge
safely and reliably in different gases including those most likely to be used in ITER – He, H2, D2 and their
mixtures, (ii) the antenna capacity to couple a large fraction of the RF generator power (>50%) to low density (�1016–1018 m-�3) plasmas and (iii) the RF power absorption schemes aimed at improved RF plasma homogeneity and enhanced conditioning effect. The ICWC discharge optimization in terms of RF plasma wave excitation/absorption resulted in successful simulation of the conditioning scenarios for ITER operation at full field (JET) and half-field (TEXTOR, TORE SUPRA, ASDEX Upgrade).
Journal of Nuclear Materials 08/2013; 419:S1029–S1032. · 1.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reports on the recent assessment of the Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) technique for isotopic ratio control, fuel removal and recovery after disruptions, which has been performed on TORE SUPRA, TEXTOR, ASDEX Upgrade and JET. ICWC discharges were produced using the standard ICRF heating antennas of each device, at different frequencies and toroidal fields, either in continuous or pulsed mode. Intrinsic ICWC discharge inhomogeneities could be partly compensated by applying a small vertical magnetic field, resulting in the vertical extension of the discharge in JET and TEXTOR. The conditioning efficiency was assessed from the flux of desorbed and retained species, measured by means of mass spectrometry. In Helium ICWC discharges, fuel removal rates between 1016D.m-2.s-1 to 3.1017D.m-2.s-1 were measured, with a linear dependence on the coupled RF power and on the He +
density. ICWC scenarios have been developed in D or H plasmas for isotopic exchange. The H (or D) outgassing was found to increase with the D (resp. H) partial pressure. In continuous mode, wall retention is on the average two to ten times higher than desorption
, due to the high reionization probability of desorbed species in ICWC discharges, where the electron density is about 1018m-3. Retention can be minimized in pulsed ICWC discharges without severely reducing outpumping. Pulsed He-ICWC discharges have been successfully used on TORE SUPRA to recover normal operation after disruptions,
when subsequent plasma initiation would not have been possible without conditioning.
Journal of Nuclear Materials 08/2013; 415:S1021–S1028. · 1.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laser-based methods are investigated for the development of an in situ diagnostic for spatially and temporally resolved characterization of the first wall in fusion devices. Here we report on the first systematic laser-induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) measurements carried out on various surface layers in the TEXTOR tokamak. These materials include a-C:D, mixed W/C/Al/D2, Oerlikon Balzers ‘Balinit’ diamond-like carbon layers and EK98 fine-grain graphite. In LIAS, the bulk or deposited material is evaporated during the plasma discharge by intense laser radiation. The light emitted by particles entering the edge of the ionizing tokamak plasma is then observed by optical spectroscopy. In the measurements taken, it was found that the studied layers can be identified by their characteristic line emission. A good correlation between the observed line intensity and layer thickness is found. The observed plumes show target material dependence. To analyze layers formed during tokamak operation, further investigation of the ablation process and reference materials for cross calibration is required.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ion cyclotron wall conditioning (ICWC) discharges, in pulsed-mode operation, were
carried out in the limiter tokamak TEXTOR to explore safe operational regimes for the experimental
parameters for possible ICWC-discharge cleaning in International Thermonuclear Experimental
Reactor (ITER) at half field. Antenna coupling properties obtained during the ion cyclotron range
of frequencies (ICRF) wall conditioning experiments performed in helium–hydrogen mixture in
TEXTOR were analysed in relation to the obtained ICWC-plasma characterization results. Satisfactory
antenna coupling in the mode conversion scenario along with reproducible generation of
ICRF plasmas for wall conditioning, were achieved by coupling radio frequency (RF) power from
one or two ICRF antennas. The plasma breakdown results obtained in the TEXTOR tokamak
have been compared with the predictions of a zero-dimensional RF plasma production model. The
present study of ICWC emphasizes the beneficial effect of application of an additional (along with
toroidal magnetic field) stationary vertical (BV � BT) or oscillating poloidal magnetic field (BP �
BT) on antenna coupling and relevant plasma parameters.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experiments have been carried out in the TEXTOR, ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) and Alcator C-Mod (C-Mod) tokamaks to study melt-layer motion, macroscopic W-erosion from the melt as well as the changes of material properties such as grain-size and voids. In addition the effect of multiple exposures is studied to judge the potential amelioration of inflicted melt damage. The parallel heat flux at the radial position of the PFCs in the plasma ranges from around q∥ ∼ 45 MW/m2 at TEXTOR up to q∥ ∼ 500 MW/m2 at C-Mod which covers scenarios close to ITER parameters, allowing samples to be exposed and molten even at shallow divertor angles. Melt-layer motion perpendicular to the magnetic field is observed consistent with a Lorentz-force originating from thermoelectric emission of the hot sample. While melting in the limiter geometry at TEXTOR is rather quiescent causing no severe impact on plasma operation, exposure in the divertors of AUG and C-Mod shows significant impact on operation, leading to subsequent disruptions. The power-handling capabilities are severely degraded by forming exposed hill structures and changing the material structure by re-solidifying and re-crystallizing the original material. Melting of W seems highly unfavorable and needs to be avoided especially in light of uncontrolled transients and misaligned PFCs.
Journal of Nuclear Materials 01/2012; · 1.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Specimens of dust particles collected in the TEXTOR and ASDEX-Upgrade (AUG) tokamaks were examined in order to determine the composition, size and surface and internal structure. The study was performed by means of SEM, TEM, FIB and EDX. The size of particles from both devices varies from hundreds of nananometers to hundreds of micrometers. Dust from TEXTOR contains mainly carbon, boron, silicon, whereas samples from AUG contain also tungsten eroded by plasma from the machine wall
Materials Challenges and Testing for Supply of Energy and Resources, Springer. 01/2012; 3:3-11.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Volatile tungsten hexa-fluoride was locally injected into the TEXTOR tokamak as a marker for material migration studies. The injection was accompanied by puffing N-15 rare isotope as a nitrogen tracer in discharges with edge cooling by impurity seeding. The objective was to assess material balance by qualitative and quantitative determination of a global and local deposition pattern, material mixing effects and fluorine residence in plasma-facing components. Spectroscopy and ex situ ion beam analysis techniques were used. Tungsten was detected on all types of limiter tiles and short-term probes retrieved from the vessel. Over 80% of the injected W was identified. The largest tungsten concentration, 1 × 1018 cm−2, was in the vicinity of the gas inlet. Co-deposits contained tungsten and a mix of light isotopes: H, D, He-4, B-10, B-11, C-12, C-13, N-14, N-15, O-16 and small quantities of F-19 thus showing that both He and nitrogen are trapped following wall conditioning (He glow) and edge cooling.
Journal of Nuclear Materials 01/2012; · 1.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deposition of impurities can drastically change optical properties of metallic mirrors used for diagnostics of fusion plasmas. Specifically in ITER, this can become critical for the reactor operation by affecting the quality and reliability of detected signals. A series of experiments was performed in TEXTOR where local gas feeding was used for mitigation of carbon deposition on the mirror surface. A prototype of a diagnostic duct with molybdenum mirrors equipped with a gas feeding system was exposed in scrape-off layer plasma under deposition-dominated conditions. In the case of helium feeding, suppression of deposition was observed, while feeding of deuterium not only demonstrated full suppression of deposition but even favored complete removal of initially pre-deposited a-C:D layers. This paper presents results of experiments along with dedicated modeling of plasma–gas interaction inside the diagnostic duct.
Physica Scripta 12/2011; 2011(T145):014072. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In future fusion devices such as ITER tritium retention due to tritium co-deposition in mixed material layers can be a serious safety problem. Laser induced desorption spectroscopy (LIDS) can measure the hydrogen content of hydrogenic carbon layers locally on plasma-facing components, while hydrogen is used as a tritium substitute. For several years, this method has been applied in the TEXTOR tokamak in situ during plasma operation to monitor the hydrogen content in space and time. This work shows the LIDS signal reproducibility and studies the effects of different plasma conditions, desorption distances from the plasma and different laser energies using a dedicated sample with constant hydrogen amount. Also the LIDS signal evaluation procedure is described in detail and the detection limits for different conditions in the TEXTOR tokamak are estimated.
Physica Scripta 12/2011; 2011(T145):014027. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laser-based methods are investigated for the development of an in situ diagnostic for spatially and temporally resolved characterization of the first wall in fusion devices. Here we report on the first systematic laser-induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) measurements carried out on various surface layers in the TEXTOR tokamak. These materials include a-C:D, mixed W/C/Al/D2, Oerlikon Balzers 'Balinit' diamond-like carbon layers and EK98 fine-grain graphite. In LIAS, the bulk or deposited material is evaporated during the plasma discharge by intense laser radiation. The light emitted by particles entering the edge of the ionizing tokamak plasma is then observed by optical spectroscopy. In the measurements taken, it was found that the studied layers can be identified by their characteristic line emission. A good correlation between the observed line intensity and layer thickness is found. The observed plumes show target material dependence. To analyze layers formed during tokamak operation, further investigation of the ablation process and reference materials for cross calibration is required.
Physica Scripta 12/2011; 2011(T145):014026. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the use of collective Thomson scattering (CTS) for spatially localized measurements of the isotopic composition of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The experiments were conducted in the TEXTOR tokamak by scattering millimeter-wave probe radiation off plasma fluctuations with wave vector components nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. Under such conditions the sensitivity of the CTS spectrum to plasma composition is enhanced by the spectral signatures of the ion cyclotron motion and of weakly damped ion Bernstein waves. Recent experiments on TEXTOR demonstrated the ability to resolve these signatures in the CTS spectrum as well as their sensitivity to the ion species mix in the plasma. This paper shows that the plasma composition can be inferred from the measurements through forward modeling of the CTS spectrum. We demonstrate that spectra measured in plasmas consisting of hydrogen, deuterium and 3He can be accurately reproduced by theory and yield inferred plasma compositions consistent with expectations. The potential to use CTS for measurements of plasma composition is of significant interest since CTS is well suited for reactor environments and since there is at present no established method to measure the fuel ion density ratio in the core of a burning fusion plasma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we demonstrate a comprehensive comparison of collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements with steady-state Monte Carlo simulations performed with the ASCOT and VENUS codes. The measurements were taken at a location on the magnetic axis as well as at an off-axis location, using two projection directions at each location. The simulations agree with the measurements on-axis, but for the off-axis geometries discrepancies are observed for both projection directions. For the near perpendicular projection direction with respect to the magnetic field, the discrepancies between measurement and simulations can be explained by uncertainty in plasma parameters. However, the discrepancies between measurement and simulations for the more parallel projection direction cannot be explained solely by uncertainties in plasma parameters. Here anomalous fast ion transport is a possible explanation for the discrepancy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electrostatic potential and density fluctuations have been measured at the edge of the TEXTOR tokamak by two toroidally distant Langmuir probe arrays. The geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) zonal flows (ZFs) are observed in potential fluctuations with a toroidal and poloidal symmetric structure. The GAM frequency, fGAM, changes monotonically with the local temperature and is close to the frequency-dispersion predicted by theories. Bispectral analysis shows clear nonlinear coupling between the GAM and broadband ambient turbulence. The GAM packet has a narrow radial extent with kr 0.5–0.7 cm−1 and exhibits explicitly a radially outward propagation. Furthermore, the radial correlation structure of GAMs and their radial propagation have been investigated in a wide range of parameters by varying plasma density and edge safety factor (5.0 ≤ q(a) ≤ 5.9). It is found that the magnitude of the GAM correlations reduces remarkably with the increase in the plasma density approaching the density limit, while the radial wavelength of GAMs only decreases slightly in higher density and larger q(a) discharges. With increasing plasma density, the radial propagating phase speed of GAMs is strongly reduced along with the drop in the local temperature. The results provide new evidence on the propagation properties of GAM ZFs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fuelling efficiency is an important parameter in designing a massive gas injection system for suppression of runaway electrons in ITER. In this work Z-dependence of fuelling efficiency is measured for TEXTOR. The dependence covers the following gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and a 10% Ar–D2 mixture. It is shown that the fuelling efficiency significantly decreases with the gas mass, from above 0.5 for He to below 0.03 for Xe.To explain the variation of the efficiency with the gas mass and pressure a simple model of gas flow from the valve to the plasma edge is developed. The flow model is validated using available laboratory flow measurements of a TEXTOR-like injection system. An unsteady gas flow and a premature plasma disruption are shown to explain the mass dependence of the efficiency.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Behaviour and characteristics of W plasma-facing components under impinging high heat fluxes are investigated in view of the material choices for the divertor in future devices such as ITER and DEMO. Experiments have been carried out in the plasma edge of the TEXTOR tokamak to study melt-layer motion, macroscopic tungsten erosion from the melt layer as well as the changes in material properties such as grain size and abundance of voids or bubbles. The parallel heat flux at the radial position of the plasma-facing components (PFCs) in the plasma ranges around q|| ~ 45 MW m−2 allowing samples to be exposed at an impact angle of 35° to 20–30 MW m−2. Melt-layer motion perpendicular to the magnetic field is observed following a Lorentz force originating from thermoelectric emission of the hot sample. Up to 3 g of molten W are redistributed forming mountain-like structures at the edge of the sample. The typical melt-layer thickness is 1–1.5 mm. Those hills are, due to the changes in the local geometry, particularly susceptible to even higher heat fluxes of up to the full q||. Locally the temperature can reach up to 6000 K, high levels of evaporation are causing significant erosion in the form of continuous fine-spray (~1 × 1024 atoms m−2 s−1). Strong evaporation cooling is observed hindering the further heating of the samples. In addition, the formation of ligaments and splashes occurs several times during the melt phase ejecting droplets in the order of several 10 µm up to 100 µm probably caused by an instability evolving in the melt. In terms of material degradation several aspects are considered: formation of leading edges by redistributed melt, bubble formation and recrystallization. Bubbles are occurring in sizes between 1 and 200 µm while recrystallization increases the grain size up to 1.5 mm. The power-handling capabilities are thus severely degraded. Melting of tungsten (W) in future devices is highly unfavourable and needs to be avoided especially in light of uncontrolled transients and possible unshaped PFCs
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental investigations of sawteeth interaction with fast ions measured by collective Thomson scattering on TEXTOR are presented. Time-resolved measurements of localized 1D fast-ion distribution functions allow us to study fast-ion dynamics during several sawtooth cycles. Sawtooth oscillations interact strongly with the fast-ion population in a wide range of plasma parameters. Part of the ion phase space density oscillates out of phase with the sawtooth oscillation during hydrogen neutral beam injection (NBI). These oscillations most likely originate from fast hydrogen ions with energies close to the full injection energy. At lower energies passing fast ions in the plasma centre are strongly redistributed at the time of sawtooth collapse but no redistribution of trapped fast ions is observed. The redistribution of fast ions from deuterium NBI in the plasma centre is found to vary throughout velocity space. The reduction is most pronounced for passing ions. We find no evidence of inverted sawteeth outside the sawtooth inversion surface in the fast-ion distribution function.