[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The production performances of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in C/N-controlled periphyton-based polyculture systems were evaluated in triplicate. Three different management practices were compared: the traditional practice without addition of periphyton substrates and carbohydrate (Control), addition of maize flour to maintain a carbon: nitrogen rate of 20:1 (treatment CN) and addition of both maize flour and periphyton substrates (treatment CN+P). This experiment used a pre-optimized stocking density of tilapia and freshwater prawn by Asaduzzaman et al. Aquaculture [286 (2009) 72]. All ponds were stocked with prawn (3 m2) and monosex Nile tilapia (1 m−2). Bamboo side shoots were posted vertically into the pond bottoms as periphyton substrate covering an additional area of 171 m2 for periphyton development. A locally formulated and prepared feed containing 17% crude protein with C/N ratio close to 15:1 was applied twice daily in all ponds considering the body weight of freshwater prawn only. Water quality parameters, except total alkalinity did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) among treatments. Both, organic matter and total heterotrophic bacterial loads (THB) in the sediment were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in treatment CN+P followed by treatment CN and control. Periphyton biomass in terms of dry matter and chlorophyll a values constantly decreased during the culture period. Substrates contributed 66% and 102% higher net yield of freshwater prawn than CN and control treatment respectively.
Aquaculture Research 08/2013; · 1.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interventional type of study to assess the efficacy of Pimecrolimus cream in the treatment of patient of localized discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) was carried out for a period of July 2008 to June 2009. It was observed that before treatment, erythema was severe in 43.2% cases, moderate in 51.4% cases and mild type erythema was present in 5.4% cases. The post- treatment revealed, 29.7% severe type erythema, none evidenced moderate type erythema, only 43.2% had mild type and 27% cases no erythema at all. Before treatment, infiltration was severe in 27% cases, moderate in 54.1% cases and only 18.9% had mild type infiltration. But after treatment, 10.8% had severe type infiltration, 18.9% had moderate, 51.4% had mild and 18.9% had no infiltration at all. Similar response to treatment was noticed with squamation which exhibited a drop from 37.8% to 18.9% in severe cases and from 62.2% to 10.8% in moderate cases. There was a 45.9% mild case and 24.3% had no squamation. The scoring result of photosensitivity, itching, disfigurement evidenced analogously score reduction of 2.0, 3.05 and 3.12 respectively. In conclusion, it was interpreted that score of patients of DLE, before treatment was 6.83 ± 1.30 and after treatment was 3.83 ± 1.18. Unpaired 't' test was found statistically significant (p<0.05) between before and after treatment by drug. Improvement was shown in 26(70.27%) cases and 11(29.73%) cases shown no improvement at all. Marked improvement observed on the 2nd follow up visit at the end of 12 weeks. Response was good in 23(88.46%) cases, fair 2(7.69%) and poor 1(3.85%) cases. The study suggests that pimecrolimus 1% cream has significant efficacy profile for treatment option of cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming plays an important role in the economy of Bangladesh. Presently, it is cultured in around 50 000 ha area with total annual production of 23 240 t. Traditional extensive prawn farming has been expanding over the last three decades through the introduction and adoption of improved culture systems, such as culture of prawn-carps, prawn-shrimp-fish and prawn-fish-rice as concurrent and rotational systems. Efforts for the development of improved techniques on broodstock management, seed production and rearing and grow-out of prawn have been made over the last decade. The outcomes are low-cost feed for broodstock, production of post-larvae in net cages (hapa), all-male prawn culture, periphy-ton based prawn-tilapia culture, C/N based prawn culture, organic prawn farming, prawn-mola cul-ture and prawn-carp-mola polyculture. Despite the development of culture technologies, a number of challenges for sustainable development of prawn farming need to be overcome to realize the poten-tials of this promising sector. Good aquaculture practises at all levels and application of measures for quality control and food safety would ensure sustainable development of prawn farming in Ban-gladesh.
Aquaculture Research 01/2012; 43(7):970983. · 1.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common pruritic, eczematous skin disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. Major and minor criteria exist as guideline for arriving at a diagnosis of AD. Minor features vary with ethnicity and genetic background and can be used to aid diagnosis. A descriptive study was conducted including 210 patients of 1-12 years age who had concurrent or past history of AD according to criteria of Hanifin and Rajka. This study was conducted in the department of Dermatology of three different Hospitals of Bangladesh. Out of 33 sub-criteria of Hanifin and Rajka, 20 of which were examined encompassed tendency towards cutaneous infection, environmental factor, high IgE level, intolerance of wool, xerosis, infra-orbital fold, ichthyosis, early age of onset, itch on sweating, palmer hyperlinearity, food hypersensitivity, keratosis pilaris, pityriasis alba, facial erythema, cheilitis, hand eczema, foot eczema, intolerance of lipid solvent, scalp scaling and infra-auricular fissure. Out of 20 examined minor criteria, most common was cutaneous infection in 168(80.0%) patients followed by coursed influenced by environmental factor in 140(66.7%), high IgE level in 126(60.0%), intolerance of wool in 105(50.0%), xerosis in 92(43.8%), infra-orbital fold in 83(39.5%), ichthyosis in 72(34.3%), early age of onset in 65(31.0%), itch on sweating in 56(26.7%), palmary hyperlinearity in 52(24.8%), food hypersensitivity in 40(19.0%), keratosis pilaris in 31(14.8%), pityriasis alba in 30(14.3%), facial erythema in 25(1.9%), cheilitis in 22(10.5%), hand eczema in 19(9.0%), foot eczema in 16(7.6%), intolerance of lipid solvent in 14(6.7% ), scalp scaling in 11(5.2%) and infra-auricular fissure in 10(4.8%). These features were present singly or in combination. The result evidenced that minor criteria are many a times important for the diagnosis where major criteria are uncertain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Linkages between the fish ponds and surrounding land for horticulture are a distinctive feature of farming households in Bangladesh. It was hypothesised that integration of fish ponds in integrated farming system enhances livelihoods and reduces poverty. The effects of introducing tilapia into existing integrated farming systems on the broader pond-dike system and associated livelihoods in rural and peri-urban settlements in central north (Mymensingh District) of Bangladesh were evaluated.Farmer participatory research carried out during June 2004 to March 2005 showed that production of fish could be substantially increased by increasing nutrient inputs rather than by stocking tilapia as an additional species. However, the ‘improved’ nutrient input applied by farmers was still well below the level required for optimal tilapia performance. Rural households benefited more than peri-urban households through enhanced direct consumption of fish and vegetables. In contrast, peri-urban households benefited more through cash sales of both fish and vegetables than rural households. Households with access to ponds, identified as relatively better-off and worse-off in the researched communities benefited equally selling and consuming fish and vegetable. Similar production levels of vegetable production between groups applying different fish culture practises suggesting that increased investment in fish production is complementary rather than competitive to vegetable production in integrated pond-dike farming systems. It was concluded that considerable potential exists to further develop pond-dike systems, which would improve livelihoods of both better-off and worse-off producers. Reference is made to the potential impacts of such changes in integrated pond-dike management if promoted more widely in Bangladesh.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A sustainable semi-intensive pond aquaculture technology including major carp species as ‘cash-crop’ and small indigenous fish species (SIS) as food for the farmers' families is being optimized in Bangladesh. This is done through manipulations of the fish species combinations stocked, considering the ecological effects produced by bottom feeders on the pond bottom and filter feeders in the water column. The present paper presents results of experiments performed simultaneously in 64 farmers' fish ponds, located in 4 distant agro-ecological regions of Bangladesh. In each region each experiment involved 4 treatments, 4 replicates per treatment. The control polyculture was the traditional stocking of 33 rohu (Labeo rohita), 33 catla (Catla catla), and 34 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) per 100m2, with the addition of 250 SIS and 3 silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) per 100m2. In previous experiments this silver carp addition was found to have no effects on the other fish and on the environment, compared to the traditional stocking without silver carp. Interferences on the water column (Water treatment) were achieved changing the density of the herbivorous fish (reducing catla density to 24/100m2 and increasing silver carp to 12/100m2), and on the bottom (Bottom treatment) doing so on the benthophagous fish (replacing 10/100m2 common carp by mrigal). Both interferences were simultaneously carried out in the Water and Bottom treatment. Harvesting weight and biomass, growth rate, survival and yield of each species and total yield, food conversion ratio and income obtained in the different treatments and regions are presented and their interactions through the food web are discussed. Performing the same experiment in four distant regions of the country allowed observing if the effects of the Water column and/or Bottom interventions differ among regions, and accelerating the dissemination of the “cash-SIS” technology throughout the country. The manipulations performed did not affect the small fish mola, which reproduced and yielded equally well in all the polycultures. This allowed a continuous mola supply for consumption by the farmers' families throughout the culture season, and opened the option to consume or sell the larger amounts of mola gathered at final harvest. Manipulation of species composition proved to be a useful tool to affect the pond ecosystem towards improving fish yield and corresponding income. Just by substituting almost a third of the catla by silver carp increased total yield by 16%. When also almost a third of the common carp was substituted by mrigal, total yield increased a further 3%. In both cases selling the whole production increased income by 27%, which gives the farmer the option to keep part of the fish for family consumption.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of three different combinations of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and catla Catla catla density on the production system in all-male freshwater prawn–finfish polyculture ponds were evaluated in triplicate. The stocking density of silver carp and catla, respectively, were maintained at 2000 and 500 ha−1 in treatment SC2000C500, 1500 and 1000 ha−1 in treatment SC1500C1000 and 1000 and 1500 ha−1 in treatment SC1000C1500. Male freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and small fish mola Amblypharyngodon mola densities were fixed in all treatments at 12 000 and 20 000 ha−1 respectively. Management practices were same for all treatments. Blue-clawed male prawns were harvested twice during the 122-day culture at 15-day intervals before the final harvest. Plankton and macro-benthos abundance and water quality parameters (except transparency and chlorophyll a) did not vary significantly (P>0.05) among treatments. Mean final weights of both silver carp and catla were decreased with the increasing of their own stocking density. The treatment SC1500C1000 resulted in 25–32% increased net production of silver carp plus catla (461 kg ha−1) and 20–21% increased net production of all species combined (874 kg ha−1) as compared with the other treatments, although the differences in production of prawn and mola among treatments were not significant.
Aquaculture Research 04/2010; 41(10):e456 - e466. · 1.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lichen planus is one of the common inflammatory disorders of skin, mucous membrane, nail and hair characterized by violaceous, polish, pruritic, polygonal, flat-topped papules usually distributed bilaterally symmetrically over the extremities. Our objectives in this study were to explore the prevalence of lichen planus in large area of Dhaka in Bangladesh and to establish the clinical characteristics of lichen planus. This descriptive type of cross sectional study was carried out from September 2006 to August 2008 in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) in Dhaka. Patients suffering from lichen planus were selected as study population. By face to face interview and clinical observations, data were collected from sample. A total 120 patients of lichen planus were selected, on the basis of age, 30(25%) were 10-30 years of age, 75(62.56%) were 30-50 years and 16(13.33%) were over 50 years of age. The mean age of the patient was 40+/-4 years. Out of 120 patients, 80(66.66%) were male and 60(33.33%) were female and eight patients (6.67%) had positive family history among highest age group (30 to 50 years). In case of duration of disease, highest percentage (68%) of cases was 15 days to 6 months and considering clinical sign, koebnerization was present 45(37.5%) cases and Wickhams striae 22(18.33%) cases. Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc. The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc. This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with higher male prevalence than female, 15 days to 6 months are mainly duration of disease, koebnerization and Wickhams striae are common clinical signs, upper limbs is mainly the site of onset of lesion, and classic pattern is the most common clinical type in lichen planus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This descriptive type of study was carried out to determine the various factors of attempted suicide in a selected area at Patnitala and Dhamuirhat upazilla health complex of Naogaon district. All reported alive cases of attempted suicide (self poisoning, hanging, self burning or immolation, drowning etc) during the period from March to June 2003 were interviewed purposely. Data were collected by face to face interview and also from hospital records. Of the interviewed cases, the mean age was 21.4 years. Household workers, day labours, students and agricultural workers (42.6%, 23.9%, 15.5% and 11.3% respectively) were the major victims and nearly 60% had nuclear family. The highest number (77.5%) used organophosphorus compound. Highest number (25.4%) mentioned that husband mainly provoked for suicidal attempt, followed by mother and father. It was evident that 71.8% of suicidal attempt was due to their emotional stress, followed by family violence, disturbed family, social deprivation, stressful events and health problems (50.7%, 49.3%, 36.6%, 25.4%, and 8.5% respectively). It was evident that attempted suicide is proportionately higher among adolescents of unmarried, with early age at marriage, with higher income and with nuclear family compared with adult. Emotional stress, disturbed family, social deprivation, health related problems are appeared to be important reasons for attempted suicide among adolescents whereas family violence in adults.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of selective harvesting (SH) and claw ablation (CA) of blue-clawed (BC) prawns on an all-male freshwater prawn–finfish polyculture system were compared with control (Co) in quadruplicate. Ponds were stocked with all-male freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, catla Catla catla and mola Amblypharyngodon mola at 12 000, 2000, 500 and 20 000 ha−1 respectively. Prawns were fed with pelleted feed. Ponds were fertilized regularly with urea, triple super phosphate and cow-dung. SH of BC prawns in treatment SH and CA in treatment CA started on the 60th day during a 137-day culture and continued at 15-day intervals until the final harvest. Water quality parameters and plankton abundance did not vary significantly (P>0.05) among the treatments. Treatment SH resulted in a higher (P<0.05) net production of freshwater prawn (437 kg ha−1), with better survival and mean weight, followed by CA (354 kg ha−1) and Co (322 kg ha−1). The combined net production of prawn plus finfish was also higher in SH (1244 kg ha−1) as compared with CA (1161 kg ha−1) and Co (1137 kg ha−1), although the finfish production did not differ significantly. The periodic SH of BC prawns showed a better economic return with a BCR of 1.71.
Aquaculture Research 03/2010; 41(10):e404 - e417. · 1.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used customized fish tanks as model fish ponds to observe grazing, swimming, and conspecific social behavior of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) under variable food-resource conditions to assess alterations in feeding niche. Different food and feeding situations were created by using only pond water or pond water plus pond bottom sediment or pond water plus pond bottom sediment and artificial feeding. All tanks were fertilized twice, prior to stocking and 2 weeks later after starting the experiment to stimulate natural food production. Common carp preferred artificial feed over benthic macroinvertebrates, followed by zooplankton. Common carp did not prefer any group of phytoplankton in any treatment. Common carp was mainly benthic in habitat choice, feeding on benthic macroinvertebrates when only plankton and benthic macroinvertebrates were available in the system. In the absence of benthic macroinvertebrates, their feeding niche shifted from near the bottom of the tanks to the water column where they spent 85% of the total time and fed principally on zooplankton. Common carp readily switched to artificial feed when available, which led to better growth. Common carp preferred to graze individually. Behavioral observations of common carp in tanks yielded new information that assists our understanding of their ecological niche. This knowledge could be potentially used to further the development of common carp aquaculture. Yes Yes
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An on-station trial was conducted to investigate the effects of three C/N ratios (10/1, 15/1 and 20/1) along with substrate presence or absence on natural food communities in freshwater prawn culture ponds. An experiment was carried out in 40 m2 ponds stocked with a stocking density of 2 prawn juveniles (5.023 ± 0.02 g) m―2. A locally formulated and prepared feed containing 30% crude protein with C/N ratio 10 was applied to all ponds. In order to raise the C/N ratio of the feed input to 15 and 20, tapioca starch was applied separately as a source of carbohydrate in addition to the artificial feed. Under substrate treatments, bamboo side shoots were posted vertically in pond bottoms resulting in 100% additional surface area as periphyton substrates. The treatments with different C/N ratios are referred to as "CN10", "CN15" and "CN20". Increasing the C/N ratio from 10 to 20 significantly increased the biovolume of phytoplankton, crustaceans and rotifers in the water column by 15%, 6% and 11%, respectively. The biovolume of periphyton was 50% higher in treatment CN20 compared to treatment CN10. Increasing the C/N ratio from 10 to 20 raised the biovolume of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) in the water column (70%), sediment (36%) and periphyton (40%). The chironomids biovolume was also significantly higher (28%) in treatment CN20 compared to treatment CN10. The addition of substrates decreased the biovolume of water column plankton by 14% but the combined biovolume (plankton+ periphyton) was almost double in substrate-added ponds. The biovolume of plankton, periphyton and THB increased significantly with culture time duration whereas the biovolume of benthic macroinvertebrates decreased significantly with culture time indicating that freshwater prawn grazed on them. A significant interaction between C/N ratios and substrate presence or absence was only observed for plankton biovolume in the water column. This study demonstrated that plankton, periphyton and microbial biofloc communities were under-utilized by the freshwater prawn in treatment CN20. This leaves room for increasing the stocking density of prawn and/or inclusion of periphyton grazing fish species to improve nutrient utilization efficiency and overall sustainability.