M.W. Bosch

Wageningen University, Wageningen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands

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Publications (91)50.03 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To quantify the energy value of fermentable starch, 10 groups of 14 pigs were assigned to one of two dietary treatments comprising diets containing 45% of either pregelatinized (P) or retrograded (R) corn starch. In both diets, a contrast in natural ¹³C enrichment between the starch and nonstarch components of the diet was created to partition between enzymatic digestion and fermentation of the corn starch. Energy and protein retention were measured using indirect calorimetry after adapting the pigs to the diets for 3 wk. Fecal ¹³C enrichment was higher in the R-fed pigs (P < 0.001) and 43% of the R resisted enzymatic digestion. Energy retained as protein was unaffected and energy retained as fat was 29% lower than in P-fed pigs (P < 0.01). Prior to the morning meal, end products of fermentation substantially contributed to substrate oxidation in the R-fed pigs. During the 3-4 h following both meals, heat production was higher (P < 0.05) in P-fed pigs, but this was not preferentially fueled by glucose from corn starch. Digestible energy intake, metabolizable energy intake, and energy retention were reduced (P < 0.05) in R-fed pigs compared with P-fed pigs by 92, 54, and 33 kJ/(kg⁰·⁷⁵ · d), respectively. Therefore, the energy values of fermented resistant starch were 53, 73, and 83% of the digestible, metabolizable, and net energy values of enzymatically degradable starch, respectively. Creating a contrast in natural ¹³C enrichment between starch and nonstarch dietary components provides a promising, noninvasive, in vivo method for estimating the proportion of dietary starch fermented in the gastrointestinal tract.
    Journal of Nutrition 02/2012; 142(2):238-44. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pre-weaning development of microbial activity has an effect on post-weaning establishment of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) microbiota. An in vivo study was conducted, to evaluate the effect of age on fermentation end-product profiles during the post-colostrum suckling period, as the variation in composition of mature milk is minimum. Sixteen piglets from two litters (eight per litter) were selected. During the study, piglets had free access to sow's milk, but no creep feed, nor antibiotic treatments. Two piglets from each litter were sacrificed on d 11, 18, 25 and 32 of age. The digesta samples were collected from the beginning and end of the small intestine, caecum and colon. Samples were analyzed for fermentation end-product concentrations. Combining the results from all the GIT sites, it was observed that, total VFA concentration increased with age of the piglets. There was a significant rise in acetic acid concentrations, with a significant decrease in lactic acid concentrations from d11 to d32, while the proportions of SCFA, (acetic acid not, vert, similar 72%, propionic acid not, vert, similar 15% and butyric acid not, vert, similar 6% of total VFA) and ammonia concentrations remained unchanged. These results clearly suggest that, the microbial activity in terms of fermentation end-product profile skewed from lactic acid to acetic acid as a major product during the post-colostrum suckling period. This may be attributed to lower substrate availability due to increased number of microbes or increased diversity in the microbiota in time.
    Livestock Science 05/2007; · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An in vivo experiment was conducted to monitor the changes in fermentation end products in the feces of weaning piglets due to the inclusion of selected fermentable carbohydrates in the diet. The experiment involved 3 groups of 16 piglets each. Specially raised piglets (neither antibiotics nor creep feeding) were weaned abruptly at 4 wk of age. The piglets were offered 1 of 2 dietary treatments [a control diet (CON), or a fermentable carbohydrate-enriched diet (CHO)] and were subjected to 1 of the 2 fasting treatments (fasting for 2 d at the beginning of the experimental period or nonfasting). Fecal samples were collected per rectum every day during the experimental period. Piglets were slaughtered at the end of the 10-d experimental period, and digesta samples were collected from different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT): the first half of the small intestine, the second half of the small intestine, the cecum, and colon. The DM, VFA profile, and ammonia concentrations were analyzed from the fecal and digesta samples. Daily feed intake was also recorded. There was no difference in concentrations of VFA in feces between the treatment groups. Ammonia concentration was lower (P < 0.05) in piglets fed the CHO diet compared with those fed the CON diet in both feces and digesta from different parts of GIT. Fasting had no effect on fermentation end products in feces. This study demonstrated that the inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates in weanling diets reduces protein fermentation along the GIT and also reduced the fecal concentration of ammonia.
    Journal of Animal Science 09/2006; 84(8):2133-40. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to examine changes in VFA and ammonia concentrations at different time points using 4 fermentable carbohydrate-rich feed ingredients as substrates and feces of unweaned piglets as inoculum. Fecal inoculum was collected, pooled, and mixed from 9 specially raised (no creep feed or antibiotics) crossbred piglets at 3 wk of age. Inulin, lactulose, molasses-free sugar beet pulp, and wheat starch were used as substrates and were fermented in vitro for 72 h (3 replicates per substrate). Cumulative gas production was measured as an indicator of the kinetics of fermentation. In addition, 3 bottles of substrate per time point with similar contents (amounts of substrate, inoculum, and media) were incubated but were allowed to release their gas throughout incubation. For these latter bottles, fermentation fluid was sampled at incubation time points including every hour between 1 and 24 h and at 48 h, and fermentation end products (VFA, lactate, and ammonia) and OM disappearance were measured. Dry matter and ash were analyzed from the postfermentative samples. The pH of the contents from these bottles was also recorded. The correlation in time between fermentation end products and cumulative gas produced was determined. The results showed that the prolongation of fermentation to 72 h, especially in the case of fast-fermenting inulin and lactulose, may lead to a different end product profile (P < 0.001) compared with the profile observed at the time at which most of the substrate has disappeared. Therefore, we concluded that the fermentation product profile at the end of in vitro fermentation at a specific time point cannot be used to compare fermentability of carbohydrate sources with different fermentation kinetics in terms of gas production.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2006; 84(5):1110-8. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An in vivo experiment was conducted to examine changes in fermentation end-products in the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) of weaning piglets by the inclusion of fermentable carbohydrates in the diet. The experiment was repeated in three replicates of 36 piglets. Piglets were raised free of antibiotics and creep feeding prior to weaning at 4 weeks of age. Each replicate was conducted over a period of 10 days. The piglets were offered one of two dietary treatments: control diet (CON), and fermentable carbohydrate enriched diet (CHO); and were subjected to one of the two fasting treatments (i) fasting for 2 days in the beginning of the experimental period and (ii) non-fasting. Piglets were slaughtered on the 1st, 4th and 10th day of each period. Digesta samples were collected from: first half of small intestine, second half of small intestine, caecum, and colon. The dry matter, volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile, and ammonia concentrations were analysed. Food intake, growth and food conversion ratio were also recorded. There were no differences in production performances such as growth and food conversion ratio (FCR) between the treatment groups. Concentrations of VFA were significantly higher, while ammonia concentration was significantly lower in the CHO group compared to the CON group in different fermentation sites within the GIT (P<0·001), and on different slaughtering days (P<0·05). Fasting had no effect on fermentation end-products. This study concludes that the addition of fermentable carbohydrates of varying fermentabilities stimulated carbohydrate fermentation, with reduction in protein fermentation along the different parts of GIT studied, in weaning piglets
    01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: An experiment was conducted to examine differences in the in vitro fermentability of four carbohydrate-rich feed ingredients and two weaning piglet diets with and without these ingredients, using both the ileal contents and the faeces of unweaned piglets as inocula. In the first part of the experiment, cumulative gas production was measured over time, using faecal inocula mixed from nine specially raised crossbred piglets (no creep feed or antibiotics) at 3 weeks of age. Inulin, lactulose, unmolassed sugar beet pulp, wheat starch and the two diets were used as substrates and fermented in vitro for 72 h. Gas production was measured as an indicator of the kinetics of fermentation. Fermentation end-products, including volatile fatty acids and ammonia, and organic matter loss, were also measured. For the fermentations of feed ingredients, samples were also collected for polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses initially and after the fermentation process, to study changes in the composition of the bacterial community. This procedure was repeated 1 week later, using ileal contents from the same piglets as inoculum. There were significant differences between the inocula, in terms of both overall fermentation characteristics and composition and between the substrates. There was also a significant interaction between inocula and substrates, which suggests that there were potentially important differences in the microbial activity occurring in these two areas of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). For the two diets, one with and one without addition of these fermentable ingredients, there were significant differences in terms of the kinetics, but less so in terms of the end-products of fermentation. It was concluded that inocula from both the small and large intestine should be used to obtain a more accurate assessment of potential feed ingredients which will stimulate fermentation in the piglet GIT. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 01/2006; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interest in fermentation within the monogastric digestive tract is growing, particularly relative to animal health. This is of particular importance in relation to the forthcoming European ban on inclusion of anti-microbial growth promotors in animal diets. Fermentable carbohydrates are recognized as having an important role in fermentation in the monogastric digestive tract, and are often added to diets without having been examined for their actual fermentability, particularly in relation to the target animal. We describe an in vitro method to assess feed ingredients, as potential components of monogastric diets, which stimulate a positive fermentation (i.e., ones which will be well fermented and produce more short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and less ammonia). This technique requires use of a batch culture containing the test substrate and an inoculum of appropriate origin. During fermentation, cumulative gas production is measured at regular intervals, as an indicator of kinetics of the reaction. When fermentation is complete, organic matter losses and end-products such as SCFA and ammonia, are measured. This paper illustrates use of the technique with 45 carbohydrate-based ingredients using faeces from unweaned piglets as inoculum. By assessing potential fermentability of a large number of ingredients, it is possible to make an informed choice as to which substrates are most suited for inclusion in a diet. By combining results with information about transit time, diets can be designed which should stimulate desirable fermentation along the entire digestive tract. In vitro fermentability is a potentially valuable characteristic in diet design, in order to stimulate microbial activity in the digestive tract.
    Animal Feed Science and Technology 09/2005; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, it has become apparent that GIT fermentation is not only of interest for ruminant animals, but also for monogastrics. While it is now widely accepted that the fermentation process and its resultant end-products can have important influences on animal health, little is known about the microbiological and immunological processes involved. In terms of animal health, most interest at the moment is focussed on those moments in animals' lives when they are faced with sudden changes resulting in stress. The period of weaning in piglets is a typical example of this. The most easily accomplished and appropriate way to influence GIT fermentation processes is that of dietary intervention. This is reflected by the widespread interest in so-called pre- and pro-biotics. Given the complexities of the interactions occurring in the animal itself, it is hardly surprising that in vitro techniques are being widely used: firstly to examine potential substrates for their fermentability and possible inclusion in diets, and secondly, to assess changes in the microbial populations in response to these substrates. This paper will review the techniques currently in use for these two aspects of monogastric fermentation, and provide examples of their use.
    Animal Research 54 (2005) 3. 01/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, it has become apparent that GIT fermentation is not only of interest for ruminant animals, but also for monogastrics. While it is now widely accepted that the fermentation process and its resultant end-products can have important influences on animal health, little is known about the microbiological and immunological processes involved. In terms of animal health, most interest at the moment is focussed on those moments in animals’ lives when they are faced with sudden changes resulting in stress. The period of weaning in piglets is a typical example of this. The most easily accomplished and appropriate way to influence GIT fermentation processes is that of dietary intervention. This is reflected by the widespread interest in so-called pre- and pro-biotics. Given the complexities of the interactions occurring in the animal itself, it is hardly surprising that in vitro techniques are being widely used: firstly to examine potential substrates for their fermentability and possible inclusion in diets, and secondly, to assess changes in the microbial populations in response to these substrates. This paper will review the techniques currently in use for these two aspects of monogastric fermentation, and provide examples of their use. Évaluation in vitro des fermentations dans le tube digestif : substrats fermentescibles et activité microbienne. Il est apparu récemment que les fermentations dans le tube digestif présentent un intérêt non seulement pour les ruminants mais aussi pour les monogastriques. Alors qu’il est maintenant bien accepté que les processus fermentaires et les produits terminaux résultants peuvent avoir des effets sur la santé animale, peu de choses sont connues concernant les processus microbiologiques et immunitaires impliqués. En termes de santé animale, le principal intérêt du moment est focalisé sur ces périodes de la vie animale pendant lesquelles les animaux sont confrontés à des changements soudains conduisant à une situation de stress. Le sevrage chez le porcelet est un exemple typique de ces périodes critiques d’élevage. La manière la plus simple et la plus appropriée d’influencer les processus fermentaires digestifs est la voie alimentaire. Ceci est reflété par l’intérêt très large que représentent les prébiotiques et les probiotiques. Étant donné la complexité des interactions intervenant dans l’animal lui-même, il n’est pas surprenant que des techniques in vitro aient été largement utilisées : premièrement pour examiner les substrats potentiels pour leur fermentescibilité et leur introduction possible dans les régimes et, deuxièmement, pour évaluer les changements dans les populations microbiennes en réponse à ces substrats. Ce papier passe en revue les techniques actuellement utilisées pour ces deux aspects des fermentations chez le monogastrique, et apporte des exemples de leur utilisation.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/animres:2005011. 01/2005;
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro cumulative gas production technique can be used to assess microbial activity of a complex community, in relation to fermentation of a particular energy source. Therefore, in combination with an in vivo study to examine the effects of two different diets for weaning piglets, microbial activities of faeces were compared from animals on the two different diets. The two diets were: CHO diet [containing added fermentable carbohydrates, including sugarbeet pulp (SBP) and wheat starch (WST)], and control diet without any added fermentable carbohydrates. Neither diet contained antibiotics or extra added copper. Twenty-four piglets were selected from 12 litters (two per litter), weaned at 4 weeks of age (neither creep feeding nor any antibiotic treatment before and during the study), and introduced to one of the two diets. After 9 days on the diet, faecal samples were collected from selected animals, and tested for their activity in terms of gas production kinetics, and end-products such as volatile fatty acids, ammonia and dry matter disappearance of the two test substrates SBP and WST. The bacterial diversity was also analysed before and after in vitro fermentation using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of amplified 16S rRNA genes. There were differences both in kinetics and end-products of the substrates. More interestingly, significant differences were detected between inocula, although mainly in terms of fermentation kinetics of the two substrates. With the CHO inoculum, SBP was fermented faster than with the control, while this effect was reversed for WST. Significantly higher diversity, as measured by DGGE fingerprint analysis, was detected in the microbial community enrichment on SBP as compared with WST at the end of fermentation. The difference between the kinetics of SBP compared with WST fermentation by faecal microbiota from the CHO diet fed piglets suggests better adaptation to SBP fermentation than to WST fermentation. The WST fermentation was more unexpected, given that a significant amount of starch is known to be fermentable by the small intestinal microbiota. It was concluded that the microbial community composition and activity in the GIT may be changed in response to diet, and that this change can be detected in vitro. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 01/2005; · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Reproduction Nutrition Development 44 (2004) Suppl. 1. 01/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether faecal microorganisms can represent the entire large intestinal population, samples from caecum, mid-colon and rectum of three adult pigs were used for the in vitro fermentation of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), potato starch, wheat bran and oat hulls. The cumulative gas production technique measured fermentation kinetics and end-products such as total gas, NH3 and volatile fatty acids (VFA). There were significant differences in the fermentability of substrates, in terms of both kinetics and end-products. More relevant to this study, there were also differences between pigs in respect of total gas production, the rate of gas production (RM) and VFA production. For large intestine sections, there were more VFA from mid-colon and rectal inocula compared with that from the caecum (p < 0.0001). Total gas, RM and NH3 were highest for rectal, intermediate for mid-colon and lowest for caecal inocula (p < 0.0001). It was concluded that, while faecal sampling might overestimate caecal fermentation, its use is valid for in vitro assessment of large intestinal fermentation. However, differences between pigs indicate that a mix of samples from several animals remains important. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 01/2004; · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • 01/2003;
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    ABSTRACT: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), which are non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO), were included at 10 and 40 g/kg in an NDO--free control diet at the expense of purified cellulose. Each of the 5 diets was fed to 4 weaner pigs and microbial characteristics of their ileal chyme and faeces were assessed. The NDO-pigs had lower ileal pH than the control pigs. Dietary NDO did not affect the ileal volatile fatty acid concentration, though FOS-pigs had a higher concentration of lactic acid and relatively more iso-valeric acid and less acetic acid than TOS-pigs. The NDO-pigs had lower ileal aerobic bacterial counts than the control pigs, whilst the FOS-pigs had a larger ileal anaerobic bacterial counts than the TOS-pigs. The NDO-pigs had an higher faecal pH and their faecal volatile fatty acid pool contained relatively more iso-butyric acid and iso-valeric acid than the control pigs. The TOS-pigs tended to have higher faecal anaerobic bacterial counts and had a smaller concentration of faecal volatile fatty acid than the FOS-pigs. We concluded that whilst effects at the faecal level may have been partly due to a reduced intake of cellulose, dietary NDO can exert precaecal prebiotic effects in weaner pigs.
    Archives of Animal Nutrition 09/2002; 56(4):297-307. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied whether dietary non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) affected pH and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in gastrointestinal contents and in portal plasma of young pigs. Five groups of five 57-day-old pigs received for 44 days either a corn-based control diet or this diet with 7.5 or 15 g/kg fructooligosaccharides (FOSs, Raftilose P95®) or the control diet with 10 or 20 g/kg transgalactooligosaccharides (TOSs, Oligostroop®). The pigs weighed on average 45.5±1.3 kg during dissection, which took place 3 h after feeding. Dietary NDOs tended to lower the pH of the stomach content from 4.5 to 4.2 (P=0.06). Pigs fed the high TOS diet had more caecal VFAs than the control pigs (30.4 vs. 15.6 mmol, P<0.05). Compared to TOS-fed pigs, FOS-fed pigs had a higher proximal colon pH (6.5 vs. 6.2, P<0.01), lower proximal colon VFA concentration (131 vs. 166 mmol/l, P<0.01) and lower portal VFA concentration (0.9 vs. 1.6 mmol/l, P<0.05), with the control pigs being intermediate. However, the amount of colonic VFAs was similar across diets (∼40 mmol). The results support the view that dietary FOSs and TOSs may have different effects on fermentation characteristics of gut contents of pigs.
    Livestock Production Science 01/2002; 73(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty Landrace and twenty Min piglets, with an average initial body weight of 22.4 kg, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 animals per group, within each of the breeds. The piglets were housed in individual concrete pens. Each group of the piglets was fed one of 5 diets. The diets contained either 20% raw Argentine soybeans, 20% processed Argentine soybeans ( for 7.5 min.), 20% raw Chinese soybeans, 20% processed Chinese soybeans ( for 7.5 min.) or no soybean products (control diet). Faecal samples were collected on days 6, 7 and 8 of the treatment period. Digestibilities of dietary nutrients were determined with AIA (acid insoluble ash) as a marker. After a 17 day treatment, three piglets were killed from each of the groups. Tissue samples of small and large intestine for light and electron microscopy examination were taken immediately after the opening of abdomen. Then, the weight or size of relevant organs was measured. The results show that the digestibilities of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and fat were higher in Min piglets than in Landrace piglets (p
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 01/2002; · 0.64 Impact Factor
  • In: Proceedings of Beyond antrimicrobials - the future of gut microbiology : 3rd Joint Rowett/INRA symposium , Aberdeen, UK, 2002. - [S.l.] : [s.n.], 2002. - (Abstract ; P-62). 01/2002;
  • Chinese Journal Veterinary Science 21 (2001). 01/2001;
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    ABSTRACT: A pig diet, processed in three different ways, was evaluated in an ileal digestibility trial. The complete diet contained mainly pea, tapioca and soybean meal and was processed by steam-pelleting (SP), high-shear conditioning (expander treatment; E) and expander-pelleting (EP), respectively. Expander-pelleting clearly improved the physical quality of pellets in terms of hardness and durability as compared to steam-pelleting. The apparent ileal digestibility of dietary nitrogen, dry matter, organic matter and crude fat determined with piglets in the weight range of 20–25 kg was not affected by the technological treatments under investigation. Only the crude fibre digestibility was significantly improved by single expander conditioning (P<0·05); the absolute level of 7·6% however was of low significance. Under the conditions of the present study, high shear conditioning (expander treatment) prior to pelleting showed no favourable effects on the apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients. Feed intake of the diets, offered in a choice feeding design to piglets of about 27 kg liveweight showed a large variation between piglets but in favour of the SP and E diet. Since diet hardness is related directly to the animal feed intake, maximisation of diet durability of expanded or pelleted diets should be achieved in relation to an optimisation of diet hardness and nutrient utilisation in piglets. © 1998 SCI.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 03/1999; 76(1):87 - 90. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of two types of nondigesti- ble oligosaccharides (NDO), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS) were studied on growing and weanling pigs' nutrient digestion. Dietary NDO were included at the expense of purified cellulose. Twenty-five 57-d-old growing pigs, averaging 15.9 ∠ .6 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a corn-based control diet or the control with 6.8 or 13.5 g of FOS/kg or 4.0 or 8.0 g of TOS/kg (five pigs per diet). Feces were collected on d 28 to 32, and small-intestinal digesta were collected (slaughter technique) on d 42 to 47 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, and crude fiber. Dietary NDO did not significantly affect apparent fecal and small intestinal digestion of nutrients in growing pigs. After being fed a NDO-free diet through d 10 after weaning, 38-d-old weanling pigs (n = 20), averaging 10.4 ∠ .8 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a control diet (based on cornstarch, casein, and oat husk meal) or the control with 10 or 40 g of FOS or TOS/kg (four pigs per diet). Feces and urine were collected on d 13 to 17, and ileal digesta were collected via a postvalve T-cecum cannula on d 33 to 37 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, starch, NDF, ADF, ADL, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn. Nonstarch neutral-detergent soluble carbohydrates (NNSC) completed the mass balance for the carbohy- drates. Urine was analyzed for N and minerals. The apparent fecal digestion of NNSC increased in the NDO-supplemented diets. The TOS-fed pigs tended ( P < .10) to have a higher apparent fecal digestion of CP than the FOS-fed and control pigs but excreted more N via the urine ( P < .01). Nitrogen and mineral balances were not affected. The FOS was nearly completely degraded prececally. Mean fiber digestion was lower at the fecal compared with the ileal level, as was the extent of NDO effects. This indicates that fiber digestion requires more than 2 wk to adapt to dietary NDO. Apparent ileal digestion of hemicellulose increased for the NDO-supplemented diets ( P < .05), but that of NNSC decreased ( P < .001). Thus, under the well-controlled conditions of this experiment, dietary NDO hardly affected nutrient digestion in well-kept growing and weanling pigs. However, diges- tion of dietary nonstarch carbohydrates may be affected.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/1999; 77(1). · 2.09 Impact Factor