[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare direct current and radiofrequency ablation of the atrioventricular (AV) junction in a prospective randomized fashion.
Catheter ablation of the AV junction can be performed using either direct current shocks or radiofrequency energy. To date, these two techniques have never been compared prospectively or in a randomized study.
Forty patients with drug-refractory uncontrolled atrial fibrillation-flutter (38 patients) or inappropriate sinus tachycardia (2 patients) were randomly assigned to undergo direct current ablation (20 patients) using up to four shocks of 200 to 300 J or radiofrequency ablation (20 patients) using up to 15 applications of 16 to 25 W for 30 s. If complete AV block was not successfully induced, the ablation procedure was repeated using the alternate type of energy. A rate-responsive ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each patient. The intrinsic escape rhythm was evaluated 15 min, 2 days and 3, 6 and 12 months after ablation.
Persistent complete AV block was successfully induced during the first ablation session in 13 (65%) of 20 patients randomly assigned to undergo direct current ablation, compared with 19 (95%) of 20 patients randomly assigned to undergo radiofrequency ablation (p < 0.05). Each patient whose first ablation attempt failed had a successful outcome with the alternate type of energy. The overall efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (26 [96%] of 27 patients) was significantly greater than that of direct current ablation (14 [67%] of 21 patients, p < 0.01). The duration of the direct current and radiofrequency ablation sessions did not differ significantly. The mean peak plasma creatine kinase MB fraction concentration was significantly higher after direct current ablation (58 +/- 29 IU/liter) than after radiofrequency ablation (2 +/- 2 IU/liter) (p < 0.001). An escape rhythm was present 15 min after ablation in an equal proportion of patients undergoing direct current and radiofrequency ablation (78% and 85%, respectively, p = 0.6). An escape rhythm was present in all patients 3, 6 and 12 months after ablation. The mean escape rhythm cycle length 15 min after direct current ablation (2,074 +/- 677 ms) was significantly longer than that 15 min after radiofrequency ablation (1,460 +/- 294 ms) (p < 0.05); however, the mean escape rhythm cycle lengths did not differ significantly at 2 days or 3, 6 or 12 months after ablation. Immediate arrhythmic complications did not occur after either procedure. One patient died suddenly 6.5 months after direct current ablation.
Radiofrequency ablation of the AV junction is more efficacious and safer than direct current ablation and should be the preferred method for inducing complete AV block in patients who are appropriate candidates for ablation of AV conduction.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/1993; 21(1):102-9. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence of loss of consciousness occurring in association with shocks delivered by automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (AICD) in patients who had undergone implantation as treatment for ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation.
Two major tertiary medical care facilities.
A total of 180 patients who had undergone implantation of an AICD for treatment of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation.
Implantation of an AICD that delivered only high-energy shock.
During a mean (+/- SD) follow-up period of 16 +/- 12 months, the incidence of loss of consciousness occurring in association with spontaneous AICD shocks was determined. Various clinical factors were analyzed to identify predictors of loss of consciousness that occurred during AICD shocks.
Of the 180 patients who received an AICD, 106 patients (59%) experienced AICD shocks during follow-up. Sixteen of the 180 patients (9%) experienced loss of consciousness; 13 of these 16 patients had syncope and 3 died suddenly, in association with AICD shocks. The absence of syncope during one AICD shock did not always predict the absence of syncope during subsequent shocks. Syncope could not be predicted by age, sex, history of syncope, left ventricular function, type of underlying heart disease, electrophysiologic findings, rate of ventricular tachycardia, antiarrhythmic medications, and type of pulse generator implanted.
Patients with sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation who receive an AICD that delivers only high-energy shock therapy are at moderate risk for experiencing loss of consciousness during AICD shocks. No clinical variables were found to be predictors of syncope. Therefore, driving and other activities that require patients to be extra vigilant should not be assumed to be safe after implantation of an AICD that delivers only high-energy shock.
Annals of internal medicine 01/1992; 115(12):942-5. · 13.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cost of definitive therapy was compared in 25 patients who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways in 1990 and 25 patients who underwent surgical ablation of accessory pathways in 1989. In the radiofrequency group, 23 of 25 patients had a single accessory pathway and the remaining 2 patients each had 2 accessory pathways. In the surgical group, 20 patients had a single accessory pathway and 5 patients each had 2 accessory pathways. The success rate was 96% in each group. The mean duration of hospitalization was 3 +/- 1 days in the radiofrequency group and 9 +/- 4 days in the surgical group (p < 0.0001). All the cost data are expressed in fiscal year 1990/1991 dollar values. The total cost of therapy in the radiofrequency group was $14,919 +/- $6,740 compared with $53,265 +/- $12,755 in the surgical group (p < 0.0001). The cost of radiofrequency ablation consisted of a hospital charge of $7,753 +/- $3,472 and physician fees of $7,166 +/- $3,439. The hospital charge included charges for use of the electrophysiology laboratory, hospital stay, electrocardiograms, echocardiograms and blood studies. The cost of surgery consisted of a hospital charge of $37,708 +/- $10,179 and physician fees of $15,557 +/- $3,149. The hospital charge in the surgical group included the costs of a baseline electrophysiology study, in-hospital care and a follow-up office visit. In conclusion, radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways results in a dramatic reduction in the cost of definitive therapy in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/28980/1/0000007.pdf
The American Journal of Cardiology 01/1992; · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seventy-four patients (16 women, 58 men, age 58 +/- 11 years, mean +/- standard deviation) who received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) after experiencing a single episode of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation were followed to determine if antiarrhythmic drug therapy affects the incidence of ICD discharges. Thirty-three patients (group A) were treated with an antiarrhythmic drug that was either untested or previously demonstrated during electropharmacological testing to be ineffective in suppressing the induction of ventricular tachycardia. Forty-one patients (group B) were not treated with an antiarrhythmic drug. There were no significant differences between the two groups in regards to age, sex, incidence of coronary artery disease, left ventricular function or the type of ICD pulse generator used. During a mean follow-up of 14 months for the entire cohort, 15 patients (46%) in group A and 18 patients (44%) in group B experienced at least one ICD shock. The time to the first appropriate shock (5 +/- 5 months in both groups) and the frequency of ICD shocks (0.3 +/- 0.2/month in group A vs 0.4 +/- 0.5/month in group B) were similar in both groups. The incidence of syncope at the time of ICD discharge was higher in group A than group B patients (31% vs 5%, P less than 0.05). In conclusion, antiarrhythmic drugs that are untested or have failed electropharmacological testing do not appear to reduce the probability of ICD discharge over a short-term (mean 14 months) follow-up in patients who have had only one clinical episode of VT/VF and may increase the risk of syncope during ICD discharge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of electrophysiologic testing and the long-term prognosis of 56 patients with coronary artery disease who presented with aborted sudden death unrelated to acute myocardial infarction. The mean age of the patients was 62 +/- 8 years (+/- standard deviation) and 48 were men. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.34 +/- 0.16. During the baseline electrophysiology test, sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) was inducible in 22 patients who then underwent electropharmacologic testing: 11 patients were treated with antiarrhythmic drugs that suppressed the induction of VT or resulted in the VT becoming hemodynamically stable; 10 patients who failed drug testing received an automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (AICD); one patient underwent endocardial resection. Among 34 patients who did not have inducible sustained VT, a precipitant of cardiac arrest (severe ischemia, proarrhythmia) was identified and was corrected in 9 of 34. An AICD was recommended in the remaining 25 patients; however, nine patients refused and were treated empirically with antiarrhythmic drugs. The mean follow-up was 22 +/- 12 months. The 2-year actuarial incidence of sudden death was 31% in patients who were treated with drugs based on the results of electropharmacologic testing, 26% in patients who were treated with antiarrhythmic drugs on an empiric basis, 0% among patients in whom a correctable etiology for the cardiac arrest was identified, and 9% among patients who underwent implantation of an AICD. The 3-year actuarial incidence of sudden death among the 20 patients treated with antiarrhythmic drugs was 53%, compared with 9% among the 26 patients who underwent AICD implantation (p = 0.03). In conclusion, antiarrhythmic therapy, whether guided by electrophysiologic testing or administered on an empiric basis, is associated with a high incidence of recurrent sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease and aborted sudden death. Implantation of an AICD may be advisable in all patients with coronary artery disease and aborted sudden death in whom a correctable precipitant cannot be identified. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/29118/1/0000157.pdf
American Heart Journal 11/1991; · 4.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From July 1986 to January 1991, 123 patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome underwent operation for ablation of aberrant conduction pathways. There were 85 male and 38 female patients ranging in age from 11 months to 68 years. Associated anomalies included Ebstein's anomaly, sudden death syndrome, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, abdominal aortic aneurysm, neurofibromatosis, other arrhythmias, or other complex congenital heart disease. Forty-one patients had multiple accessory pathways. Operative results showed a 7% initial failure rate, which dropped to 3% after reoperation. One patient had undergone previous operation for Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome at another institution. Procedures performed concomitantly included mitral or tricuspid valve repair or replacement (6), right ventricular conduit replacement, subaortic resection, Fontan repair, corrected transposition repair, coronary artery bypass, and placement of an automatic internal cardioverter defibrillator. There was no operative mortality. Late follow-up is 27 ± 16 months, and complications included mitral regurgitation and myocardial infarction. By comparison, in the last 12 months 124 patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome underwent catheter ablation using radiofrequency current. There were 9 patients with multiple pathways. One hundred twelve patients (90%) had all accessory atrioventricular connections ablated and have remained free of symptomatic tachycardia. There have been 12 failures (10%), of which 5 have had operation and 7 are being treated medically. Mean follow-up is 7 ± 5 months, and complications included circumflex coronary artery occlusion, excessive bleeding, valve perforation, and cerebral vascular accident. Both procedures offer excellent success with low morbidity. Although continued late follow-up is mandatory to assess the results of radiofrequency ablation, the early results suggest that operation for Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome may become indicated for radiofrequency ablation failure, multiple pathways, or when additional procedures are required.
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 10/1991; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted this study to determine the feasibility of an abbreviated therapeutic approach to the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, in which the diagnosis is established and radiofrequency ablation carried out during a single electrophysiologic test.
One hundred six consecutive patients were referred for the management of documented, symptomatic paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias (66 patients) or the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (40 patients). All agreed to undergo a diagnostic electrophysiologic test and catheter ablation with radiofrequency current. No patient had had such a test previously.
Among the 66 patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias, the mechanism was found to be atrioventricular nodal reentry in 46 (70 percent) (typical in 44 and atypical in 2), atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia involving a concealed accessory pathway in 16 (24 percent), atrial tachycardia in 2 (3 percent), and noninducible paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in 2 (3 percent). A successful long-term outcome was achieved in 57 of 62 patients (92 percent) with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in whom ablation was attempted and in 37 of 40 patients (93 percent) with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The only complications were one instance of occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery, leading to acute myocardial infarction, and one instance of complete atrioventricular block. The mean (+/- SD) duration of the electrophysiologic procedures was 114 +/- 55 minutes.
The diagnosis and cure of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia or the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome during a single electrophysiologic test are feasible and practical and have a favorable risk-benefit ratio. This abbreviated therapeutic approach may eliminate the need for serial electropharmacologic testing, long-term drug therapy, antitachycardia pacemakers, and surgical ablation.
New England Journal of Medicine 07/1991; 324(23):1612-8. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fifteen consecutive patients with drug-refractory, recurrent, sustained, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and a history of remote myocardial infarction underwent catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia. Shocks of 100 to 300 J were delivered to sites at which pacing during ventricular tachycardia resulted in concealed entrainment, in which the ventricular tachycardia accelerated to the pacing rate, there was a long stimulus to QRS interval and there was no change in the configuration of the QRS complex during pacing at several rates compared with the configuration during ventricular tachycardia, thus identifying a zone of slow conduction in the reentrant circuit.Concealed entrainment was demonstrated in nine (60%) of 15 patients, and the stimulus to QRS intervals were 90 to 400 ms. At sites of concealed entrainment, the endocardial activation time relative to the QRS complex during ventricular tachycardia ranged from −125 to +50 ms, the timing of the local electrogram relative to the QRS complex was the same during entrainment as during ventricular tachycardia and the pace map during sinus rhythm was discordant with that of the ventricular tachycardia in seven patients. In the six patients in whom a site of concealed entrainment could not be identified, the target site for ablation was selected on the basis of identification of an isolated middiastolic potential, activation mapping and pace mapping. The mean (±SD) cumulative number of joules delivered to the target site was 306 ± 140. A successful long-term clinical outcome was achieved in 9 of the 15 patients (mean follow-up 20 ± 7 months). The clinical success rate was the same whether the target site was selected on the basis of concealed entrainment (five of nine, 56%) or on the basis of the other mapping techniques (four of six, 67%).In conclusion, the responses to pacing suggest that sites at which there is concealed entrainment may be located within a zone of slow conduction in the ventricular tachycardia reentry circuit, although not necessarily in an area critical for the maintenance of reentry. The long-term clinical efficacy of catheter ablation targeted to sites of concealed entrainment is about 60%, similar to the results achieved when conventional mapping techniques are used.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/1991; · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared the sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of a "conventional" and "accelerated" programmed stimulation protocol in 293 patients with coronary artery disease who had a history of sustained or nonsustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT).
In the conventional protocol, one and two extrastimuli were introduced during sinus rhythm and during basic drive trains at cycle lengths of 600 and 400 msec at the right ventricular apex and then at the outflow tract or septum. In the accelerated protocol, one, two, and then three extrastimuli were introduced at each of three basic drive train cycle lengths (350, 400, and 600 msec) at the right ventricular apex; the procedure was repeated at a second right ventricular site. Six hundred thirty-four electrophysiological tests were performed using one of these two protocols either in the baseline state (293 tests) or during drug testing (341 tests). The yield of sustained, monomorphic VT was 89% with the conventional protocol and 92% with the accelerated protocol during baseline tests in patients who had a history of sustained VT (p = 0.05); 20% and 34%, respectively, during baseline tests in patients with a history of nonsustained VT (p = 0.06); and 70% and 77%, respectively, during drug testing (p = 0.2). To induce sustained, monomorphic VT, 10.1 +/- 5.0 (mean +/- SD) protocol steps and 14.4 +/- 8.7 minutes were required with the conventional protocol, compared with 4.0 +/- 3.7 steps and 5.6 +/- 6.1 minutes with the accelerated protocol (p less than 0.001 for each comparison). Among the tests in which sustained, monomorphic VT was induced, sustained polymorphic VT or ventricular fibrillation was induced more often with the conventional protocol (3.6%) than with the accelerated protocol (0.9%, p = 0.05).
The efficiency of programmed stimulation can be improved by the early use of a basic drive train cycle length of 350 msec and three extrastimuli. Compared with a conventional stimulation protocol, the accelerated protocol used in this study reduces the number of protocol steps and duration of time required to induce monomorphic VT by an average of more than 50% and improves the specificity of programmed stimulation without impairing the yield of monomorphic VT.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The feasibility of outpatient electrophysiologic testing was examined by reviewing 100 consecutive outpatient tests performed in 95 patients. Seventy-one of the patients (75%) had no underlying heart disease. The electrophysiologic tests were performed to evaluate supraventricular tachycardias (n = 47), nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (n = 20), unexplained syncope (n = 21), palpitation (n = 9) or intermittent heart block (n = 2). A mean of 2.8 +/- 0.5 6F electrode catheters were inserted through a femoral vein. An electrode catheter was inserted into a subclavian or internal jugular vein in 28 tests and a 5F cannula was inserted into a femoral artery to monitor the blood pressure in 20 tests. The results of 61 tests (61%) were abnormal. Patients were monitored for a mean of 3.8 +/- 1.2 h after the procedure and then discharged. No complications occurred. For cost analysis a subgroup of 60 of these patients was matched for age, gender, heart disease and indication for electrophysiologic testing with a group of 60 patients who underwent electrophysiologic testing as inpatients. Physicians' fees for the two groups were similar; however, the mean hospital charge was $5,845 +/- 3,763 for the inpatient group compared with only $2,120 +/- 1,244 for the outpatient group (p less than 0.001). Thus, outpatient electrophysiologic testing is feasible and safe and results in substantial cost savings in patients without life-threatening arrhythmias.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/1990; 16(6):1415-9. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this retrospective study of 22 patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, the cost of catheter ablation in 11 patients was compared with that of surgical ablation in another 11 patients. All patients in the catheter ablation group had a posteroseptal accessory pathway; in the surgical group, 5 patients had a left lateral accessory pathway, 3 had a left lateral and posteroseptal accessory connection and 3 had a right-sided pathway. Catheter ablation was successful in 8 of 11 patients (73%). In the surgical group, the accessory pathway was interrupted successfully in all patients (100%). The mean duration (+/- standard deviation) of hospitalization was 6 +/- 2 days in the catheter ablation group and 8 +/- 4 days in the surgical group. The mean cost/patient, expressed in 1988 dollar values, was +14,116 +/- 4,493 in the catheter ablation group and +34,175 +/- 5,434 in the surgical ablation group (p less than 0.0001). The mean time lost from work or school was 10 +/- 5 days in the catheter ablation group and 60 +/- 16 days in the surgical group (p less than 0.01). Catheter ablation is significantly less expensive than surgical ablation of accessory pathways. Assuming that all patients in whom catheter ablation is unsuccessful subsequently undergo successful surgical ablation, the mean cost of definitive therapy in the catheter ablation group (+24,382 +/- 4,741) is still significantly lower than the cost in the surgical group (+34,175; p less than 0.001). An additional economic advantage of catheter ablation is that the mean time lost from work or school is 10 days compared to 60 days with surgical ablation.
The American Journal of Cardiology 08/1990; 66(2):189-92. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines the changes in pacing threshold and R- or P-wave amplitude during the first 30 minutes after implantation of tined and screw-in leads. The leads examined were those of 1 manufacturer (Medtronic) and consisted of 3 ventricular pacing leads (model numbers 6957 unipolar screw-in [11 patients], 6961 unipolar tined [12 patients] and 6962 bipolar tined [7 patients]) and 1 atrial lead (model number 6957J unipolar screw-in [10 patients]). After optimal lead position was obtained fluoroscopically in the right ventricular apex or right atrium, the pacing threshold and R- or P-wave amplitudes were measured at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The acute ventricular pacing threshold with the screw-in lead was significantly higher than with the tined lead (0.84 +/- 0.17 vs 0.58 +/- 0.15 volts; p less than 0.001). There was a significant (p less than 0.001) acute decrease in the ventricular pacing threshold with both lead types, with the maximum decrease occurring 5 minutes after lead implantation. There was a significant acute increase in R-wave size with the ventricular screw-in lead that peaked 20 minutes after lead implantation (11.9 +/- 3.0 to 14.7 +/- 4.1 mV; p less than 0.001). The atrial screw-in lead behaved in a manner identical to its counterpart in the ventricle. In conclusion, there are acute changes in the pacing threshold and R- or P-wave amplitude obtained with tined and screw-in pacing leads.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The American Journal of Cardiology 05/1990; 65(15):999-1003. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results of 206 programmed ventricular stimulation studies performed in 130 patients (100 men and 30 women, mean age 62 +/- 12 years, +/- standard deviation) were examined prospectively to determine the sequelae of nonsustained polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) induced during programmed ventricular stimulation. The clinical indication for the electrophysiologic study was either documented monomorphic VT or unexplained syncope. The pacing protocol included 2 right ventricular pacing sites, 2 basic drive cycle lengths and up to 3 extrastimuli. In 111 studies, nonsustained polymorphic VT was induced and with continuation of the programmed stimulation protocol, sustained monomorphic VT was induced in 48 studies (43%) and polymorphic VT was induced in 13 studies (12%). Overall, sustained monomorphic VT was induced in 110 studies and sustained polymorphic VT in 18 studies. The incidence of nonsustained polymorphic VT preceding the induction of sustained polymorphic VT was significantly greater than the incidence of nonsustained polymorphic VT preceding the induction of sustained monomorphic VT (72 vs 44%, p less than 0.05). Nonsustained polymorphic VT is not a useful predictor of the outcome of programmed ventricular stimulation. The use of nonsustained polymorphic VT as an endpoint for stimulation would be likely to improve the specificity of programmed ventricular stimulation by limiting the induction of sustained nonclinical arrhythmias that require countershock, but at the cost of significantly impairing the yield of monomorphic VT.
The American Journal of Cardiology 12/1989; 64(18):1148-51. · 3.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective study compared the yield of programmed ventricular stimulation with single and double extrastimuli during an infusion of isoproterenol with that of programmed stimulation with triple extrastimuli. The subjects of this study were 58 patients who underwent programmed stimulation and did not have inducible ventricular tachycardia (VT) with single or double extrastimuli at two basic drive cycle lengths and at two right ventricular sites; 17 patients had a history of uniform VT unrelated to exercise, and 41 had no history of documented or suspected VT or ventricular fibrillation (VF). Programmed stimulation was performed with triple extrastimuli at both right ventricular sites. Isoproterenol was infused as a dose titrated to increase the sinus rate by 25% or to a rate of 100 beats/min, whichever was greater, and stimulation then was repeated with single and double extrastimuli. Among the 17 patients with a history of uniform VT, the clinical VT was induced by three extrastimuli in five patients (29%) and by two extrastimuli during isoproterenol infusion in six patients (35%, p greater than 0.05). Among the total study population of 58 patients, nonclinical multiform VT or VF was induced by three extrastimuli in 29 patients (50%), and by two extrastimuli during isoproterenol infusion in 15 patients (26%, p less than 0.05). Therefore stimulation with two extrastimuli during isoproterenol infusion has the same probability of inducing a clinical form of VT as does stimulation with extrastimuli, but the former has a significantly lower probability of inducing nonclinical multiform VT and VF.
American Heart Journal 03/1989; 117(2):342-7. · 4.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether pharmacologically induced elevations in the plasma epinephrine concentration within reported physiologic limits alter the response to quinidine during electropharmacologic testing. Twenty-one patients with coronary artery disease and a history of unimorphic ventricular tachycardia were found to have inducible sustained unimorphic ventricular tachycardia that was suppressed by treatment with oral quinidine gluconate. Epinephrine was then infused at a rate of either 25 or 50 ng/kg per min and testing was repeated. These infusion rates of epinephrine were previously demonstrated to result in elevations of the plasma epinephrine concentration in the range of concentrations that occur during a variety of stresses. Quinidine significantly lengthened the ventricular refractory periods and the QRS duration at a ventricular pacing cycle length of 350 ms, which was used as an index of intraventricular conduction. Epinephrine partially or completely reversed the effects of quinidine on ventricular refractory periods, but had no effect on QRS duration. During electropharmacologic testing of quinidine, no ventricular tachycardia was inducible in 12 patients, and only nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, 8 to 48 beats in duration, was inducible in 9 patients. Retesting during infusion of epinephrine demonstrated inducible sustained unimorphic ventricular tachycardia in 2 of the 12 patients in whom quinidine had completely suppressed the induction of ventricular tachycardia and in 8 of the 9 patients in whom only nonsustained ventricular tachycardia had been inducible during testing of quinidine. In conclusion, physiologic elevations in the plasma epinephrine concentration may reverse quinidine-induced prolongation of ventricular refractoriness but not intraventricular conduction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/1988; 12(2):388-94. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, patients frequently experience chest pain and marked ST segment depression suggesting acute myocardial ischemia. The purpose of this study was to assess whether ST depression during supraventricular tachycardia is caused by myocardial ischemia as reflected by net myocardial lactate production. Twenty-five patients (14 men, 11 women) who had a history of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and a mean age (+/- SD) of 38 +/- 14 years underwent electrophysiologic testing. Twenty-four of these patients had no evidence of coronary disease, whereas one patient had undergone previous coronary bypass surgery. Nineteen patients had orthodromic and six patients had atrioventricular node reentrant tachycardias. A 12 lead electrocardiogram and simultaneous femoral artery and coronary sinus blood samples for lactate determinations were obtained at baseline and at 5 and 10 min of supraventricular tachycardia. Mean baseline heart rate of 83 +/- 12 beats/min increased to 180 +/- 25 beats/min during supraventricular tachycardia. All patients had 1 to 8 mm of ST segment depression in 1 to 9 of the 12 leads. Chest pain occurred in 64% of patients during supraventricular tachycardia. Baseline myocardial lactate extraction was 28 +/- 13% with no significant change at 5 or 10 min of tachycardia. In contrast, in a comparison group of seven patients with known coronary artery disease, atrial pacing at 168 +/- 26 beats/min in five patients resulted in greater than or equal to 1 mm ST depression in 2 to 7 of the 12 leads and a change in lactate extraction from a baseline of 29 +/- 13% to -27 +/- 20% (p less than 0.05) indicating net myocardial lactate production.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/1988; 12(2):383-7. · 14.09 Impact Factor