[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most of the current treatment strategies of ADHD are associated with a number of disadvantages which strengthen the need for alternative or additional approaches for the treatment of ADHD. In this respect, Whole Body Vibration (WBV) might be interesting as it was found to have beneficial effects on a variety of physiological measures. The present study explored the effects of WBV on attention of healthy individuals and adults diagnosed with ADHD.
Eighty-three healthy individuals and seventeen adults diagnosed with ADHD participated in the study. WBV treatment was applied passively, while participants were sitting on a chair which was mounted on a vibrating platform. A repeated measure design was employed in order to explore potential effects of WBV treatment on attention within subjects. Attention (i.e. inhibitory control) was measured with a color-word interference paradigm.
A period of two minutes of WBV treatment had significant beneficial effects of small to medium size on attention of both healthy individuals and adults with ADHD. The effect of WBV treatment on attention did not differ significantly between groups.
WBV was demonstrated to improve cognitive performance of healthy individuals as well as of individuals with ADHD. WBV treatment is relatively inexpensive and easy to apply and might therefore be of potential relevance for clinical use. The application of WBV treatment as a cognitive enhancement strategy and as a potential treatment of cognitive impairments is discussed.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e90747. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current dynamic walking tests, used in studies with older adults with dementia, rely strongly on healthy cognitive and physical function. Therefore, the Groningen Meander Walking Test (GMWT) was developed, specifically for persons with dementia. The aim of the GMWT is to measure dynamic walking ability by walking over a meandering curved line, with an emphasis on walking speed and stepping accuracy, while changing direction.
To investigate the feasibility, test-retest reliability, and Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) of the GMWT.
A repeated measures design was used.
Forty-two subjects with dementia participated. Adherence rate, adverse events, repetition of instructions during test performance, test duration, and number of oversteps were assessed.
Adherence rate was excellent, with no adverse events. No repetitive instructions were given during test performance and test duration was short (mean: 17.16s) with few oversteps (mean: 1.94 oversteps). Test-retest reliability for participants without a walking device was excellent for the GMWT time score (ICC = .942), with a MDC of 2.96s. Test-retest reliability for participants with a four-wheeled walker (4WW) was moderate (ICC = .837) with a MDC of 10.35s. For the overstep score a marginal ICC = .630 was found with a MDC of 4.38 oversteps.
No fall data were available and there was a volunteer bias.
The GMWT is a feasible test. With the GMWT time score, a reliable and sensitive field test to measure walking abilities in older adults with dementia is available. The GMWT overstep score can be used to give information about the execution according to protocol, and should be emphasized during the instructions. Future studies need to investigate the validity of the GMWT.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of the study was to investigate whether 7-9 year old children with severe motor difficulties are more at risk of additional difficulties in activities in daily living, academic skills, attention and social skills than children with moderate motor difficulties. Children (N=6959) from a population based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were divided into three groups based on their scores on the ALSPAC Coordination Test at age 7: control children (scores above 15th centile; N=5719 [82.1%]); children with moderate (between 5th and 15th centile; N=951 [13.7%]); and children with severe motor difficulties (below 5th centile N=289 [4.2%]). Children with neurological disorders or an IQ<70 were excluded. Logistic regression was used to compare children with moderate and severe motor coordination difficulties with each other and with control children regarding their risk of co-morbidity defined as significant (<10th centile) difficulties with activities of daily living (ADL); academic skills (reading, spelling and handwriting); attention; social skills (social cognition and nonverbal skills). Children with severe motor difficulties demonstrated a higher risk of difficulties in ADL, handwriting, attention, reading, and social cognition than children with moderate motor difficulties, who in turn had a higher risk of difficulties than control children in five out of seven domains. Screening and intervention of co-morbid problems is recommended for children with both moderate and severe motor difficulties.
Research in developmental disabilities 07/2013; 34(10):3084-3091. · 4.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is ample evidence that physical and cognitive performance are related, but the results of studies investigating this relationship show great variability. Both physical performance and cognitive performance are constructs consisting of several subdomains, but it is presently unknown if the relationship between physical and cognitive performance depends on subdomain of either construct and whether gender and age moderate this relationship. The aim of this study is to identify the strongest physical predictors of cognitive performance, to determine the specificity of these predictors for various cognitive subdomains, and to examine gender and age as potential moderators of the relationship between physical and cognitive performance in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. In total, 98 men and 122 women (average age 74.0±5.6 years) were subjected to a series of performance-based physical fitness and neuropsychological tests. Muscle strength, balance, functional reach, and walking ability (combined score of walking speed and endurance) were considered to predict cognitive performance across several domains (i.e. memory, verbal attention, visual attention, set-shifting, visuo-motor attention, inhibition and intelligence). Results showed that muscle strength was a significant predictor of cognitive performance for men and women. Walking ability and balance were significant predictors of cognitive performance for men, whereas only walking ability was significant for women. We did not find a moderating effect of age, nor did we find support for a differential effect of the physical predictors across different cognitive subdomains. In summary, our results showed a significant relationship between cognitive and physical performance, with a moderating effect of gender.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e70799. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Physical performance tests are important to assess the effect of physical activity interventions in older people with dementia, but their psychometric properties have not been systematically established within this specific population.Objective
To determine the relative and absolute test-retest reliability of the 6-meter walk test, the figure-of-eight (FoE), the Timed-up-and-Go (TUG), the FICSIT-4, the Chair-Rise test (CRT), and the Jamar dynamometer. These tests are used to assess gait speed, dynamic balance, functional mobility, static balance, lower-limb strength, and grip strength, respectively.DesignA prospective, nonexperimental study. METHODS:/b>Older people with dementia (n=58; age range 70-92 years) performed each test at baseline and again after one week. Intraclass correlation (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and (log transferred) limits of agreement of Bland-Altman plots were calculated. RESULTS: /b>The relative reliabilities of the FoE, TUG, and Jamar dynamometer were excellent (ICC .90-.95) and good for the 6-meter walk test, FICSIT-4, and CRT (ICC .79-.86). SEMs and MDCs were large for all tests. The absolute reliability of the TUG and CRT was significantly influenced by the level of cognitive functioning (as assessed with the MMSE).LimitationsThe specific etiology of dementia was not obtained. CONCLUSIONS:/b>The results show that when used in older people with mild to moderate dementia the physical performance tests evaluated are useful to detect differences in performance between individuals and therefore suitable for cross-sectional or controlled intervention studies. They appear less suitable to monitor clinically relevant intra-individual performance changes. Future studies should focus on the development of more sensitive tests and the identification of criteria for clinically relevant changes in this rapidly growing population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ouderen met een dementie kunnen geconfronteerd worden met een afname in lichamelijke activiteit. Er bestaat een positieve
relatie tussen lichamelijke activiteit en cognitie. Ofschoon de causaliteit van deze relatie bij ouderen met een gevorderde
dementie nog moet worden aangetoond, komt uit vooral dierexperimenteel onderzoek naar voren welke schadelijke effecten niet bewegen zou kunnen hebben op het gedrag van ouderen met een dementie. Patiënten met een dementie die vanwege agitatie en
onrust geïmmobiliseerd worden, kunnen een toename in agitatie en onrust gaan vertonen. Een andere oorzaak van verminderd of
niet bewegen kan pijn zijn. Pijn kan zelfs toenemen bij dementie door neuropathologische veranderingen in het centraal zenuwstelsel.
Er is toenemende (inter)nationale belangstelling voor de ontwikkeling van een meer betrouwbare diagnostiek en behandeling
van pijn, voor de causaliteit van de relatie tussen pijn en lichamelijke (in)activiteit en voor de causaliteit van de relatie
tussen lichamelijke (in)activiteit en cognitie. In dit artikel zullen de verschillende onderwerpen in deze volgorde besproken
Older persons with dementia may become confronted with a decline in the level of physical activity. Indeed, a positive relationship
between physical activity and cognition has been demonstrated. Although the causality of this relationship needs to be confirmed
in advanced dementia, particularly animal experimental studies show the possible negative influence of restrained physical
activity on behavior of patients with dementia. Patients with dementia, who get immobilized because of agitation and restlessness,
may show an increase in these two symptoms. Another cause for reduced physical activity or inactivity may be the experience
of pain. Pain experience may even increase in dementia by neuropathological changes in the central nervous system.
There is an increasing (inter)national interest for the development of a more reliable assessment and treatment of pain, for
the causality of the relationship between pain and physical (in)activity, and for the causality of the relationship between
physical (in)activity and cognition in dementia. In the present paper, the various topics will be addressed in this order.
lichamelijke activiteit-pijn-cognitie-gedrag-dementiephysical activity-pain-cognition-behavior-dementia
Tijdschrift voor gerontologie en geriatrie 04/2012; 40(6):270-278.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM/GOAL: To recommend a set of neuropsychological and physical exercise tests for researchers to assess cognition and physical fitness in clinical trials with older patients with dementia; to create consensus, decrease heterogeneity, and improve research quality. METHODS: A literature search (2005-2011) yielded 89 randomized controlled trials. To provide information on test recommendations the frequency of test use, effect size of the test outcome, study quality, and psychometric properties of tests were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifty-nine neuropsychological tests (cognitive domains: global cognition, executive functioning, memory, and attention) and 10 exercise tests (physical domains: endurance capacity, muscle strength, balance, and mobility) were found. CONCLUSION: The Severe Impairment Battery, Mini Mental State Examination, and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale were recommended to measure global cognition. The Verbal Fluency Test Category/Letters, Clock Drawing Test, and Trail Making Test-B were recommended to measure executive functioning. No specific memory test could be recommended. The Digit Span Forward, Digit Span Backward, and Trail Making Test-A were recommended to measure attention. As physical exercise tests, the Timed Up and Go and Six Meter Walk for mobility, the Six Minute Walk Distance for endurance capacity, and the Tinetti Balance Scale were recommended.
Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra. 01/2012; 2(1):589-609.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With age postural control deteriorates and increases the risk for falls. Recent research has suggested that in contrast to persons with superior balance control (dancer's athletes), with pathology and aging, predictability and regularity of sway patterns increase and stability decreases implying a less adaptive form of postural control. The aim of the present study was to determine, whether patterns of body sway of elderly (N=13) who practice a sport which challenges postural control (ice speed-skating), are more similar to that of young subjects (N=10) than to that of inactive elderly (N=10). Trunk patterns were measured with a tri-axial accelerometer. Data were recorded during quiet upright stance with (1) eyes open, (2) limited vision, and (3) while performing a dual task. Anterior-posterior and medio-lateral acceleration time-series were analyzed. Differences in postural control were quantified in terms of the magnitude of the acceleration (root mean square), the smoothness (mean power frequency), the predictability (sample entropy) and the local stability (largest Lyapunov exponent). Postural control of ice-skating elderly differed from that of sedentary elderly. As anticipated, postural control of the ice-skating elderly was similar to that of young adults. For anterior-posterior accelerations, the skating elderly and the younger subjects had significant higher stability and lower regularity than the non-skating elderly in all tasks. These results imply that sport activities such as ice-skating are beneficial for elderly people. It might, at least partly, counteract the age related changes in postural control.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the world population ages, the number of people with diminished performance on the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) increases. A reliable and valid measure needs to be developed to determine the effects of interventions focused at increasing self-care abilities. We developed the Performance ADL Test (PAT) for this purpose.
The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the PAT in older people living in residential homes.
The PAT contains 16 test items, covering the entire range of Basic ADL and Instrumental ADL performance in elderly people. For this assessment, 40 older people (mean age of 85 ± 7.5 years) participated. All 40 subjects lived in residential institutions in the Netherlands, were able to walk at least 10 m, could understand instructions spoken in Dutch, and had no cognitive impairment. During the first test session, subjects completed the PAT, the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (GARS), and performance-based physical fitness tests. Two weeks later, subjects were retested on the PAT. Results: Factor analysis revealed three subscales: Organization of Performance, Gross Motor Function, and Fine Motor Function. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) of all scales and subscales ranged from 0.731 to 0.881. Test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation) ranged from 0.316 to 0.950. Paired sample t-tests revealed no significant differences between subject performance obtained during the two test periods. Pearson's correlations between the PAT and the GARS ranged from 0.490 to 0.831, and between the PAT and the fitness tests from 0.317 to 0.781.
Although the number of participants was limited (n = 40), the PAT seems to be a useful instrument for assessing ADL performance in older people living in residential homes. In general, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity were satisfactory.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elderly individuals with dementia are vulnerable for a decline in physical functioning and basic activities of daily living (BADL) which can lead to a decline in autonomy and participation. This study reviews the effect of physical activity on physical functioning and BADL in elderly subjects with dementia.
A systematic search of the literature was performed. Key words related to the elderly, dementia, exercise interventions and physical outcome measures were used.
Sixteen studies were included. It was found that physical activity was beneficial in all stages of dementia. Multicomponent interventions (e.g. a combination of endurance, strength and balance) led to larger improvements in gait speed, functional mobility and balance, compared to progressive resistance training alone. BADL and endurance improved but were only assessed in multicomponent interventions. Lower-limb strength improved equally in multicomponent interventions and progressive resistance training.
Multicomponent interventions can improve physical functioning and BADL in elderly subjects regardless of the stage of dementia. The best results were obtained in the interventions with the largest training volume. However, the small number of high-quality studies, and heterogeneity of the participants and interventions prevent us from drawing firm conclusions. Recommendations are given with respect to methodological issues, further research and practical guidelines.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Older persons with dementia may become confronted with a decline in the level of physical activity. Indeed, a positive relationship between physical activity and cognition has been demonstrated. Although the causality of this relationship needs to be confirmed in advanced dementia, particularly animal experimental studies show the possible negative influence of restrained physical activity on behavior of patients with dementia. Patients with dementia, who get immobilized because of agitation and restlessness, may show an increase in these two symptoms. Another cause for reduced physical activity or inactivity may be the experience of pain. Pain experience may even increase in dementia by neuropathological changes in the central nervous system. There is an increasing (inter)national interest for the development of a more reliable assessment and treatment of pain, for the causality of the relationship between pain and physical (in)activity, and for the causality of the relationship between physical (in)activity and cognition in dementia. In the present paper, the various topics will be addressed in this order.
Tijdschrift voor gerontologie en geriatrie 12/2009; 40(6):270-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The imagination of motor actions forms not only a theoretical challenge for cognitive neuroscience but may also be seen as a novel therapeutic tool in neurological rehabilitation, in that it can be used for relearning motor control after damage to the motor system. However, since the majority of rehabilitation patients consist of older individuals it is relevant to know whether the capacity of mental imaging is compromised by age. Scores on the vividness of movement imagery questionnaire were obtained for 333 participants, divided in three age groups. Results showed that elderly participants were slightly worse in motor imagery capacity than younger participants, particularly in relation to motor imagery from an internal (first person) perspective. Furthermore, a possible relation between the level of physical activities and motor imagery capacity is discussed.
Human Movement Science 05/2007; 26(2):203-11. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The focus of this review is on the close relationship between gait and cognition in ageing and associated dementias. This close relationship is supported by epidemiological studies, clinical studies of older people with and without dementia that focused on the intensity of the physical activity, clinical studies with older persons without dementia examining a relationship between gait and specific cognitive processes, and human and animal experimental studies examining a neural basis for such a relationship. Despite these findings, most studies with patients with dementia focus exclusively on the relationship between cognition and dementia, with relatively few addressing the relationship between gait and dementia. However, subtle disturbances in gait can be observed in ageing and in (preclinical) subtypes of dementia that are not known for prominent motor disturbances, i.e. Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, vascular Cognitive Impairment No Dementia, Subcortical Ischaemic Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Frontotemporal Dementia, supporting a close relationship between gait and cognition. The relationship between gait and cognition is weakened by the few available intervention studies that examine the effects of walking on cognition in patients with (preclinical) dementia. These studies report equivocal results, which will be discussed. Finally, suggestions for future research will be made.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether walking with a rollator by persons 75 years of age or older is of sufficient intensity to improve aerobic fitness.
A cross-sectional cohort study.
University movement laboratory.
Fifteen subjects 75 years of age or older (mean age, 83.7 y) who could only walk by using a rollator.
During 6 minutes of self-paced treadmill walking using a rollator at a mean walking speed of 0.6 m/s, oxygen uptake (Vo2), carbon dioxide production, and heart rate were determined. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and energy expenditure were calculated. The energy expenditure was expressed as the number of metabolic equivalents (METS), the percentage of estimated maximal Vo2 (Vo2max), the percentage of estimated Vo2max reserve, and the percentage of estimated maximal heart rate.
Mean Vo2 was .718 L/min. Mean RER was .93 (95% confidence interval [CI], .89-.97). Thirteen participants showed an RER below 1.0, which indicates a negligible contribution of anaerobic expenditure. Walking with a rollator required a mean of 2.8 (95% CI, 2.4-3.2) METS, 71.9% of Vo2max (95% CI, 65.2%-78.6%), 50.5% (95% CI, 39.4%-61.5%) of Vo2 reserve, and 75.2% (95% CI, 67.6%-82.8%) of estimated maximal heart rate.
For people 75 years of age or older, walking with a rollator is an activity of moderate to high level of intensity, with the capacity of improving aerobic fitness.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 06/2006; 87(5):733-6. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interventions to promote successful aging include psychological and physical activity programs. Identification of determinants of attendance of older persons may be useful to develop strategies to improve attendance. For physical activity programs determinants of attendance have been investigated extensively. For psychological programs hardly any knowledge is available. Determinants of attendance at psychological and physical activity programs have never been investigated simultaneously.
To identify demographic, physical and psychological determinants of attendance of older subjects following multifaceted psychological training - aimed at promoting active social participation - and physical activity training and to compare the variation of these determinants between the two training programs.
118 subjects aged 65-92 years were randomized over psychological and physical activity training. Determinants of attendance were obtained at pretest with questionnaires and performance-based tests.
Mean attendance was 62%. Attendance was not related to type of program. Having chronic diseases facilitated attendance in the psychological training group and limited attendance in the physical activity training group. Low and high levels of Activities of Daily Living performance (ADLs) and walking endurance were related to a high attendance in the psychological training group. A low level of activities of daily living (ADL) and a low walking endurance were related to a low attendance in the physical activity training group. For both training groups, persons living with a partner had higher attendance rates than persons living alone, and persons with a low level of anxiety had higher attendance rates than persons with a moderate or a high level of anxiety.
Psychological training may be more suitable for frail older persons with chronic diseases, low ADL levels and low walking endurance than physical activity training, and may help to prepare such persons for physical activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In ageing populations fear of falling is an important issue. International studies and collaborations require scales suitable to more cultures. Scales developed in one culture require adaptation and additional investigation of psychometric properties for use in other countries.
To investigate the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC-NL) and whether adding questions about complex/dual tasks improves the discriminatory power.
Subjects were 106 men and 140 women aged 65-92 years. Measures were the 16-item ABC-NL and seven additional more complex items, fall history, general and physical self-efficacy, a functional reach test and a balance platform test.
The ABC-NL had a weak ceiling effect. Internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha) was high. The relationship between ABC-NL and physical self-efficacy was significantly stronger than between the ABC-NL and general self-efficacy. Relationships with performance-based measures of balance were moderate. Differences between fallers and non-fallers and between activity avoiders and non-avoiders were significant. Adding questions about complex tasks hardly improved discriminatory power, reliability and validity.
Psychometric properties of the ABC-NL were satisfactory. Further research is needed for use in high-functioning older persons.
Tijdschrift voor gerontologie en geriatrie 10/2005; 36(4):146-54.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Volunteer bias in intervention studies on successful aging has been poorly explored. This paper investigated differences between participants and non-participants of the Groningen Intervention Study on Successful Aging (GISSA) over a wide range of demographic, physical, psychological and social subject characteristics.
Subjects were recruited among a longitudinal cohort study (Groningen Longitudinal Aging Study) and included 558 men and 711 women, aged 65-96 years, who were invited to participate in the GISSA. Measures were obtained by questionnaires at the moment of invitation and eight years before invitation. Participants were compared with three groups of non-participants: persons who refused to participate, those who did not respond after a reminder, and those who intended to participate but withdrew before pre-test.
At the moment of invitation, participants were younger, better educated, and functionally and physically more active than the three groups of non-participants. They also had better scores on the physical functioning subscale of the medical outcome scale, better ADL, iADL and vigorous ADL functions and fewer depressive symptoms, and perceived less social support in everyday and problem situations. Participants reported a less strong rate of decline in physical and psychological functioning in the eight years prior to the invitation than did the other groups.
Due to volunteer bias, results of intervention studies on successful aging may have limited generalizability.
Aging clinical and experimental research 07/2005; 17(3):236-45. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Achtergrond:In onze vergrijzende maatschappij is valangst een belangrijk concept. Tot voor kort waren er in Nederland geen schalen beschikbaar
waarmee valangst kan worden gemeten. Schalen ontwikkeld in andere landen moeten aangepast en opnieuw onderzocht worden voordat
zij te gebruiken zijn in ons land.
Doel:(1) Onderzoeken van de psychometrische eigenschappen van een Nederlandse versie van de Activities-Specific Balance Confidence
Scale (ABC-NL). (2) Onderzoeken of toevoeging van items die refereren naar complexere situaties het discriminerend vermogen
Methode:De deelnemers zijn 106 mannen en 140 vrouwen in de leeftijd van 65-92 jaar. De metingen bestaan uit de 16-item ABC-NL en zeven
complexere items, valverleden, algemene en lichamelijke self-efficacy (eigen effectiviteit), de functional reach test en een
Resultaten: De ABC-NL heeft een gering plafondeffect, de maximale score wordt door meerdere personen gehaald. De interne consistentie
is hoog. De ABC-NL is significant sterker gerelateerd aan lichamelijke self-efficacy dan aan algemene self-efficacy. De relatie
met objectieve metingen voor balans is redelijk. Verschillen tussen vallers en niet-vallers en tussen mensen die activiteit
vermijden uit angst om te vallen en mensen die geen activiteiten vermijden zijn significant. Toevoeging van complexere items
verbetert de psychometrische eigenschappen nauwelijks.
Conclusie: De psychometrische eigenschappen van de ABC-NL zijn bevredigend. Nader onderzoek is gewenst voor gebruik bij ouderen die
op hoog niveau functioneren.
Is the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale suitable for Dutch older persons living in the community?
Background: In ageing populations fear of falling is an important issue. International studies and collaborations require scales suitable
to more cultures. Scales developed in one culture require adaptation and additional investigation of psychometric properties
for use in other countries.
Objective: To investigate the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC-NL)
and whether adding questions about complex/dual tasks improves the discriminatory power.
Method: Subjects were 106 men and 140 women aged 65-92 years. Measures were the 16-item ABC-NL and seven additional more complex
items, fall history, general and physical self-efficacy, a functional reach test and a balance platform test.
Results: The ABC-NL had a weak ceiling effect. Internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha) was high. The relationship between ABC-NL and
physical self-efficacy was significantly stronger than between the ABC-NL and general self-efficacy. Relationships with performance-based
measures of balance were moderate. Differences between fallers and non-fallers and between activity avoiders and non-avoiders
were significant. Adding questions about complex tasks hardly improved discriminatory power, reliability and validity.
Conclusion: Psychometric properties of the ABC-NL were satisfactory. Further research is needed for use in high-functioning older persons.
Tijdschrift voor gerontologie en geriatrie 01/2005; 36(4):164-172.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A significant proportion of older adults in The Netherlands do not participate regularly in leisure-time physical activity. The Groningen Active Living Model (GALM) was developed to change this situation for the better. Longitudinal results of the validation of the GALM behavioral change model are presented.
We obtained data on potentially mediating variables of physical activity behavior change (self-efficacy, social support, perceived fitness, and enjoyment) from 96 participants in a prospective study during the 18 months the GALM strategy lasted.
Prospective analyses revealed significant differences in several potentially mediating variables, although some of these differences were contrary to our hypothesis. Discriminant analysis resulted in canonical correlations of 0.50 after 6 months and 0.66 after 18 months of program participation between adherers and nonadherers, respectively; 73.8 and 80.0% of the subjects were classified correctly.
Based on the results, it can be concluded that we partially succeeded in manipulating the potentially mediating variables by means of our GALM strategy. Several mediating variables were identified that reliably discriminated long-term adherers from nonadherers, expanding the generalizability of social cognitive theory-driven variables to a Dutch population.
Preventive Medicine 01/2004; 37(6 Pt 1):561-70. · 3.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In today's aging society, preventing or reducing disability is important. Physical activity may serve this goal. Generally, physical activity aims to enhance physical fitness, which in turn may prevent disability. The relationship between physical fitness and disability has been much less explored than the relationship between physical activity and physical fitness.
To investigate the relationship between separate components of physical fitness and disability.
The subjects were a community-based sample of 176 men and 233 women aged 65 years or older. Physical fitness was assessed with performance-based tests. Disability and potential confounders were assessed during face-to-face interviews.
Independently of other fitness components, walking endurance, grip strength, manual dexterity and balance contributed significantly to the prediction of disability for both men and women. Flexibility of the hip and spine, flexibility of the shoulder and reaction time were not independent predictors of disability for men or women. Physical fitness explained a greater percentage of variance in disability for women (31-48%) than for men (14-34%). Although depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning (men), number of chronic conditions (women) and age (women) explained additional variance in disability, these variables did not confound the relationship between physical fitness and disability.
Walking endurance, grip strength and manual dexterity are important unique predictors of disability. Physical activity programs should be directed at these fitness components.