S.S. Dritz

Kansas State University, Манхэттен, Kansas, United States

Are you S.S. Dritz?

Claim your profile

Publications (573)269.78 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A total of 288 finishing pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050, initially 129.6 lb) were used in a 73-d study to determine the effects of increasing sorghum dried distillers grains with solu-bles (DDGS) in sorghum-or corn-based diets on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fat quality. Pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design based on initial pen weight. The dietary treatments included sorghum-based diets with sorghum DDGS included at 0, 15, 30, or 45%; a sorghum-based diet with 30% corn DDGS; and a corn-based diet with 30% corn DDGS. Overall (d 0 to 73), increasing sorghum DDGS from 0 to 45% reduced (linear, P < 0.04) ADG and ADFI. Increasing sorghum DDGS increased (linear, P < 0.01) backfat iodine value (IV), and fat color became less red (a*; linear, P < 0.01) and tended to be less yellow (b*; linear, P < 0.06). No differences were observed in growth perfor-mance among pigs fed corn-or sorghum-based diets with 30% corn DDGS along with similar carcass characteristics, backfat, loin depth, fat-free lean index (FFLI), HCW, carcass yield, and backfat IV. Pigs fed sorghum-based diets with either 30% sorghum or corn DDGS had similar ADG, ADFI, and F/G, as well as similar carcass character-istics; however, pigs fed 30% sorghum DDGS had decreased (P < 0.01) backfat IV and fat color that was more white (L*) and less yellow (b*) in color than pigs fed 30% corn DDGS. We observed similar ADG, ADFI, and F/G, as well as carcass characteristics, for pigs fed corn-or sorghum-based diets with 30% DDGS. Backfat IV was greater in pigs fed increasing DDGS, with a notable increase in pigs fed corn DDGS compared with those fed sorghum DDGS. Feeding sorghum DDGS produces pork fat that is lighter in color and less yellow than those fed corn DDGS, which may have an important role in pork export markets.
    Journal of Animal Science 06/2015; DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-8022 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vaccines consisting of subunit or inactivated bacteria/virus and potent adjuvants are widely used to control and prevent infectious diseases. Because inactivated and subunit antigens are often less antigenic than live microbes, a growing need exists for the development of new and improved vaccine adjuvants that can elicit rapid and long-lasting immunity. Here we describe the development and characterization of a novel oil-in-water emulsion, OW-14. OW-14 contains low-cost plant-based emulsifiers and was added to antigen at a ratio of 1:3 with simple hand mixing. OW-14 was stable for prolonged periods of time at temperatures ranging from 4 to 40°C and could be sterilized by autoclaving. Our results showed that OW-14 adjuvanted inactivated swine influenza viruses (SIV; H3N2 and H1N1) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) vaccines could be safely administered to piglets in two doses, three weeks apart. Injection sites were monitored and no adverse reactions were observed. Vaccinated pigs developed high and prolonged antibody titers to both SIV and M. hyo. Interestingly, antibody titers were either comparable or greater than those produced by commercially available FluSure (SIV) or RespiSure (M. hyo) vaccines. We also found that OW-14 can induce high antibody responses in pigs that were vaccinated with a decreased antigen dose. This study provides direct evidence that we have developed an easy-to-use and low-cost emulsion that can act as a powerful adjuvant in two common types of swine vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Vaccine 04/2015; 25(25). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.065 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Data from existing literature were used to generate equations to predict finishing pig back, belly, and jowl fat iodine values (IV) and an experiment was conducted to evaluate these equations. The final database included 24, 21, and 29 papers for back, belly, and jowl fat IV, respectively. For experiments that changed dietary fatty acid composition, initial (INT) diets were defined as those fed before the change in diet composition and final (FIN) diets were those fed after. The predictor variables tested were divided into 5 groups: 1) diet fat composition (dietary percent C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, EFA, unsaturated fatty acids, and IV product) for both INT and FIN diets, 2) day feeding the INT and FIN diets, 3) ME or NE of the INT and FIN diet, 4) live performance criteria (initial BW, final BW, ADG, ADFI, and G:F), and 5) carcass criteria (HCW and backfat thickness). The PROC MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC) was used to develop regression equations. Evaluation of models with significant terms was then conducted based on the Bayesian information criterion. The optimum equations to predict back, belly, and jowl fat IV were backfat IV = 84.83 + (6.87 × INT EFA) - (3.90 × FIN EFA) - (0.12 × INT days) - (1.30 × FIN days) - (0.11 × INT EFA × FIN days) + (0.048 × FIN EFA × INT days) + (0.12 × FIN EFA × FIN days) - (0.0060 × FIN NE) + (0.0005 × FIN NE × FIN days) - (0.26 × backfat depth); belly fat IV = 106.16 + (6.21 × INT EFA) - (1.50 × FIN days) - (0.11 × INT EFA × FIN days) - (0.012 × INT NE) + (0.00069 × INT NE × FIN days) - (0.18 × HCW) - (0.25 × backfat depth); and jowl fat IV = 85.50 + (1.08 × INT EFA) + (0.87 × FIN EFA) - (0.014 × INT days) - (0.050 × FIN days) + (0.038 × INT EFA × INT days) + (0.054 × FIN EFA × FIN days) - (0.0066 × INT NE) + (0.071 × INT BW) - (2.19 × ADFI) - (0.29 × backfat depth). Dietary treatments from the evaluation experiment consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet with no added fat or a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with main effects of fat source (4% tallow, 4% soybean oil, or a blend of 2% tallow and 2% soybean oil) and feeding duration (d 0 to 42, 42 to 84, or 0 to 84). The back, belly, and jowl fat IV equations tended to overestimate IV when observed IV were less than approximately 65 g/100 g and underestimate belly fat IV when actual IV are greater than approximately 74 g/100 g or when the fat blend was fed from d 0 to 84 or 42 to 84. Overall, with the exceptions noted, the regression equations were an accurate tool for predicting carcass fat quality based on dietary and pig performance factors.
    Journal of Animal Science 04/2015; 93(4):1666. DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-8400 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Use of in-feed antibiotics such as chlortetracycline (CTC) in food animals is fiercely debated as a cause of antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens; as a result, alternatives to antibiotics such as heavy metals have been proposed. We used a total community DNA approach to experimentally investigate the effects of CTC and copper supplementation on the presence and quantity of antimicrobial resistance elements in the gut microbial ecology of pigs. Total community DNA was extracted from 569 fecal samples collected weekly over a 6-week period from groups of 5 pigs housed in 32 pens that were randomized to receive either control, CTC, copper, or copper plus CTC regimens. Qualitative and quantitative PCR were used to detect the presence of 14 tetracycline resistance (tet) genes and to quantify gene copies of tetA, tetB, blaCMY-2 (a 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance gene), and pcoD (a copper resistance gene), respectively. The detection of tetA and tetB decreased over the subsequent sampling periods, whereas the prevalence of tetC and tetP increased. CTC and copper plus CTC supplementation increased both the prevalence and gene copy numbers of tetA, while decreasing both the prevalence and gene copies of tetB. In summary, tet gene presence was initially very diverse in the gut bacterial community of weaned pigs; thereafter, copper and CTC supplementation differentially impacted the prevalence and quantity of the various tetracycline, ceftiofur and copper resistance genes resulting in a less diverse gene population. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 02/2015; 119(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.02.008 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) has profoundly affected the U.S. swine industry since it emerged May 2013. Since late January 2014, it has been suspected that PEDv outbreaks have been associated with consumption of PEDv positive feed or feed ingredients. However, information is lacking which confirms the ability of feed to be a vector in PEDv transmission and no data is available which describes the minimum infectious dose of PEDv in a feed matrix. Additionally, it is believed that the normal temperature and retention times utilized by commercial pellet mills will be adequate to mitigate PEDv infectivity; however, no research has been conducted to test this hypothesis. Therefore, the purpose of this project was: 1) determine the minimum infectious dose of PEDv in a feed matrix and 2) determine if the retention time and temperatures used in commercial pellet mills will influence PEDv infectivity. Our results confirmed that feed can be a vehicle for PEDv transmission and that the minimum infectious dose of PEDv in a feed matrix is quite low. A PEDv dose that corresponded to a PCR Ct value of 37 was low enough to lead to infectivity. In layman’s terms, this is theoretically equivalent to 1 g of infected pig feces being diluted in approximately 500 tons of feed. Our results also showed that the pelleting process utilized in many commercial mills can act as a point-in-time mitigation step in PEDv-associated risk prevention plans because none of the virus-inoculated and processed feed lead to infectivity in the pig bioassay model, even though the PCR analysis indicated that PEDv RNA was present in the processed feed. In contrast, the non-processed feed did lead to PEDv infectivity.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing the dietary Zn content on growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma Zn, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs fed diets containing ractopamine HCl (RAC; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). In Exp. 1, 312 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; 94 kg BW) were used in a 27-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 26 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal diet (control; 0.66% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; and the RAC diet plus 50, 100, or 150 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or 50 mg Zn/kg from a Zn AA complex (ZnAA; Availa-Zn; Zinpro, Eden Prairie, MN). All diets also contained 83 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 in the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet without added Zn had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, carcass yield, and loin weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. Increasing Zn from ZnO in diets containing RAC tended to increase (linear, P = 0.067) G:F and loin weight (quadratic, P = 0.064). Pigs fed diets with 50 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA tended to have increased (P = 0.057) ADG compared with pigs fed the RAC diet. In Exp. 2, 320 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC; 98 kg BW) were used in a 35-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 20 pens per treatment. Treatments included a control diet (0.66% SID Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; or the RAC diet plus 75, 150, and 225 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or ZnAA. All diets also contained 55 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 from the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, loin depth, percentage lean, and liver weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. No Zn level or source effects or level × source interactions were observed for growth performance. A Zn level × source interaction (quadratic, P = 0.007) was observed in liver Zn concentrations. This resulted from liver Zn concentrations plateauing at 150 mg Zn/kg when ZnO was supplemented, while there was a linear increase when using ZnAA. Increasing Zn in diets containing RAC increased (linear, P < 0.05) plasma Zn on d 18 and 32. The expression of IL-1β was increased (P = 0.014) in mucosa of pigs fed the RAC diet compared with those fed the control diet. Expression of IL-1β decreased (linear, P = 0.026) in the mucosa of pigs fed increasing added Zn. In conclusion, adding Zn to diets containing RAC resulted in a trend for improved growth performance of pigs in 1 of 2 experiments. Also, additional Zn increased plasma Zn and reduced IL-1β.
    Journal of Animal Science 01/2015; 93(1):185-96. DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-8286 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Zinc (Zn) is often supplemented at elevated concentrations in swine diets, particularly in piglets, to prevent enteric infections and promote growth. Previous studies from Denmark have suggested a genetic linkage and a phenotypic association between Zn resistance, encoded by czrC, and methicillin-resistance conferred by mecA in Staphylococcus aureus. Such an association has not been reported in the U.S. swine population. We conducted an analysis of the effects of Zn, supplemented as zinc oxide (ZnO), on the nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursery (n=40) and finisher pigs (n=40) enrolled in a nutritional study. Nasal swabs, collected from nursery and finisher pigs, were inoculated onto MRSA CHROMagar and presumptive MRSA colonies were tested for the presence of mecA and czrC genes by polymerase chain reaction. Zinc susceptibility was determined by the agar dilution method. The prevalence of mecA-positive MRSA was 10% (4/40) and 20% (8/40) among nursery and finisher pigs, respectively. Of the 12 mecA-positive S. aureus isolates, 7 had the czrC gene (58.3%) compared to none among the 68 mecA-negative isolates. The presence of both mecA (p=0.002) and czrC (p=0.006) genes were positively associated with higher levels of Zn supplementation. The median minimum inhibitory concentrations of Zn for czrC-positive and czrC-negative isolates were 12 and 2 mM, respectively (p<0.0001). The link between czrC and mecA genes suggests the importance of elevated Zn supplementation in the co-selection and propagation of methicillin resistance among S. aureus in pigs.
    Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 12/2014; 12(2). DOI:10.1089/fpd.2014.1851 · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Post–processing contamination of PEDv in feed and feed ingredients is a significant concern to the swine industry. Irradiation and thermal processing have both been hypothesized as possible mitigants of the virus, but both are point-in-time solutions that do not provide residual benefits to prevent potential recontamination or cross-contamination within manufacturing, transportation, or storage. This study aimed to find a possible mitigation strategy to help minimize the threat of recontamination in feed and feed ingredients. The results suggested that feed and/or feed ingredients can be treated with different chemical treatments as a means to mitigate PEDv contamination, with medium chain fatty acids, essential oils, and formaldehyde being particularly effective. Importantly, the success of various chemical mitigants was dependent upon matrix, and the PEDv stability over time was also matrix-dependent, and more stable in meat and bone meal and spray-dried animal plasma compared to blood meal or a complete swine diet. This research helps provide potential mitigation solutions that can mitigate PEDv infectivity when transmitted by feed, and thereby ultimately lessen PEDv associated losses to the swine industry.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A total of 126 gilts and sows (PIC 1050) and their litters were used to determine the effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow plasma, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol. Additionally, we estimated the bioavailability of D-α-tocopheryl acetate (D-α-TAc) relative to DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (DL-α-TAc) when fed in diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The 6 dietary treatments included DL-α-TAc at 44 and 66 mg/kg and D-α-TAc at 11, 22, 33, and 44 mg/kg. From breeding to d 69 of gestation, sows were fed 2.0 kg/d of a diet containing 40%-DDGS, 0.30 mg/kg added Se, and no added vitamin E. Vitamin E treatments were fed from d 70 of gestation through weaning. Plasma was collected from sows on d 69 and 100 of gestation, at farrowing, and at weaning. Colostrum and milk samples were also collected. Plasma from 3 pigs per litter and heart and liver samples from 1 pig per litter were collected at weaning. Plasma, milk, and tissues from 6 litters per treatment were analyzed for α-tocopherol. Although tissue, plasma, and milk concentrations of α-tocopherol were the primary response criteria of interest, sow and litter performance were measured. As expected, treatment effects were not observed (P > 0.10) for lactation feed intake, sow BW, or backfat measurements. A trend (P = 0.085) for a treatment effect on average pig BW at weaning was detected, with pigs nursing sows fed 44 mg/kg DL-α-TAc weighing less because of a younger weaning age. No other differences in litter performance were observed (P > 0.10). As D-α-TAc increased in the diet, sow plasma, colostrum, milk, pig plasma, and pig heart concentrations of α-tocopherol increased (linear, P < 0.03). Sows fed diets with 44 mg/kg D-α-TAc had increased (P < 0.03) plasma, colostrum, and pig plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol compared with sows fed 44 mg/kg of DL-α-TAc. Sows fed 66 mg/kg DL-α-TAc also had greater (P = 0.022) plasma α-tocopherol at weaning than sows fed 44 mg/kg DL-α-TAc. Bioavailability coefficients for D-α-TAc relative to DL-α-TAc ranged from 1.9 to 4.2 for sow and pig plasma α-tocopherol, 2.9 to 3.6 for colostrum α-tocopherol, 1.6 for milk α-tocopherol, and 1.7 to 2.0 for pig heart and liver α-tocopherol. Overall, this study indicates that the relative bioavailability for D-α-TAc relative to DL-α-TAc varies depending on the response criteria but is greater than the standard potency value of 1.36.
    Journal of Animal Science 09/2014; 92(10). DOI:10.2527/jas.2013-7311 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A total of 576 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initial BW = 55.8 ± 5.5 kg) were used to determine the effects of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat middlings (midds) withdrawal 24 d before harvest in diets without or with ractopamine HCl (RAC) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. From d 0 to 49, pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet (CS) or a diet high in unsaturated fat and crude fiber provided by 30% DDGS and 19% wheat midds (HFF) and not balanced for energy. On d 49, pens of pigs previously fed CS diets remained on the CS diet. Half of the HFF-fed pigs were switched to the CS-based diets, which served as the withdrawal regimen. Finally, half of the HFF-fed pigs remained on the same HFF diet. All 3 regimens were fed without or with 10 ppm RAC. There were 12 pens per treatment with 8 pigs per pen. No significant diet regimen × RAC interactions were observed. From d 0 to 49, pigs fed the CS diet had increased (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F compared with pigs fed the HFF diet. Overall (d 0 to 73), pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F than those fed the HFF diets throughout. Pigs fed the withdrawal diets had greater (P = 0.014) ADG, but similar G:F to those fed the HFF diets throughout. Pigs fed the CS diets throughout had greater (P = 0.025) carcass yield compared with pigs fed the HFF diets throughout, with those fed the withdrawal diets intermediate. Pigs fed RAC had greater (P < 0.001) ADG, G:F, and carcass yield (P = 0.061than pigs not fed RAC. Jowl, backfat, belly, and leaf fat iodine value (IV) were lowest (P < 0.001) for pigs fed the CS diets, highest (P < 0.015) for those fed HFF diets throughout, and intermediate for pigs fed the withdrawal diet. There were no differences in either full or rinsed intestine or organ weights between pigs that were fed CS diets throughout and pigs fed the withdrawal diet; however, pigs fed the HFF diets throughout the study had increased (P = 0.002) rinsed cecum and full large intestine weights (P = 0.003) compared with the pigs fed the withdrawal diets. Withdrawing the HFF diet and switching to a CS diet for the last 24 d before harvest partially mitigated negative effects on carcass yield and IV often associated with high-fat, high-fiber ingredients such as DDGS and wheat midds. Feeding RAC for the last 24 d before market, regardless of dietary regimen, improved growth performance and carcass yield.
    Journal of Animal Science 09/2014; 92(10). DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-7434 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three experiments were conducted to compare the effects of a conventional dry (five 30.5-cm spaces 152.4 cm wide; Staco Inc., Schaefferstown, PA) vs. a wet-dry (double sided; each side = 38.1-cm space; Crystal Spring; GroMaster Inc., Omaha, NE) finishing feeder (Exp. 1 and 2) and to evaluate the effects of feeder design and dietary level of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS; >10% oil; Exp. 3) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 1,186 pigs (32.1 kg BW) were used in a 69-d experiment. There were 26 to 28 pigs per pen and 22 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 4 phases. In Exp. 2, 1,236 pigs (28.7 kg BW) were used in a 104-d experiment, with 25 to 28 pigs per pen and 23 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 5 phases. Carcass measurements were obtained from 11 pens of each feeder design after harvest. In Exp. 3, 1,080 pigs (35.1 kg BW) were used in a 99-d 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of feeder design (dry vs. wet-dry feeders) and DDGS (20 vs. 60%) with 10 pens of 27 pigs per treatment and all diets fed in 4 phases. Jowl fat samples were collected from 2 pigs per pen for fatty acid analysis and iodine value (IV) determination. In all experiments, pigs fed with the wet-dry feeder had greater (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and final BW. In Exp. 2 and 3, HCW and backfat depth were increased (P < 0.05) for pigs fed with a wet-dry feeder, but G:F and fat-free lean index (FFLI) were reduced. Jowl IV was also reduced (P < 0.05) with a wet-dry feeder in Exp. 3. Pigs fed 60% DDGS in Exp. 3 had decreased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, final BW, HCW, and backfat but increased jowl IV and a tendency (P < 0.07) toward greater FFLI regardless of feeder type. In conclusion, pigs fed with this specific type of wet-dry feeder had improved ADG and ADFI, poorer G:F, and increased backfat depth compared to pigs fed with a conventional dry feeder. The poorer growth performance and increased jowl IV of pigs fed diets with 60% DDGS was similarly exhibited for pigs fed on both feeders.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2014; 92(8):3591-7. DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-7686 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A total of 1,480 pigs were used in 3 experiments to determine the effects of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) varying in oil content on growth performance, carcass traits, and nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 1,198 pigs (PIC Line 337 × 1050; initially 46.1 kg) were allotted to a corn-soybean meal-based diet or diets with 20 or 40% of a 5.4% oil DDGS (29.5% CP, 8.9% ADF, and 21.8% NDF; as-fed basis) or a 9.6% oil DDGS (29.6% CP, 15.3% ADF, and 28.6% NDF; as-fed basis). From d 0 to 82, ADG was unaffected by DDGS source or level. However, increasing 5.4% oil DDGS decreased (linear, P < 0.01) G:F, whereas G:F did not change among pigs fed 9.6% oil DDGS (DDGS source × level interaction; P < 0.01). Regardless of DDGS source, carcass yield and HCW decreased (linear, P < 0.04) with increasing DDGS. Increasing DDGS increased jowl iodine value (IV), but the magnitude was greater in pigs fed the 9.6% oil DDGS compared with those fed 5.4% oil DDGS (DDGS source × level interaction; P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, 270 pigs (PIC Line 327 × 1050; initially 46.5 kg) were allotted a corn-soybean meal-based diet or diets with 20 or 40% of a 9.4% oil DDGS (29.4% CP, 19.6% ADF, and 34.5% NDF; as-fed basis) or a 12.1% oil DDGS (28.5% CP, 17.6% ADF, and 31.4% NDF; as-fed basis). From d 0 to 75, ADG increased and then decreased for pigs fed 9.4% oil DDGS but was unchanged for pigs fed 12.1% oil DDGS (quadratic interaction, P < 0.02). Increasing DDGS increased (linear, P < 0.01) jowl IV and tended (linear, P < 0.07) to increase G:F. Regardless of source, HCW and carcass yield decreased (linear, P < 0.05) as DDGS increased. In Exp. 3, nutrient digestibility of the 4 DDGS sources was determined using pigs fed either a corn-based basal diet (96.6% corn and 3.4% vitamins and minerals) or a DDGS diet with 50% basal diet and 50% DDGS. On an as-fed basis, corn contained 3,871 and 3,515 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively. The 5.4, 9.6, 9.4, and 12.1% oil DDGS contained 4,347, 4,648, 4,723, and 4,904 kcal/kg (as-fed basis) GE and 3,417, 3,690, 3,838, and 3,734 kcal/kg DE, respectively (as-fed basis). Stepwise regression indicated that the oil (ether extract) content was the only significant variable to explain differences in energy content. The equations generated to predict DE and NE as a function of oil content on an as-fed basis were DE (kcal/kg) = 62.347 × ether extract (%) + 3,058.13 (n = 5, adjusted R(2) = 0.41) and NE (kcal/kg) = 115.011 × ether extract (%) + 1,501.01 (n = 5, adjusted R(2) = 0.86).
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2014; 92(8):3610-23. DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-7678 · 1.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: A total of 1,248 pigs (initially 28.9 kg BW) were used in a 120-d study to determine the effects of added tribasic copper chloride (TBCC; IntelliBond C; Micronutrients, Indianapolis, IN) and increasing standardized ileal digestible Lys on growth performance, carcass characteristics, liver Cu concentration, and carcass fat quality in finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, balanced on average pen weight in a randomized complete block design with 26 pigs per pen and 8 replications per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 3×2 factorial with main effects of SID Lys (85, 92.5, and 100% of the estimated requirement) and added Cu (0 or 150 ppm) from TBCC. All diets were corn-soybean meal-based with 30% distiller’s dried grains with solubles, 15% bakery meal and 17 ppm Cu from CuSO4 provided from the trace mineral premix. There were no TBCC × SID Lys interactions observed for growth performance or liver Cu concentrations. Increasing SID Lys increased (P< 0.01) ADG, G:F and final BW (Table 1). Pigs fed 150 ppm TBCC tended (P<0.10) to have increased ADG, G:F and final BW. Liver Cu concentrations were greater (P<0.01) in pigs fed TBCC and tended to decrease (quadratic; P<0.09) as SID Lys increased. In pigs fed TBCC, jowl fat iodine value (IV) calculated from the fatty acid analysis of all 3 fat layers, increased with increasing SID Lys but not in pigs fed diets without TBCC (Lys × TBCC interaction; P<0.03). In summary, SID Lys did not influence the response to TBCC is this experiment. Table 1. Dietary SID lys level with or without tribasic copper chloride in finishing pigs. TBCC, ppm Probability, P <1 0 150 SID Lys SID Lys, % 85.0 92.5 100.0 85.0 92.5 100.0 TBCC Linear Quadratic d 120 BW, kg 122.8 125.4 126.2 123.7 125.8 129.0 0.07 0.01 0.76 ADG, kg 0.80 0.81 0.82 0.80 0.82 0.84 0.10 0.01 0.74 ADFI, kg 2.18 2.20 2.19 2.19 2.19 2.23 0.65 0.23 0.95 G:F 0.365 0.370 0.373 0.365 0.374 0.380 0.09 0.01 0.58 Liver Cu, ppm 13 13 12 33 33 26 0.01 0.18 0.09 Jowl IV2 84.2 84.6 83.6 82.7 83.6 85.5 0.74 0.16 0.87 1SEM were 1.52, 0.007, 0.032, 0.004, 3.3, and 0.801 for d 120 BW, ADG, ADFI, G:F, liver Cu, and jowl IV respectively. 2Linear TBCC × Lys interaction (P<0.03). Keywords: finishing pig, copper, lysine, iodine value
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: A total of 1,197 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050) were used in a 72-d study to determine the effects of added Zn from ZnO fed during the grower (d 0-45; initially 58.8 kg) and finisher (d 45-72; initially 99.0 kg) in diets with or without ractopamine HCl (RAC; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) on growth performance and carcass characteristics. There were 25 pigs per pen and 6 pens per treatment. Pens were randomly assigned to a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement in a split-plot design. The whole plot consisted of diets with or without 75 ppm added Zn from d 0 to 45 and the subplots were diets with or without 75 ppm added Zn and with or without 10 ppm RAC from d 45 to72. All diets contained 50 ppm Zn supplied from the premix. No interactions were observed. Addition of 75 ppm Zn during either period or both did not influence pig growth performance or carcass characteristics. Pigs fed RAC had improved (P<0.03) ADG, G:F, final BW, HCW, loin depth, and fat-free lean index compared with pigs fed the control diet. In conclusion, feeding RAC improved the performance of grow-finish pigs; however, additional Zn did not. Keywords: growing-finishing pigs, ractopamine HCl, zinc Table 1. Effects of added zinc during the grower and/or finisher phase on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs fed diets with or without ractopamine HCl Added Zn d 0-45: - - - - + + + + Added Zn d 45-72: - + - + - + - + Added RAC d 45-72: - - + + - - + + SEM d 0 to 72 ADG, kg 0.89 0.88 0.95 0.95 0.89 0.88 0.97 0.96 0.01 ADFI, kg 2.65 2.60 2.60 2.63 2.69 2.68 2.71 2.72 0.05 G:F 0.34 0.34 0.37 0.36 0.33 0.33 0.36 0.35 0.00 Final BW, kg 118.7 118.0 122.9 123.6 119.4 118.0 124.0 124.2 2.7 Carcass Characteristics HCW, kg 86.0 86.0 88.2 90.0 85.4 87.1 88.7 89.5 2.2 Yield,1 % 74.09 74.12 74.64 75.35 73.09 75.52 73.98 74.08 1.35 Backfat thickness,2 mm 16.75 15.69 13.81 14.86 16.29 16.28 14.13 13.67 0.63 Loin depth,2 mm 62.64 61.71 64.59 63.12 61.99 61.58 65.52 66.06 1.13 FFLI,2 % 53.13 53.70 55.13 55.13 53.52 53.33 55.01 55.94 0.57 1Calculated by dividing HCW by live weight obtained at the packing plant. 2Adjusted using HCW as a covariate.
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: A total of 288 pigs (43.8 kg BW) were used in an 83-d trial to determine the effects of hard red winter wheat particle size on finishing pig growth performance and caloric efficiency. Caloric efficiency (CE) was calculated using the ingredient energy values from NRC (2012) ME and INRA (2004) NE. Pigs were allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments with 6 pens/treatment and 8 pigs/pen. The same wheat-soybean meal–based diets were used for all treatments. Diets were fed in mash form. The 3 dietary treatments included hammer-mill ground wheat to particle sizes of: 1) 728; 2) 579; and 3) 326 µm, respectively. From d 0 to 40, decreasing wheat particle size decreased (linear; P<0.03) ADFI (2.29, 2.24, 2.20 kg), but improved (quadratic; P<0.01) G:F (0.400, 0.413, 0.409) and CE (7.89, 7.65, 7.72 Mcal ME/kg) and (5.84, 5.66, 5.71 Mcal NE/kg) basis, with no change (P>0.24) in ADG (0.92, 0.93, 0.90 kg/d). From d 40 to 83, decreasing wheat particle size increased (quadratic; P<0.01) ADG (0.92, 0.90, 0.95 kg/d), and improved (linear; P<0.01) G:F (0.319, 0.322, 0.336) and CE (9.92, 9.83, 9.44 Mcal ME/kg and 7.45, 7.38, 7.08 Mcal NE/kg), with no change (P>0.23) in ADFI (2.87, 2.80, 2.84). Overall from d 0 to 83, reducing wheat particle size improved (linear; P<0.01) G:F and CE on both an ME and NE basis, with no difference in ADG or ADFI. Fine grinding wheat was detrimental to feed intake in early finishing but improved ADG in late finishing and G:F for both periods and overall. Effects of hard red winter wheat particle size on finishing pig growth performance and caloric efficiency Wheat particle size, µm Probability P < d 0 to 83, 728 579 326 SEM Linear Quadratic ADG, kg 0.92 0.91 0.93 0.01 0.47 0.50 ADFI, kg 2.59 2.53 2.53 0.03 0.13 0.43 G:F 0.354 0.361 0.367 0.002 0.01 0.82 Caloric efficiency, Mcal/kg gain ME 8.94 8.76 8.62 0.06 0.01 0.75 NE 6.67 6.53 6.43 0.05 0.01 0.75 Keywords: finishing pig, particle size, wheat
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: A total of 1,232 pigs (PIC 337 × 1050; initially 27.0 ± 0.51 kg) were used in a 98-d study to determine the influence of high doses of added nicotinic acid (NA) on growth, carcass traits, and meat quality of finishing pigs during the summer months. Average daily high, mean, and low temperatures were 27.5, 23.9, and 20.5° C, respectively. There were 28 pigs per pen and 11 replications per treatment. Four dietary treatments were made by adding 0, 350, 700, or 1,050 mg/kg NA (Lonza, Allendale, NJ) to a corn-soybean meal basal diet that contained 30 mg/kg of added NA. Diets were fed in 4 phases with the same NA concentrations in each phase. On d 98 of the study, 2 pigs per pen (1 barrow and 1 gilt) were transported to a commercial abattoir. Carcass traits and pH decline (45 min, 3, and 21 h) were measured at the abattoir. Afterwards, a 40 cm segment of boneless LM was used to determine purge loss and ultimate pH following a 10 d aging period. Then 2.5 cm boneless chops were cut and used to measure subjective color and marbling, objective color (L*, a*, b*), 24 h drip loss, and NA concentration. Overall (d 0 to 98), increasing NA had no effect on ADG or G:F; however, ADFI tended (P = 0.07) to increase. Carcass traits were not influenced by NA. Forty-five min and 21 h pH were decreased with increasing NA (P < 0.01); but ultimate pH was not different. Purge loss, drip loss, and NA concentrations were not influenced by treatment. The a* and b* were increased (P < 0.05) with increasing NA; however, subjective color scores were not different among treatments. Overall, high doses of NA had little influence on growth, carcass traits, and meat quality of finishing pigs raised in a commercial setting. Table 1. Effects of added dietary NA on growth and meat quality of finishing pigs. Dietary NA, mg/kg Probability, P < Item 30 380 730 1,080 SEM Linear Quadratic d 0 to 98 ADG, kg 0.82 0.82 0.83 0.82 0.005 0.40 0.50 ADFI, kg 2.03 2.08 2.10 2.07 0.017 0.07 0.71 G:F 0.404 0.395 0.393 0.398 0.003 0.15 0.90 L* 53.12 54.67 54.56 54.16 0.82 0.54 0.21 a* 18.20 18.30 18.89 19.05 0.39 0.05 0.58 b* 16.05 16.45 16.88 17.09 0.40 0.04 0.89 Keywords: finishing pigs, niacin, nicotinic acid
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: A total of 240 weaned pigs (PIC 1050; initially 6.08 ± 0.60 kg) were used in a 47-d study to compare the effects of added Zn from ZnO, alone or in combination with a low or high dose of chlortetracycline (CTC) on nursery pig growth performance. Pigs were allotted to pens at weaning (d 0) and fed a common starter diet with no antimicrobial for 5 d before the start of the experiment. On d 5, pens of 5 pigs were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, balanced on average pen weight in a randomized complete block design with 8 replications per treatment. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of added ZnO (0 vs. 2,500 ppm of Zn) and CTC (0, 55, or 441 mg/kg feed). Pigs were fed experimental diets from d 5 to 26 after weaning followed by a common corn-soybean meal-based diet without antimicrobial from d 26 to 47. Pigs on the 55 mg/kg treatment received CTC continuously from d 5 to 26; however, to comply with FDA guidelines, CTC was removed from the diets of pigs fed 441 mg/kg CTC on d 15, then added again from d 16 to 26. All diets contained at least 110 ppm of Zn from ZnO in the trace mineral premix. No ZnO × CTC interactions were observed. Pigs fed added ZnO had increased (P=0.001) ADG, ADFI, and BW during the treatment period but decreased G:F (P=0.025) from d 26 to 47 when a common diet was fed. Overall (d 5 to 47), pigs fed added ZnO had increased (P<0.05) ADG and ADFI. Pigs fed CTC had increased (linear, P<0.05) ADG, ADFI, and BW during the treatment period. Overall, pigs fed CTC tended to have increased (linear, P<0.10) ADG and ADFI, but G:F tended (quadratic, P=0.070) to increase then decrease as CTC increased. In summary, ZnO and CTC increased ADG and ADFI but had a minimal effect on feed efficiency. Table 1. Effect of zinc oxide and chlortetracycline on pig growth. Added Zn, ppm 0 0 0 2,500 2,500 2,500 CTC, mg/kg 0 55 441 0 55 441 SEM d 5 to 26 ADG, g 355 378 386 397 397 417 7.9 ADFI, g 504 514 528 549 542 570 11.9 G:F 0.705 0.737 0.731 0.725 0.734 0.732 0.0128 Keywords: nursery pig, zinc, chlortetracycline
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
  • The Professional Animal Scientist 07/2014; 30(4):375-392. DOI:10.15232/pas.2013-01297
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Text: Iodine value (IV) is a measure of unsaturated fatty acids and is currently the industry standard for assessing pork fat quality. The objective of this meta-analysis was to use data from existing literature to generate equations to predict back, belly, and jowl fat IV of finishing pigs. The final database resulted in 24 papers with 169 observations for backfat IV, 21 papers with 124 observations for belly fat IV, and 29 papers with 197 observations for jowl fat IV. Some observations (back n=36, belly n=37, and jowl n=45) changed dietary fatty acid composition during the experiment (i.e. switching from higher to lower or lower to higher iodine value product diet), where initial diets (I) were defined as those fed before the change in diet composition and final diets (F) were defined as those fed after the change in diet composition. The predictor variables tested were divided into 5 groups: 1) diet fat composition (dietary percent C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, EFA, and unsaturated fatty acids, and iodine value product) for both I and F diets; 2) duration of feeding of the I and F diets; 3) ME or NE content of the I and F diet; 4) performance criteria (initial BW, final BW, ADG, ADFI, and G:F); 5) carcass criteria (HCW and backfat thickness). PROC MIXED (SAS institute, Inc., Cary, NC) was used to develop regression equations, and experiment within paper was included as a random effect. Statistical significance for including terms in the models was determined at P<0.10. Evaluation of models with significant terms was then conducted based on the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), where the lowest BIC were preferred. Optimum equations to predict back (BIC=739), belly (BIC=558), and jowl (BIC=758) fat IV were: backfat IV =84.83+(6.87*I EFA)-(3.90*F EFA)-(0.12*I d)-(1.30*F d)-(0.11*I EFA*F d)+(0.048*F EFA*I d)+(0.12*F EFA*F d)-(0.0060*F NE)+(0.0005*F NE*F d)-(0.26*backfat depth); belly fat IV = 106.16+(6.21*I EFA)-(1.50*F d)-(0.11*I EFA*F d)-(0.012*I NE)+(0.00069*I NE*F d)-(0.18*HCW)-(0.25*BF); and jowl fat IV =85.50+(1.08*I EFA)+(0.87*F EFA)-(0.014*I d)-(0.050*F d)+(0.038*I EFA*I d)+(0.054*F EFA*F d)-(0.0066*I NE)+(0.071*I BW)-(2.19*ADFI)-(0.29*backfat depth). These regression equations may be used to predict the back, belly, and jowl fat IV of finishing pigs fed different diets. Keywords: Iodine value, meta-analysis, pork quality
    2014 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting; 07/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of feed withdrawal time before slaughter on finishing pig carcass composition were evaluated in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 728 pigs (BW = 128.9 ± 1.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized design with NUMBER OF PIGS PER PEN AND LOCATION WITHIN BARN BALANCED ACROSS TREATMENT: The 4 treatments were feed withdrawal times of 8, 24, 36, or 48 h AND THERE WERE 12 REPLICATE PENS PER TREATMENT: .
    Journal of Animal Science 07/2014; 92(8). DOI:10.2527/jas.2013-7367 · 1.92 Impact Factor