S Marka

Columbia University, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (415)1510.36 Total impact

  • Mendes CS · Imre Bartos · Zsuzsanna Márka · Turgay Akay · Szabolcs Márka · Mann RS
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Qualitative and quantitative measurements of motor performance are essential for characterizing perturbations of motor systems. Although several methods exist for analyzing specific motor tasks, few behavioral assays are readily available to researchers that provide a complete set of kinematic parameters in rodents. RESULTS: Here we present MouseWalker, an integrated hardware and software system that provides a comprehensive and quantitative description of kinematic features in freely walking rodents. Footprints are visualized with high spatial and temporal resolution by a non-invasive optical touch sensor coupled to high-speed imaging. A freely available and open-source software package tracks footprints and body features to generate a comprehensive description of many locomotion features, including static parameters such as footprint position and stance patterns and dynamic parameters, such as step and swing cycle duration, and inter-leg coordination. Using this method, we describe walking by wild-type mice including several previously undescribed parameters. For example, we demonstrate that footprint touchdown occurs instantaneously by the entire paw with no obvious rostral-caudal or lateral-medial bias. CONCLUSIONS: The readily available MouseWalker system and the large set of readouts it generates greatly increases the currently available toolkit for the analysis of wild type and aberrant locomotion in rodents.
    BMC Biology 07/2015; 13(13:50). DOI:10.1186/s12915-015-0154-0 · 7.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry–Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recycling has been added in Advanced LIGO to improve the frequency response. In the most sensitive frequency region around 100 Hz, the design strain sensitivity is a factor of 10 better than Initial LIGO. In addition, the low frequency end of the sensitivity band is moved from 40 Hz down to 10 Hz. All interferometer components have been replaced with improved technologies to achieve this sensitivity gain. Much better seismic isolation and test mass suspensions are responsible for the gains at lower frequencies. Higher laser power, larger test masses and improved mirror coatings lead to the improved sensitivity at mid and high frequencies. Data collecting runs with these new instruments are planned to begin in mid-2015.
    Classical and Quantum Gravity 04/2015; 32(7). DOI:10.1088/0264-9381/32/7/074001 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    Imre Bartos · Tracy L. Huard · Szabolcs Marka
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    ABSTRACT: Kilonovae represent an important electromagnetic counterpart for compact binary mergers, which could become the most commonly detected gravitational wave (GW) source. Follow-up observations, triggered by GW sources, of kilonovae are nevertheless difficult due to poor localization by GW detectors and due to their faint near-infrared peak emission that has limited observational capability. We show that the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to detect kilonovae within the relevant GW-detection range of $\sim300$ Mpc, in less than NIRCam's minimum exposure time, for over a week following the merger. Despite this sensitivity, a kilonova search in all galaxies within 300 Mpc in the GW-localized sky area will not be viable with NIRCam because of JWST slew rates. However, targeted surveys may be developed to optimize the likelihood of discovering kilonovae efficiently within limited observing time. We estimate that a targeted survey focused on galaxies within 200 Mpc in a fiducial localized area of $10 \mbox{deg}^2$ would require $\sim$ 6.0 hours, dominated by overhead times; a targeted survey further focused on galaxies exhibiting high star-formation rates would require $\sim$ 2.8 hours. Required times may be reduced by as much as 40%, without compromising the likelihood of detecting kilonovae, in a targeted survey of localized areas associated with 50%, rather than 90%, confidence regions. On detection and identification of a kilonova, a limited number of NIRCam follow-up observations could constrain the properties of matter ejected by the binary and the equation of state of dense nuclear matter.
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    ABSTRACT: Graham et al. (2015) discovered a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) candidate and identified the detected 5.2 yr period of the optical variability as the orbital period of the binary. Hydrodynamical simulations predict multiple periodic components for the variability of SMBHBs, thus raising the possibility that the true period of the binary is different from 5.2 yr. We analyse the periodogram of PG1302 and find no compelling evidence for additional peaks. We derive upper limits on any additional periodic modulations in the available data, by modeling the light-curve as the sum of red noise and the known 5.2 yr periodic component, and injecting additional sinusoidal signals. We find that, with the current data, we would be able to detect with high significance (false alarm probability <1%) secondary periodic terms with periods in the range predicted by the simulations, if the amplitude of the variability was at least ~0.07 mag (compared to 0.14 mag for the main peak). A three-year follow-up monitoring campaign with weekly observations can increase the sensitivity for detecting secondary peaks ~50%, and would allow a more robust test of predictions from hydrodynamical simulations.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth LIGO science data run. The targets were nine young supernova remnants not associated with pulsars; eight of the remnants are associated with non-pulsing suspected neutron stars. One target's parameters are uncertain enough to warrant two searches, for a total of ten. Each search covered a broad band of frequencies and first and second frequency derivatives for a fixed sky direction. The searches coherently integrated data from the two LIGO interferometers over time spans from 5.3-25.3 days using the matched-filtering F-statistic. We found no credible gravitational-wave signals. We set 95% confidence upper limits as strong (low) as $4\times10^{-25}$ on intrinsic strain, $2\times10^{-7}$ on fiducial ellipticity, and $4\times10^{-5}$ on r-mode amplitude. These beat the indirect limits from energy conservation and are within the range of theoretical predictions for neutron-star ellipticities and r-mode amplitudes.
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    ABSTRACT: The recent observation by the IceCube neutrino observatory of an astrophysical flux of neutrinos represents the "first light" in the nascent field of neutrino astronomy. The observed diffuse neutrino flux seems to suggest a much larger level of hadronic activity in the non-thermal universe than previously thought and suggests a rich discovery potential for a larger neutrino observatory. This document presents a vision for an substantial expansion of the current IceCube detector, IceCube-Gen2, including the aim of instrumenting a 10km3 volume of clear glacial ice at the South Pole to deliver substantial increases in the astrophysical neutrino sample for all flavors. A detector of this size would have a rich physics program with the goal to resolve the sources of these astrophysical neutrinos, discover GZK neutrinos, and be a leading observatory in future multi-messenger astronomy programs.
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    ABSTRACT: We present results of a search for continuously-emitted gravitational radiation, directed at the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1. Our semi-coherent analysis covers 10 days of LIGO S5 data ranging from 50-550 Hz, and performs an incoherent sum of coherent $\mathcal{F}$-statistic power distributed amongst frequency-modulated orbital sidebands. All candidates not removed at the veto stage were found to be consistent with noise at a 1% false alarm rate. We present Bayesian 95% confidence upper limits on gravitational-wave strain amplitude using two different prior distributions: a standard one, with no a priori assumptions about the orientation of Scorpius X-1; and an angle-restricted one, using a prior derived from electromagnetic observations. Median strain upper limits of 1.3e-24 and 8e-25 are reported at 150 Hz for the standard and angle-restricted searches respectively. This proof of principle analysis was limited to a short observation time by unknown effects of accretion on the intrinsic spin frequency of the neutron star, but improves upon previous upper limits by factors of ~1.4 for the standard, and 2.3 for the angle-restricted search at the sensitive region of the detector.
    Physical Review D 12/2014; 91(6). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.91.062008 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of a multimessenger search for coincident signals from the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave observatories and the partially completed IceCube high-energy neutrino detector, including periods of joint operation between 2007-2010. These include parts of the 2005-2007 run and the 2009-2010 run for LIGO-Virgo, and IceCube's observation periods with 22, 59 and 79 strings. We find no significant coincident events, and use the search results to derive upper limits on the rate of joint sources for a range of source emission parameters. For the optimistic assumption of gravitational-wave emission energy of $10^{-2}$ M$_\odot$c$^2$ at $\sim 150$ Hz with $\sim 60$ ms duration, and high-energy neutrino emission of $10^{51}$ erg comparable to the isotropic gamma-ray energy of gamma-ray bursts, we limit the source rate below $1.6 \times 10^{-2}$ Mpc$^{-3}$yr$^{-1}$. We also examine how combining information from gravitational waves and neutrinos will aid discovery in the advanced gravitational-wave detector era.
    Physical Review D 11/2014; 90:102002. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.90.102002 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present the results of a coherent narrow-band search for continuous gravitational-wave signals from the Crab and Vela pulsars conducted on Virgo VSR4 data. In order to take into account a possible small mismatch between the gravitational wave frequency and two times the star rotation frequency, inferred from measurement of the electromagnetic pulse rate, a range of 0.02 Hz around two times the star rotational frequency has been searched for both the pulsars. No evidence for a signal has been found and 95$\%$ confidence level upper limits have been computed both assuming polarization parameters are completely unknown and that they are known with some uncertainty, as derived from X-ray observations of the pulsar wind torii. For Vela the upper limits are comparable to the spin-down limit, computed assuming that all the observed spin-down is due to the emission of gravitational waves. For Crab the upper limits are about a factor of two below the spin-down limit, and represent a significant improvement with respect to past analysis. This is the first time the spin-down limit is significantly overcome in a narrow-band search.
    Physical Review D 10/2014; 91(2). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.91.022004 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2009-2010, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observa- tory (LIGO) operated together with international partners Virgo and GEO600 as a network to search for gravitational waves of astrophysical origin. The sensitiv- ity of these detectors was limited by a combination of noise sources inherent to the instrumental design and its environment, often localized in time or frequency, that couple into the gravitational-wave readout. Here we review the performance of the LIGO instruments during this epoch, the work done to characterize the de- tectors and their data, and the effect that transient and continuous noise artefacts have on the sensitivity of LIGO to a variety of astrophysical sources.
    Classical and Quantum Gravity 10/2014; 32(11). DOI:10.1088/0264-9381/32/11/115012 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Walking behavior is context-dependent, resulting from the integration of internal and external influences by specialized motor and pre-motor centers. Neuronal programs must be sufficiently flexible to the locomotive challenges inherent in different environments. Although insect studies have contributed substantially to the identification of the components and rules that determine locomotion, we still lack an understanding of how multi-jointed walking insects respond to changes in walking orientation and direction and strength of the gravitational force. In order to answer these questions we measured with high temporal and spatial resolution the kinematic properties of untethered Drosophila during inverted and vertical walking. In addition, we also examined the kinematic responses to increases in gravitational load. We find that animals are capable of shifting their step, spatial and inter-leg parameters in order to cope with more challenging walking conditions. For example, flies walking in an inverted orientation decreased the duration of their swing phase leading to increased contact with the substrate and, as a result, greater stability. We also find that when flies carry additional weight, thereby increasing their gravitational load, some changes in step parameters vary over time, providing evidence for adaptation. However, above a threshold that is between 1 and 2 times their body weight flies display locomotion parameters that suggest they are no longer capable of walking in a coordinated manner. Finally, we find that functional chordotonal organs are required for flies to cope with additional weight, as animals deficient in these proprioceptors display increased sensitivity to load bearing as well as other locomotive defects.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109204. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109204 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Searches for a stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) using terrestrial detectors typically involve cross-correlating data from pairs of detectors. The sensitivity of such cross-correlation analyses depends, among other things, on the separation between the two detectors: the smaller the separation, the better the sensitivity. Hence, a co-located detector pair is more sensitive to a gravitational-wave background than a non-co-located detector pair. However, co-located detectors are also expected to suffer from correlated noise from instrumental and environmental effects that could contaminate the measurement of the background. Hence, methods to identify and mitigate the effects of correlated noise are necessary to achieve the potential increase in sensitivity of co-located detectors. Here we report on the first SGWB analysis using the two LIGO Hanford detectors and address the complications arising from correlated environmental noise. We apply correlated noise identification and mitigation techniques to data taken by the two LIGO Hanford detectors, H1 and H2, during LIGO's fifth science run. At low frequencies, 40 - 460 Hz, we are unable to sufficiently mitigate the correlated noise to a level where we may confidently measure or bound the stochastic gravitational-wave signal. However, at high frequencies, 460-1000 Hz, these techniques are sufficient to set a $95\%$ confidence level (C.L.) upper limit on the gravitational-wave energy density of \Omega(f)<7.7 x 10^{-4} (f/ 900 Hz)^3, which improves on the previous upper limit by a factor of $\sim 180$. In doing so, we demonstrate techniques that will be useful for future searches using advanced detectors, where correlated noise (e.g., from global magnetic fields) may affect even widely separated detectors.
    Physical Review D 10/2014; 91(2). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.91.022003 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    Imre Bartos · Arlin P. S. Crotts · Szabolcs Marka
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    ABSTRACT: Galaxy catalogs are essential for efficient searches of the electromagnetic counterparts of extragalactic gravitational wave (GW) signals with highly uncertain localization. We show that one can efficiently catalog galaxies within a short period of time with 1-2 meter-class telescopes such as the Palomar Transient Factory or MDM, in response to an observed GW signal from a compact binary coalescence. A rapid galaxy survey is feasible on the relevant time scale of $\lesssim 1$ week, maximum source distance of $> 200$ Mpc and sky area of 100 deg$^2$. The catalog can be provided to other telescopes to aid electromagnetic follow-up observations to find kilonovae from binary coalescences, as well as other sources. We consider H$\alpha$ observations, which track the star formation rate and are therefore correlated with the rate of compact binary mergers. H$\alpha$ surveys are also able to filter out galaxies that are farther away than the maximum GW source distance. Rapid galaxy surveys that follow GW triggers could achieve $\sim90\%$ completeness with respect to star formation rate, which is currently unavailable. This will significantly reduce the effort and immediate availability of catalogs compared to possible future all-sky surveys.
    10/2014; 801(1). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/801/1/L1
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    ABSTRACT: Previously, Raffai et al. optimized a 2-detector network with a combined figure of merit. This optimization was extended to networks with more than two detectors in a limited way by first fixing the parameters of all other component detectors. In this work we now present a more general optimization that allows the locations of all detectors to be simultaneously chosen. We follow the definition of Raffai et al. on the metric that defines the suitability of a certain detector network. Given the locations of the component detectors in the network, we compute a measure of the network's ability to distinguish the polarization, constrain the sky localization and reconstruct the parameters of a gravitational wave source. We further define the `flexibility index' for a possible site location, by counting the number of multi-detector networks with a sufficiently high Figure of Merit that include that site location. We confirm the conclusion of Raffai et al., that Australia hosts the best candidate site to build a future generation gravitational wave detector. This conclusion is valid for either a 3-detector network or a 5-detector network. For a 3-detector network site locations in Northern Europe display a comparable flexibility index to sites in Australia. However for a 5-detector network, Australia is found to be a clearly better candidate than any other location.
    Classical and Quantum Gravity 09/2014; 32(10). DOI:10.1088/0264-9381/32/10/105010 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    Maria Charisi · Szabolcs Marka · Imre Bartos
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    ABSTRACT: We report a comprehensive catalogue of emission episodes within long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that are separated by a quiescent period during which gamma-ray emission falls below the background level. We use a fully automated identification method for an unbiased, large-scale and expandable search. We examine a comprehensive sample of long GRBs from the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment), Swift and Fermi missions, assembling a total searched set of 2710 GRBs, the largest catalogue of isolated emission episodes so far. Our search extends out to [−1000 s, 750 s] around the burst trigger, expanding the covered time interval beyond previous studies and far beyond the nominal durations (T90) of most bursts. We compare our results to previous works by identifying pre-peak emission (or precursors), defined as isolated emission periods prior to the episode with the highest peak luminosity of the burst. We also systematically search for similarly defined periods after the burst's peak emission. We find that the pre-peak and post-peak emission periods are statistically similar, possibly indicating a common origin. For the analysed GRBs, we identify 24 per cent to have more than one isolated emission episode, with 11 per cent having at least one pre-peak event and 15 per cent having at least one post-peak event. We identify GRB activity significantly beyond their T90, which can be important for understanding the central engine activity as well as, e.g. gravitational-wave searches.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2014; 448(3). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2667 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    Imre Bartos · Szabolcs Marka
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    ABSTRACT: Current emission models of GeV-PeV neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) predict a neutrino flux with $\ll1$ detected neutrinos per GRB with kilometer-scale neutrino observatories. The detection of this flux will require the stacking of data from a large number of GRBs, leading to an increased background rate, decreasing the significance of a single neutrino detection. We show that utilizing the temporal correlation between the expected gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes, one can significantly improve the neutrino signal-to-noise ratio. We describe how this temporal correlation can be used. Using realistic GRB and atmospheric neutrino fluxes and incorporating temporal, spectral and directional information, we estimate the probability of a single detected GRB-neutrino being a 5-sigma discovery.
    Physical Review D 09/2014; 90(10). DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.90.101301 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a search for gravitational waves associated with 223 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the InterPlanetary Network (IPN) in 2005-2010 during LIGO's fifth and sixth science runs and Virgo's first, second and third science runs. The IPN satellites provide accurate times of the bursts and sky localizations that vary significantly from degree scale to hundreds of square degrees. We search for both a well-modeled binary coalescence signal, the favored progenitor model for short GRBs, and for generic, unmodeled gravitational wave bursts. Both searches use the event time and sky localization to improve the gravitational-wave search sensitivity as compared to corresponding all-time, all-sky searches. We find no evidence of a gravitational-wave signal associated with any of the IPN GRBs in the sample, nor do we find evidence for a population of weak gravitational-wave signals associated with the GRBs. For all IPN-detected GRBs, for which a sufficient duration of quality gravitational-wave data is available, we place lower bounds on the distance to the source in accordance with an optimistic assumption of gravitational-wave emission energy of $10^{-2}M_{\odot}c^2$ at 150 Hz, and find a median of 13 Mpc. For the 27 short-hard GRBs we place 90% confidence exclusion distances to two source models: a binary neutron star coalescence, with a median distance of 12Mpc, or the coalescence of a neutron star and black hole, with a median distance of 22 Mpc. Finally, we combine this search with previously published results to provide a population statement for GRB searches in first-generation LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors, and a resulting examination of prospects for the advanced gravitational-wave detectors.
    Physical Review Letters 06/2014; 113(1):011102. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.011102 · 7.51 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,510.36 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2015
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • Eötvös Loránd University
      • Institute of Physics
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2012
    • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      • Center for Gravitation and Cosmology
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2011
    • Paris Diderot University
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2007–2008
    • Università degli Studi di Salerno
      Fisciano, Campania, Italy
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • Carleton College
      نورثفیلد، مینه‌سوتا, Minnesota, United States
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Cardiff University
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2005
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 1997–2001
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 1996–2001
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
    • Cornell University
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Rochester, New York, United States
  • 1997–2000
    • Carleton University
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1998
    • Syracuse University
      • Department of Physics
      Syracuse, New York, United States
  • 1996–1998
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Educational Studies
      Columbus, Ohio, United States