[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is the increase in nocturnal light pollution. Although this strongly alters the habitat of nocturnal species, the ecological consequences are poorly known. Moths are well known to be attracted to artificial light sources, but artificial light may affect them in other ways as well. 2. In this study, female Mamestra brassicae moths were subjected to various types of low-intensity artificial night lighting with contrasting spectral compositions (green-rich, red-rich, warm white) or to a dark control treatment and the effects on their sex pheromone production and composition were tested. 3. Artificial night lighting reduced sex pheromone production and altered the chemical composition of the pheromone blend, irrespective of spectral composition. Specifically, amounts of the main pheromone component Z11-16:Ac were reduced, while the deterring compounds Z9-14:Ac, Z9-16:Ac, and Z11-16:OH were increased relative to Z11-16:Ac when females were kept under artificial light. These changes may reduce the effectiveness of the sex pheromones, becoming less attractive for males. 4. These results show for the first time that artificial light at night affects processes that are involved in moth reproduction. The potential for mitigation through manipulation of the spectral composition of artificial light appears limited.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many estuarine areas around the world, the safety of human societies depends on the functioning of embankments (dikes) that provide protection against river floods and storm tides. Vegetation on land-side slopes protects these embankments from erosion by heavy rains or overtopping waves.
We carried out a field experiment to investigate the effect of plant species diversity on soil loss through erosion on a simulated dike. The experiment included four diversity treatments (1, 2, 4, and 8 species). In the third year of the experiment, we measured net annual soil loss by measuring erosion losses every 2 weeks. We show that loss of plant species diversity reduces erosion resistance on these slopes: net annual soil loss increased twofold when diversity declines fourfold. The different plant species had strongly diverging effects on soil erosion, both in the single-species and in the multi-species plots. Analysis of the dynamics of the individual species revealed that the main mechanism explaining the strong effects of plant species diversity on soil erosion is the compensation or insurance effect, that is, the capacity of diverse communities to supply species to take over the functions of species that went extinct as a consequence of fluctuating environmental conditions. We conclude that the protection and restoration of diverse plant communities on embankments and other vegetated slopes are essential to minimize soil erosion, and can contribute to greater safety in the most densely populated areas of the world.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Field margin management is a common measure employed in Europe to support farmland bird populations. In this study we found and analysed 237 nests of the Skylark Alauda arvensis in the Netherlands over a period of 6 years to determine the effects of arable field margins and breeding crop on nest-level reproductive success. Additionally, the effect of field margins on predation was investigated and food availability in crops and field margins was compared. Neither clutch size, nest survival nor nestling body weight were improved by field margin availability, irrespective of the breeding crop used. However, the choice of breeding crop had important effects. Nestling weight was significantly lower in cereals than in grassland and lucerne, corresponding with the low prey densities present in cereals. Nest survival was lowest in grassland due to frequent silage cutting. Predation rates were highest in cereals but were not affected by field margin proximity. The highest reproductive success was achieved in lucerne, which was mown twice a year and retained a suitable height for breeding throughout the breeding season. We conclude that field margins are not sufficient to maintain a Skylark population in this intensively farmed area. The presumably more subtle effects of increased food availability cannot compensate for the high nest failure rates resulting from agricultural operations and predation. In this and similar areas, the provisioning of safe nesting habitat throughout the breeding season is essential to improve breeding performance. Our research suggests that this can be achieved by reducing the frequency of silage cutting on grassland and by increasing the surface area of lucerne.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in root ecology have revealed that root standing biomass is higher in species-rich plant communities than in species-poor communities. Currently, we do not know whether this below-ground diversity effect is the result of enhanced root production or reduced root mortality or both, which is essential information to understand ecosystem functioning, as it determines C sequestration and N dynamics in soil. Minirhizotron observations were combined with root coring in five different plant communities (four monocultures and the respective mixture). Molecular markers were used to quantitatively determine species abundance in mixed root biomass samples in order to track shifts in below-ground species composition. In addition, a litterbag experiment was performed to study root decomposition independent of root mortality. Root length production was greater and root length loss was lower in the mixture than expected from monocultures in all years. Simulations suggest that at least two species must have had reduced losses in mixture compared to monoculture. However, the diversity effects on root mortality may partially be explained by selection effects as the species with the longest root life span became dominant in the mixtures. Root length loss from minirhizotrons was very low; the combination of minirhizotron length measurements with root biomass estimates from coring suggested underestimation of root loss in minirhizotrons over time. Root decomposition was not affected by diversity. Diversity enhanced root length production and decreased root loss, resulting in below-ground overyielding. With decomposition unaffected, our results suggest that root mortality is reduced with increasing diversity. Future studies have to reveal the generality of our observations in larger scale biodiversity experiments by using species having a wider variety of root traits.
Functional Ecology 06/2015; in press. DOI:10.1111/1365-2435.12466 · 4.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agricultural intensification in grasslands has led to the decline of meadow bird populations in The Netherlands in the last 60 years. Habitat for meadow bird chicks has declined in quality and quantity, thereby reducing food availability. Agri-environment schemes (AES) to halt the decline in meadow bird numbers have thus far been insufficient. These AES are on the level of entire fields, but recent research suggests that margins of fields may be more suitable chick habitat than centres of fields. Therefore, it could be productive to specifically target grass field margins as part of meadow bird AES. Our study examined the differences in food availability for meadow bird families in different portions of a grass field. Invertebrates were sampled in different locations on the field and results were compared to known dietary preferences of four species of meadow bird chicks. We show strong differences in food availability within fields, depending on meadow bird species. The preferred prey species of chicks of Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa and Redshank Tringa totanus predominantly occurred in field margins, whereas those of Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus chicks were found mostly in the main part of the field. The prey species of Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus chicks showed no clear pattern within fields. We conclude that food availability within a field differs spatially between meadow bird species. Particularly for Black-tailed Godwit and Redshank, grass field margins constitute an important part of the field. Therefore, specific management to further enhance food availability in these margins may constitute an important addition to the existing mosaic approach.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development, reproduction and inter/intra-specific interactions. 2. Here, we present results of a field-based experiment where we tested effects of various types of artificial lighting on mating in the winter moth (Operophtera brumata, Lepidoptera: Geometridae). We illuminated trunks of oak trees with green, white, red or no artificial LED light at night, and caught female O. bru-mata on these trunks using funnel traps. The females were dissected to check for the presence of a spermatophore, a sperm package that is delivered by males to females during mating. 3. We found a strong reduction in the number of females on the illuminated trunks, indicating artificial light inhibition of activity. Furthermore, artificial light inhibited mating: 53% of females caught on non-illuminated trunks had mated, whereas only 13%, 16% and 28% of the females that were caught on green, white and red light illuminated trunks had mated respectively. 4. A second experiment showed that artificial night lighting reduced the number of males that were attracted to a synthetic O. brumata pheromone lure. This effect was strongest under red light and mildest under green light. 5. This study provides, for the first time, field-based evidence that artificial night lighting disrupts reproductive behaviour of moths, and that reducing short wavelength radiation only partly mitigates these negative effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of agri-environment schemes (AES) in enhancing biodiversity on farmland and creating a long-lasting change in farmers' motivation towards a more environmental-friendly practice is still strongly debated. Applying a regional approach has been advocated widely to make AES more ecologically and socially sustainable. In the Netherlands, some AES are performed collectively by large regional groups of farmers called Environmental Cooperatives (EC). We hypothesise that these cooperatives enhance farmers' intention to participate by facilitating the application of AES, but also by generating group pressure. In the study at hand, we used an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to investigate which factors are associated with farmers' intention to participate in two kinds of collective AES (ditch bank management and the protection of meadow birds). Our results demonstrate that attitude and perceived personal ability to participate in these AES are associated with the intention of farmers to participate in ditch bank management. However, for the protection of meadow birds, social pressure, self-identity and facilitation by the EC also relate to the intention of farmers. We conclude that the facilitation undertaken by ECs positively relates to farmers' intention to participate in collective AES.
Land Use Policy 01/2015; 42:759-766. DOI:10.1016/j.landusepol.2014.10.005 · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Boreal peatlands store large amounts of carbon, reflecting their important role in the global carbon cycle. The short-term exchange and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in these ecosystems are closely associated with the permanently wet surface conditions and are susceptible to drought. Especially, the single most important peat forming plant genus, Sphagnum, depends heavily on surface wetness for its primary production. Changes in rainfall patterns are expected to affect surface wetness, but how this transient rewetting affects net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) remains unknown. This study explores how the timing and characteristics of rain events during photosynthetic active periods, that is daytime, affect peatland NEE and whether rain event associated changes in environmental conditions modify this response (e.g. water table, radiation, vapour pressure deficit, temperature). We analysed an 11-year time series of half-hourly eddy covariance and meteorological measurements from Degerö Stormyr, a boreal peatland in northern Sweden. Our results show that daytime rain events systematically decreased the sink strength of peatlands for atmospheric CO2. The decrease was best explained by rain associated reduction in light, rather than by rain characteristics or drought length. An average daytime growing season rain event reduced net ecosystem CO2 uptake by 0.23–0.54 gC m−2. On an annual basis, this reduction of net CO2 uptake corresponds to 24% of the annual net CO2 uptake (NEE) of the study site, equivalent to a 4.4% reduction of gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. We conclude that reduced light availability associated with rain events is more important in explaining the NEE response to rain events than rain characteristics and changes in water availability. This suggests that peatland CO2 uptake is highly sensitive to changes in cloud cover formation and to altered rainfall regimes, a process hitherto largely ignored.
Global Change Biology 01/2015; 21:2309-2320. DOI:10.1111/gcb.12864 · 8.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arctic tundra ecosystems are warming almost twice as fast as the global average1. Permafrost thaw and the resulting release of greenhouse gases from decomposing soil organic carbon have the potential to accelerate climate warming2, 3. In recent decades, Arctic tundra ecosystems have changed rapidly4, including expansion of woody vegetation5, 6, in response to changing climate conditions. How such vegetation changes contribute to stabilization or destabilization of the permafrost is unknown. Here we present six years of field observations in a shrub removal experiment at a Siberian tundra site. Removing the shrub part of the vegetation initiated thawing of ice-rich permafrost, resulting in collapse of the originally elevated shrub patches into waterlogged depressions within five years. This thaw pond development shifted the plots from a methane sink into a methane source. The results of our field experiment demonstrate the importance of the vegetation cover for protection of the massive carbon reservoirs stored in the permafrost and illustrate the strong vulnerability of these tundra ecosystems to perturbations. If permafrost thawing can more frequently trigger such local permafrost collapse, methane-emitting wet depressions could become more abundant in the lowland tundra landscape, at the cost of permafrost-stabilizing low shrub vegetation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing plant species richness generally enhances plant biomass production, which may enhance accumulation of carbon (C) in soil. However, the net change in soil C also depends on the effect of plant diversity on C loss through decomposition of organic matter. Plant diversity can affect organic matter decomposition via changes in litter species diversity and composition, and via alteration of abiotic and/or biotic attributes of the soil (soil legacy effect). Previous studies examined the two effects on decomposition rates separately, and do therefore not elucidate the relative importance of the two effects, and their potential interaction. Here we separated the effects of litter mixing and litter identity from the soil legacy effect by conducting a factorial laboratory experiment where two fresh single root litters and their mixture were mixed with soils previously cultivated with single plant species or mixtures of two or four species. We found no evidence for litter-mixing effects. In contrast, root litter-induced CO2 production was greater in soils from high diversity plots than in soils from monocultures, regardless of the type of root litter added. Soil microbial PLFA biomass and composition at the onset of the experiment was unaffected by plant species richness, whereas soil potential nitrogen (N) mineralization rate increased with plant species richness. Our results indicate that the soil legacy effect may be explained by changes in soil N availability. There was no effect of plant species richness on decomposition of a recalcitrant substrate (compost). This suggests that the soil legacy effect predominantly acted on the decomposition of labile organic matter. We thus demonstrated that plant species richness enhances root litter-induced soil respiration via a soil legacy effect but not via a litter-mixing effect. This implies that the positive impacts of species richness on soil C sequestration may be weakened by accelerated organic matter decomposition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agricultural intensification may result in important shifts in insect community composition and function, but this remains poorly explored. Studying how groups of species with shared traits respond to local and landscape scale land-use management can reveal mechanisms behind such observed impacts. We tested if ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) divided into trait groups based on body sizes, wing morphologies and dietary preferences respond differently to farming practise (organic and conventional), farming intensity (measured as yield) and landscape complexity (measured as the proportion of arable land within a 1,000 m radius) across Europe. We used data from 143 farms in five regions in northern and central Europe. Organic farms did not differ in abundance or richness of any trait group compared to conventional farms. As farm scale intensity (yield) increased, overall abundance of beetles decreased, but abundances of small and medium sized beetles, as well as that of wingless beetles, were unaffected. Overall species richness was not affected by yield, whereas consideration of traits revealed that phytophagous and omnivorous beetles were less species rich on farms with high yields. Increasing the proportion of arable land in the landscape increased overall beetle abundance. This was driven by an increase in omnivorous beetles. The total species richness was not affected by an increase in the proportion arable land, although the richness of wingless beetles was found to increase. Potential effects on ecosystem functioning need to be taken into account when designing schemes to maintain agricultural biodiversity, because species with different ecological traits respond differently to local management and landscape changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether self-regulating large herbivores play a key role in the development of wood-pasture landscapes remains a crucial unanswered question for both ecological theory and nature conservation. We describe and analyse how a 'partly self-regulating' population of cattle, horses and red deer affected the development of the woody vegetation in the Oostvaardersplassen nature reserve (Netherlands). Using aerial photographs from 1980 to 2011, we analysed the development of shrubs and trees. Before the large herbivores were introduced in the Oostvaardersplassen in 1983, the woody vegetation increased and vegetation type significantly affected the number of establishments. Cover of woody species increased further from 1983 to 1996, not only by canopy expansion but also by new establishments. After 1996, cover of the woody vegetation decreased from 30% to <1% in 2011 and no new establishments were seen on the photographs. Survival of Sambucus nigra and Salix spp. increased with increasing distance to grassland, which is the preferred foraging habitat of the herbivores. These results support the hypothesis of Associational Palatability. In addition, our results show that the relative decline in cover of S. nigra and Salix spp. over a certain period was negatively correlated with the cover of S. nigra in the beginning of this period, presenting some evidence for the Associational Resistance and Aggregational Resistance hypothesis. Our research shows aspects necessary for the woodland-grassland cycle, such as a strong decline of woody vegetation at high numbers of large herbivores and regeneration of shrubs and trees at low densities. Thorny shrubs, which are important for the cycle, have not yet established in the grasslands. It seems that a temporary decline in herbivore numbers is necessary to create a window of opportunity for the establishment of these woody species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To help restore food availability for birds, arable field margins (extensively
managed strips of land sown with grasses and forbs) have been established on
European farmland. In this study we describe the effect of field margins on the
diet of Eurasian Skylark nestlings and adults living on intensively managed
Dutch farmland. We tested the hypotheses that field margins offer a higher
diversity of invertebrate prey than intensively managed crops, and that the diet
of nestlings receiving food from field margins will therefore be more diverse than
that of other nestlings. Field margins had a greater variety of invertebrate prey
groups to offer than the intensively managed crops. Coleoptera were the most
frequently and most abundantly eaten prey group by both adults and nestlings.
Together, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Araneae accounted
for 91% of the nestling diet. Nestlings ate larger prey items and a larger
proportion of larvae than adults. Almost 75% of both adults and nestlings
consumed plant material, perhaps indicating a scarcity of invertebrate
resources. When provided with food from field margins, the mean number of
invertebrate orders in the nestling diet increased significantly from 4.7 to 5.5 and
the number of families from 4.2 to 5.8 per sample. Thus, birds that used field
margins for foraging could indeed provide their young with more invertebrate
prey groups than birds only foraging in crops and grassland.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. The storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in soil are important ecosystem functions. Grassland biodiversity experiments have shown a positive effect of plant diversity on soil C and N storage. However, these experiments all included legumes, which constitute an important N input through N2-fixation. Indeed, the results of these experiments suggest that N2-fixation by legumes is a major driver of soil C and N storage.2. We studied whether plant diversity affects soil C and N storage in the absence of legumes. In an 11-years grassland biodiversity experiment without legumes, we measured soil C and N stocks. We further determined above-ground biomass productivity, standing root biomass, soil organic matter decomposition and N mineralization rates to understand the mechanisms underlying the change in soil C and N stocks in relation to plant diversity and their feedbacks to plant productivity.3. We found that soil C and N stocks increased by 18 and 16% in eight-species mixtures compared to the average of monocultures of the same species, respectively. Increased soil C and N stocks were mainly driven by increased C input and N retention, resulting from enhanced plant productivity, which surpassed enhanced C loss from decomposition. Importantly, higher soil C and N stocks were associated with enhanced soil N mineralization rates, which can explain the strengthening of the positive diversity-productivity relationship observed in the last years of the experiment.4. Synthesis: We demonstrated that also in the absence of legumes plant species richness promotes soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks via increased plant productivity. In turn, enhanced soil C and N stocks showed a positive feedback to plant productivity via enhanced N mineralization, which could further accelerate soil C and N storage in the long term.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Ecology 06/2014; 102(5). DOI:10.1111/1365-2745.12280 · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The decomposition of dead organic matter is a major determinant of carbon and nutrient cycling in ecosystems, and of carbon fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Decomposition is driven by a vast diversity of organisms that are structured in complex food webs. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of biodiversity on decomposition is critical given the rapid loss of species worldwide and the effects of this loss on human well-being. Yet despite comprehensive syntheses of studies on how biodiversity affects litter decomposition, key questions remain, including when, where and how biodiversity has a role and whether general patterns and mechanisms occur across ecosystems and different functional types of organism. Here, in field experiments across five terrestrial and aquatic locations, ranging from the subarctic to the tropics, we show that reducing the functional diversity of decomposer organisms and plant litter types slowed the cycling of litter carbon and nitrogen. Moreover, we found evidence of nitrogen transfer from the litter of nitrogen-fixing plants to that of rapidly decomposing plants, but not between other plant functional types, highlighting that specific interactions in litter mixtures control carbon and nitrogen cycling during decomposition. The emergence of this general mechanism and the coherence of patterns across contrasting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems suggest that biodiversity loss has consistent consequences for litter decomposition and the cycling of major elements on broad spatial scales.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history.
Ecology and Evolution 04/2014; 4(11). DOI:10.1002/ece3.1090 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artificial illumination attracts insects, but to what extent light attracts insects, depends on the spectral composition of the light. Response models have been developed to predict the attractiveness of artificial light sources. In this study we compared attraction of insects by existing light sources used for streetlights as well as newly developed environment friendly alternatives, and used this data to test the predictive ability of the existing response models. Light sources differed in overall attractiveness to insects and relative attractiveness was dependent on insect order. The attraction patterns predicted by the two models correlated weakly with the number of insects attracted when the only light source rich in UV, a mercury vapour light, was included in the tested spectra. When the mercury vapour light, which is going to be banned in Europe, was not included in the test no correlation was found between predicted and observed attraction patterns. We conclude that currently existing attraction response models are insufficiently sensitive to evaluate new light sources.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Northern peatlands represent a large global carbon store that can potentially be destabilized by summer water table drawdown. Precipitation can moderate the negative impacts of water table drawdown by rewetting peatmoss (Sphagnum spp.), the ecosystem's key species. Yet, the frequency of such rewetting required for it to be effective remains unknown. We experimentally assessed the importance of precipitation frequency for Sphagnum water supply and carbon uptake during a stepwise decrease in water tables in a growth chamber. CO2 exchange and the water balance were measured for intact cores of three peatmoss species (Sphagnum majus, Sphagnum balticum and Sphagnum fuscum) representative of three hydrologically distinct peatland microhabitats (hollow, lawn and hummock) and expected to differ in their water table-precipitation relationships. Precipitation contributed significantly to peatmoss water supply when the water table was deep, demonstrating the importance of precipitation during drought. The ability to exploit transient resources was species-specific; S. fuscum carbon uptake increased linearly with precipitation frequency for deep water tables, whereas carbon uptake by S. balticum and S. majus was depressed at intermediate precipitation frequencies. Our results highlight an important role for precipitation in carbon uptake by peatmosses. Yet, the potential to moderate the impact of drought is species-specific and dependent on the temporal distribution of precipitation.
New Phytologist 04/2014; 203(1). DOI:10.1111/nph.12792 · 7.67 Impact Factor