[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) has been recently described by international guidelines. A stepwise approach to diagnosis using usual features of both diseases is recommended although its clinical application is difficult.
In order to identify patients with ACOS, a cohort of well-characterized patients with COPD and up to one-year follow-up was analyzed. We evaluated the presence of specific characteristics associated to asthma in this COPD cohort, divided in major criteria (bronchodilator test greater than 400 ml and 15% and past medical history of asthma) and minor criteria (blood eosinophils greater than 5%, IgE>100 UI/ml, or two separate bronchodilator tests greater than 200 ml and 12%). We defined ACOS by the presence of one major criterion or two minor criteria. Baseline characteristics, health status (CAT), BODE index, rate of exacerbations and mortality up to one year of follow-up were compared between patients with and without criteria for ACOS.
Out of 831 COPD patients included,125 (15%) fulfilled the criteria for ACOS, and 98.4% of them sustained these criteria after one year. Patients with ACOS were predominantly male (81.6%), with symptomatic mild to moderate disease (67%), and receiving inhaled corticosteroids (63.2%). There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, and only survival was worse in non-ACOS COPD patients after one-year of follow-up (p <0.05).
The proposed ACOS criteria are present in 15% of a cohort of COPD patients and these patients show better one-year prognosis than clinically similar COPD patients with no ACOS criteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Some patients with COPD may share characteristics of asthma; this is the so-called asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). There are no universally accepted criteria for ACOS, and most treatments for asthma and COPD have not been adequately tested in this population.
Materials and methods:
We performed a survey among pulmonology specialists in asthma and COPD aimed at collecting their opinions about ACOS and their attitudes in regard to some case scenarios of ACOS patients. The participants answered a structured questionnaire and attended a face-to-face meeting with the Metaplan methodology to discuss different aspects of ACOS.
A total of 26 pulmonologists with a mean age of 49.7 years participated in the survey (13 specialists in asthma and 13 in COPD). Among these, 84.6% recognized the existence of ACOS and stated that a mean of 12.6% of their patients might have this syndrome. In addition, 80.8% agreed that the diagnostic criteria for ACOS are not yet well defined. The most frequently mentioned characteristics of ACOS were a history of asthma (88.5%), significant smoking exposure (73.1%), and postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <0.7 (69.2%). The most accepted diagnostic criteria were eosinophilia in sputum (80.8%), a very positive bronchodilator test (69.2%), and a history of asthma before 40 years of age (65.4%). Up to 96.2% agreed that first-line treatment for ACOS was the combination of a long-acting β2-agonist and inhaled steroid, with a long-acting antimuscarinic agent (triple therapy) for severe ACOS.
Most Spanish specialists in asthma and COPD agree that ACOS exists, but the diagnostic criteria are not yet well defined. A previous history of asthma, smoking, and not fully reversible airflow limitation are considered the main characteristics of ACOS, with the most accepted first-line treatment being long-acting β2-agonist/inhaled corticosteroids.
International Journal of COPD 07/2015; 10(1):1321-30. DOI:10.2147/COPD.S88667 · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) has been recently developed to quantify COPD impact in routine practice. However, no relationship with other measures in the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) strategy has been evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship of the CAT with other GOLD multidimensional axes, patient types, and the number of comorbidities.
This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (On-Sint) study. The CAT score was administered to all participants at the inclusion visit. A GOLD 2011 strategy consisting of modified Medical Research Council scale (MRC) scores was devised to study the relationship between the CAT, and GOLD 2011 axes and patient types. The relationship with comorbidities was assessed using the Charlson comorbidity index, grouped as zero, one to two, and three or more.
The CAT questionnaire was completed by 1,212 patients with COPD. The CAT maintained a relationship with all the three axes, with a ceiling effect for dyspnea and no distinction between mild and moderate functional impairment. The CAT score increased across GOLD 2011 patient types A-D, with similar scores for types B and C. Within each GOLD 2011 patient type, there was a considerably wide distribution of CAT values.
Our study indicates a correlation between CAT and the GOLD 2011 classification axes as well as the number of comorbidities. The CAT score can help clinicians, as a complementary tool to evaluate patients with COPD within the different GOLD patient types.
International Journal of COPD 05/2015; 10:975. DOI:10.2147/COPD.S82781 · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The COPD assessment test (CAT) is a questionnaire that assesses the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on health status, but some patients have difficulties filling it up by themselves. We examined whether the mode of administration of the Spanish version of CAT (self vs. interviewer) influences its scores and/or psychometric properties.
Observational, prospective study in 49 Spanish centers that includes clinically stable COPD patients (n = 153) and patients hospitalized because of an exacerbation (ECOPD; n = 224). The CAT was self-administered (CAT-SA) or administered by an interviewer (CAT-IA) based on the investigator judgment of the patient's capacity. To assess convergent validity, the Saint George's Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) instrument were also administered. Psychometric properties were compared across modes of administration.
A total of 118 patients (31 %) completed the CAT-SA and 259 (69 %) CAT-IA. Multiple regression analysis showed that mode of administration did not affect CAT scores. The CAT showed excellent psychometric properties in both modes of administration. Internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's alpha) were high (0.86 for CAT-SA and 0.85 for CAT-IA) as was test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.83 for CAT-SA and CAT-IA). Correlations with SGRQ and LCADL were moderate to strong both in CAT-SA and CAT-IA, indicating good convergent validity. Similar results were observed when testing longitudinal validity.
The mode of administration does not influence CAT scores or its psychometric properties. Hence, both modes of administration can be used in clinical practice depending on the physician judgment of patient's capacity.
Quality of Life Research 04/2015; 24(10). DOI:10.1007/s11136-015-0983-x · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea, the Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT), and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) have been interchangeably proposed by the GOLD initiative for assessing symptoms in COPD patients. However, there are no data on the prognostic value of these tools in terms of mortality.
To evaluate the prognostic value of the CAT and CCQ scores and compare with modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea.
We analyzed the ability of these tests to predict mortality in an observational cohort of 768 COPD patients (82% males; FEV1 60%) from the CHAIN study, a multicenter observational Spanish cohort who were monitored annually for a mean follow-up time of 38 months.
Subjects who died (n=73; 9.5%) had higher CAT (14 vs. 11, p=0.022), CCQ (1.6 vs. 1.3, p=0.033), and mMRC dyspnea scores (2 vs. 1, p<0.001) than survivors. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that higher CAT, CCQ, and dyspnea scores were associated with higher mortality (area under the curve: 0.589, 0.588, and 0.649, respectively). CAT scores ≥17 and CCQ scores >2.5 provided a similar sensitivity than mMRC dyspnea scores ≥2 to predict all-cause mortality.
The CAT and the CCQ have similar ability for predicting all-cause mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but were inferior to mMRC dyspnea scores. We suggest new thresholds for CAT and CCQ scores based on mortality risk that could be useful for the new GOLD grading classification.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01122758.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Longer life expectancy and the progressive aging of the population is changing the epidemiological pattern of healthcare, with a reduction in the incidence of acute diseases and a marked increase in chronic diseases. This change brings important social, healthcare and economic consequences that call for a reorganization of patient care. In this respect, the Spanish National Health System has developed a Chronicity strategy that proposes a substantial change in focus from traditional rescue medicine to patient- and environment-centered care, with a planned, proactive, participative and multidisciplinary approach. Some of the more common chronic diseases are respiratory. In COPD, this integrated approach has been effective in reducing exacerbations, improving quality of life, and even reducing costs. However, the wide variety of management strategies, not only in COPD but also in asthma and other respiratory diseases, makes it difficult to draw definitive conclusions. Pulmonologists can and must participate in the new chronicity models and contribute their knowledge, experience, innovation, research, and special expertise to the development of these new paradigms.
Archivos de Bronconeumología 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.arbres.2014.10.007 · 1.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires a personalized approach according to the clinical characteristics of the patients, the level of severity, and the response to the different therapies. Furthermore, patients with the same level of severity measured by the degree of airflow obstruction or even with multidimensional indices may have very different symptoms and limitations for daily activities. The concept of control has been extensively developed in asthma but has not been defined in COPD. Here, we propose a definition of COPD control based on the concepts of impact and stability. Impact is a cross-sectional concept that can be measured by questionnaires such as the COPD Assessment Test or the Clinical COPD Questionnaire. Alternatively, impact can be assessed by the degree of dyspnea, the use of rescue medication, the level of physical activity, and sputum color. Stability is a longitudinal concept that requires the absence of exacerbations and deterioration in the aforementioned variables or in the COPD Assessment Test or Clinical COPD Questionnaire scores. Control is defined by low impact (adjusted for severity) and stability. The concept of control in COPD can be useful in the decision making regarding an increase or decrease in medication in the stable state.
International Journal of COPD 12/2014; 9:1397-405. DOI:10.2147/COPD.S71370 · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several diseases commonly co-exist with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially in elderly patients. This study aimed to investigate whether there is an association between COPD severity and the frequency of comorbidities in stable COPD patients.
In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, patients with spirometric diagnosis of COPD attended to by internal medicine departments throughout Spain were consecutively recruited by 225 internal medicine specialists. The severity of airflow obstruction was graded using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and data on demographics, smoking history, comorbidities, and dyspnea were collected. The Charlson comorbidity score was calculated.
Eight hundred and sixty-six patients were analyzed: male 93%, mean age 69.8 (standard deviation [SD] 9.7) years and forced vital capacity in 1 second 42.1 (SD 17.7)%. Even, the mean (SD) Charlson score was 2.2 (2.2) for stage I, 2.3 (1.5) for stage II, 2.5 (1.6) for stage III, and 2.7 (1.8) for stage IV (P=0.013 between stage I and IV groups), independent predictors of Charlson score in the multivariate analysis were age, smoking history (pack-years), the hemoglobin level, and dyspnea, but not GOLD stage.
COPD patients attended to in internal medicine departments show high scores of comorbidity. However, GOLD stage was not an independent predictor of comorbidity.
International Journal of COPD 11/2014; 9:1307-14. DOI:10.2147/COPD.S71849 · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FEV1 is universally used as a measure of severity in COPD. Current thresholds are based on expert opinion and not on evidence.
We aimed to identify the best FEV1 (% predicted) and dyspnea (mMRC) thresholds to predict 5-yr survival in COPD patients.
We conducted a patient-based pooled analysis of eleven COPD Spanish cohorts (COCOMICS). Survival analysis, ROC curves, and C-statistics were used to identify and compare the best FEV1 (%) and mMRC scale thresholds that predict 5-yr survival.
A total of 3,633 patients (93% men), totaling 15,878 person-yrs. were included, with a mean age 66.4±9.7, and predicted FEV1 of 53.8% (±19.4%). Overall 975 (28.1%) patients died at 5 years. The best thresholds that spirometrically split the COPD population were: mild ≥70%, moderate 56-69%, severe 36-55%, and very severe ≤35%. Survival at 5 years was 0.89 for patients with FEV1≥70 vs. 0.46 in patients with FEV1 ≤35% (H.R: 6; 95% C.I.: 4.69-7.74). The new classification predicts mortality significantly better than dyspnea (mMRC) or FEV1 GOLD and BODE cutoffs (all p<0.001). Prognostic reliability is maintained at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years. In younger patients, survival was similar for FEV1 (%) values between 70% and 100%, whereas in the elderly the relationship between FEV1 (%) and mortality was inversely linear.
The best thresholds for 5-yr survival were obtained stratifying FEV1 (%) by ≥70%, 56-69%, 36-55%, and ≤35%. These cutoffs significantly better predict mortality than mMRC or FEV1 (%) GOLD and BODE cutoffs.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89866. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089866 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT RATIONALE:
The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Assessment Test (CAT) was proposed for assessing health status in COPD, but little is known about its longitudinal changes.
To evaluate one-year CAT variability in stable COPD patients and relate its variations to changes in other disease markers.
We evaluated the following variables in smokers with and without COPD at baseline and after one year: CAT score, age, gender, smoking status, pack-years history, BMI, modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) scale, 6MWD, lung function, BODE index, hospital admissions, Hospital and Depression Questionnaire, and the Charlson comorbidity score. In COPD patients we explored the association of CAT scores and its one-year changes with the studied parameters.
824 smokers with COPD and 126 without were evaluated at baseline, and 441 smokers with COPD and 66 without one year later. At 1 year, CAT scores for COPD patients were similar (±4 points) in 56%, higher in 27%, and lower in 17%. Interestingly, MMRC scores were similar (± 1 point) in 46% of patients, worse in 36% and better in 18% at 1 year. One-year CAT changes were best predicted by changes in MMRC scores (β coefficient 0.47, p<0.001). A similar behavior was found for CAT and MMRC in smokers without COPD.
One-year longitudinal data shows variability in CAT scores among stable COPD patients, similar to what happened to MMRC that was the best predictor of one-year CAT changes. Further longitudinal studies should confirm the long-term CAT variability and it clinical applicability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After the development of the COPD Strategy of the National Health Service in Spain, all scientific societies, patient organisations, and central and regional governments formed a partnership to enhance care and research in COPD. At the same time, the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) took the initiative to convene the various scientific societies involved in the National COPD Strategy and invited them to participate in the development of the new Spanish guidelines for COPD (Guía Española de la EPOC; GesEPOC). Probably the more innovative approach of GesEPOC is to base treatment of stable COPD on clinical phenotypes, a term which has become increasingly used in recent years to refer to the different clinical forms of COPD with different prognostic implications. The proposed phenotypes are: (A) infrequent exacerbators with either chronic bronchitis or emphysema; (B) overlap COPD-asthma; (C) frequent exacerbators with emphysema predominant; and (D) frequent exacerbators with chronic bronchitis predominant. The assessment of severity has also been updated with the incorporation of multidimensional indices. The severity of the obstruction, as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second, is essential but not sufficient. Multidimensional indices such as the BODE index have shown excellent prognostic value. If the 6-minute walking test is not performed routinely, its substitution by the frequency of exacerbations (BODEx index) provides similar prognostic properties. This proposal aims to achieve a more personalised management of COPD according to the clinical characteristics and multidimensional assessment of severity.
Primary care respiratory journal: journal of the General Practice Airways Group 03/2013; 22(1):117-21. DOI:10.4104/pcrj.2013.00016 · 2.50 Impact Factor