Urbano Lorenzo-Seva

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarraco, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (65)69.9 Total impact

  • Pere J. Ferrando, Urbano Lorenzo-Seva
    Anales de Psicologia 10/2014; 30(3):1170-1175.
  • Urbano Lorenzo-Seva, Pere J Ferrando
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    ABSTRACT: We provide a free noncommercial SPSS program that implements procedures for (a) obtaining the polychoric correlation matrix between a set of ordered categorical measures, so that it can be used as input for the SPSS factor analysis (FA) program; (b) testing the null hypothesis of zero population correlation for each element of the matrix by using appropriate simulation procedures; (c) obtaining valid and accurate confidence intervals via bootstrap resampling for those correlations found to be significant; and (d) performing, if necessary, a smoothing procedure that makes the matrix amenable to any FA estimation procedure. For the main purpose (a), the program uses a robust unified procedure that allows four different types of estimates to be obtained at the user's choice. Overall, we hope the program will be a very useful tool for the applied researcher, not only because it provides an appropriate input matrix for FA, but also because it allows the researcher to carefully check the appropriateness of the matrix for this purpose. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as Supplemental materials that are available for download with this article.
    Behavior Research Methods 08/2014; · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Considerable evidence has demonstrated that melancholic and atypical major depression have distinct biological correlates relative to undifferentiated major depression, but few studies have specifically delineated neuropsychological performance for them. Method In a six-week prospective longitudinal study, we simultaneously compared neuropsychological performance among melancholic depression (n=142), atypical depression (n=76), undifferentiated major depression (n=91), and healthy controls (n=200) during a major depressive episode and a clinically remitted state, respectively. We administered neuropsychological tests assessing processing speed, attention, shifting, planning, verbal fluency, visual spatial memory, and verbal working memory to all participants. Results During the depressive state, the three subtypes displayed extensive cognitive impairment, except for attention, when compared with the healthy controls. Melancholic depression significantly differed from atypical depression in processing speed and verbal fluency. In the remitted state, the three subtypes recovered their visual spatial memory and verbal working memory functions to the healthy control level. The recovery of the other domains (processing speed, set shifting, planning, and verbal fluency), however, was different across the subtypes. No predictive relationship existed between neuropsychological performance and the treatment outcome. Limitations The drop-out rate in the six-week longitudinal study was relatively high. Conclusion Our data provide preliminary evidence that during depressed states the three major depressive subtypes display similar cognitive deficits in some domains but differ in such domains as processing speed and verbal fluency. The recovery of the cognitive deficits following clinical remission from depression may be associated with subtypes of major depressive disorder.
    Journal of Affective Disorders. 01/2014; 168:184–191.
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    ABSTRACT: Self-reports of aggression are deeply impacted by response bias, especially by social desirability, but there are no specific methods for controlling this bias. Furthermore, despite the importance of the subject few instruments have been designed to assess both direct and indirect forms of aggression. The aim of the present research was to develop a brief measure that comprises both forms of aggression and which makes it possible to obtain scores free of social desirability and acquiescence effects. The scales were created using recently developed methods for controlling response bias effects in a sample of 750 participants over a wide age range. The items were chosen by a panel of judges from among the best of the existing aggression measures. Confirmatory factor analysis showed the expected three factor structure (CFI = .98; AGFI = .97 and RSMEA = .078, 90% C.I. = .074 - .083) and the scales showed good psychometric properties in that they had good reliability (ranging from θxx = .77 to θxx = .83), and convergent and criterion validity.
    The Spanish Journal of Psychology 01/2014; 17:E41. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding which factors are related to different kinds of aggressive behaviors in adolescents might help to improve violence-prevention programs for schools and families. Although some studies show that adolescents who are less psychologically mature tend to display more behavioral problems, few studies have been performed on the relationship between aggressive behavior and psychological maturity in adolescence, and no studies have focused specifically on indirect aggression. For this reason, the current research tests the role of psychological maturity in direct and indirect aggressiveness in a sample of 193 Spanish adolescents (49% boys and 51% girls) between 14 and 18 years old (M = 16.1, SD = 1.18). The results show that psychological maturity is related to both kinds of aggressiveness. In fact, less mature adolescents tend to show higher levels of direct aggression (r = -.22, p < .01) and indirect aggression (r = -.44, p < .01). More specifically, the dimensions of psychological maturity most related to aggressiveness are self-reliance and identity: self-reliance is the main predictor of indirect aggression (p < .01) and identity is the main predictor of direct aggression (p < .01). Moreover, overall psychological maturity is more related to indirect aggression in men than in women (p < .05), so the increase in psychological maturity implies a greater decrease of indirect aggression in men.
    The Spanish Journal of Psychology 01/2014; 17:E16. · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • Andreu Vigil-Colet, Fabia Morales-Vives, Urbano Lorenzo-Seva
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recent studies have suggested that the age-personality relationship may be partially explained by age-related changes in social desirability. In the present study, we analyze how age affects social desirability and acquiescence, and how they affect the age-personality relationship. Method: We used a specially designed personality test, which provides response bias and personality dimension scores independently of each other. We applied this test to a sample of 3773 individuals aged between 13 and 97 years old (49.69% female) and analyzed the effects of age, sex, and their interactions on response bias and personality dimensions. Results: Age affects social desirability and acquiescence, both of which increase with age, and this increase affects the age-personality relationship, especially for dimensions such as Agreeableness or Conscientiousness. Conclusions: The age-related differences found in self-reported personality measures might be partly attributable to age-related increases in response bias. Furthermore, the high scores of elderly people on response bias measures implies that the results of self-reports that do not incorporate any correction for response bias should be viewed with caution, especially when they are obtained in samples of people over 50 years old.
    Psicothema 08/2013; 25(3):342-8. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of the present research was to develop a short measure for the five-factor model personality traits, which allows scores free of social desirability and acquiescence effects to be obtained. Method: Scales were created using recently developed methods to control response bias effects in a sample of 3,838 participants from a wide age range. The scales were answered in person or on-line. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed the expected five factor structure. Furthermore, the scales showed good psychometric properties in that they had good reliability, temporal stability and convergence with the widely used Big-Five measures. Conclusions: The test developed in the paper presents acceptable psychometric properties, and it is suitable for individuals up from 13 years old. Because the method used to control response bias means that scales' scoring is based upon factorial scores instead of raw scores, we have also developed an internet public application that can be used to obtain these scores.
    Psicothema 02/2013; 25(1):100-6. · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • Fabia Morales-Vives, Elisa Camps, Urbano Lorenzo-Seva
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    ABSTRACT: This research developed a new test in Spanish to assess psychological maturity in adolescents, called PSYMAS and consisting of the subscales work orientation, identity, and autonomy. PSYMAS was administered to 669 students between 15 and 18 years. The results showed that the factorial structure of the test is acceptable, and that, in addition to subscale scores, total scores can be calculated to measure the overall psychological maturity of the subject. The convergent and discriminant validity of the test was also assessed based on a comparison with the Big Five personality factors. The results indicated that the test does in fact allow prediction of results in relation to personality traits.
    European Journal of Psychological Assessment 01/2013; 29(1):12–18. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Music is one of the most pleasant human experiences, even though it has no direct biological advantage. However little is known about individual differences in how people experience reward in music-related activities. The goal of the present study was to describe the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. To this end we developed the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ), which was administrated to three large samples. Our results showed that the musical reward experience can be decomposed into five reliable factors: Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward, and Sensory-Motor. These factors were correlated with socio-demographic factors and measures of general sensitivity to reward and hedonic experience. We propose that the five-factor structure of musical reward experience might be very relevant in the study of psychological and neural bases of emotion and pleasure associated to music.
    Music Perception 01/2013; 31(2):118-138. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents the Colombian adaptation of the Buss and Perry's Aggression Questionnaire for preadolescents and adolescents. The test was administered to a sample of 535 children (269 boys and 266 girls) with an age range of 8-16 years old, belonging to three schools of Bucaramanga. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the four-factor model and reliability was satisfactory. The reliability was good for overall scale (α = 0.82) and physical aggression scale (α = 0.75) while it was sufficient or poor for the other scales depending upon the age group, not being suitable for ages under 12 years-old. Referring to sex effects, we found them only for physical aggression. Finally, this study places particular emphasis on the importance of linguistic and cultural aspects in test adaptation, even when both cultures share the same language.
    Universitas Psychologica 09/2012; 11(3):979-988. · 0.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872 Thai adolescents and the ADHD Rating Scale-IV and ODD scale of the Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 1,749 Spanish children. Most of the individual ADHD/ODD symptoms showed convergent and discriminant validity with the loadings and thresholds being invariant over mothers, fathers and teachers in both samples (the three latent factor means were higher for parents than teachers). The ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD latent factors demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity between mothers and fathers within the two samples. Convergent and discriminant validity between parents and teachers for the three factors was either absent (Thai sample) or only partial (Spanish sample). The application of exploratory SEM to a multiple indicator by multitrait by multisource model should prove useful for the evaluation of the construct validity of the forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD rating scales.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 07/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although many studies have focused on the effects of social desirability in personality measures, few have analysed its effects on such highly undesirable behaviour as aggressiveness. The present study analyzes the impact of social desirability on measures of direct and indirect aggression and on the relationships between both kinds of aggression with impulsivity, using a method that enables the content factors of the measures to be isolated from social desirability. Results showed that aggression measures are highly affected by social desirability and that the relationships between the two forms of aggression and impulsivity are due to the content measured by the tests and not to a common social desirability factor.
    Psicothema 05/2012; 24(2):310-5. · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • Urbano Lorenzo-Seva, Pere J Ferrando
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    ABSTRACT: We provide an SPSS program that implements descriptive and inferential procedures for estimating tetrachoric correlations. These procedures have two main purposes: (1) bivariate estimation in contingency tables and (2) constructing a correlation matrix to be used as input for factor analysis (in particular, the SPSS FACTOR procedure). In both cases, the program computes accurate point estimates, as well as standard errors and confidence intervals that are correct for any population value. For purpose (1), the program computes the contingency table together with five other measures of association. For purpose (2), the program checks the positive definiteness of the matrix, and if it is found not to be Gramian, performs a nonlinear smoothing procedure at the user's request. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.
    Behavior Research Methods 04/2012; · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Fabia Morales-Vives, Misericordia Camps, Urbano Lorenzo-Seva
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study is to determine to what extent the values held by student teachers at the start of a university degree programme coincide with the values that practising teachers consider important for their profession. Our findings show that student teachers and practising teachers have different value profiles, and that there is a need for specific values education programmes that address student teachers’ professional needs. Like other students, student teachers emphasise values that refer to the peer group, friendship and leisure.
    Research Papers in Education 01/2012; · 0.51 Impact Factor
  • Fabia Morales-Vives, Elisa Camps, Urbano Lorenzo-Seva
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    ABSTRACT: Durante los últimos años ha tenido lugar una creciente polémica relacionada con el acceso de los adolescentes a cuestiones tan delicadas como la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo o las operaciones de cirugía estética. Algunos adolescentes no son lo suficientemente maduros para decidir responsablemente sobre tales cuestiones, lo que les lleva a valorar inadecuadamente los riesgos y las consecuencias asociados. Además, en ocasiones pueden ser especialmente vulnerables a la influencia del grupo de iguales o de los medios de comunicación. El PSYMAS surge precisamente para evaluar la madurez psicológica a estas edades, entendida como la capacidad de asumir obligaciones y tomar decisiones responsables, considerando las características y necesidades personales y asumiendo las consecuencias de sus propios actos. De aplicación breve y sencilla, ofrece información sobre el nivel global de madurez psicológica del adolescente y tres de sus componentes (Autonomía, Identidad y Orientación al trabajo), junto con una puntuación para el control de la deseabilidad social.
    01/2012; TEA Ediciones., ISBN: ISBN: 978-84-15262-48-0
  • Marieke E Timmerman, Urbano Lorenzo-Seva
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    ABSTRACT: Parallel analysis (PA) is an often-recommended approach for assessment of the dimensionality of a variable set. PA is known in different variants, which may yield different dimensionality indications. In this article, the authors considered the most appropriate PA procedure to assess the number of common factors underlying ordered polytomously scored variables. They proposed minimum rank factor analysis (MRFA) as an extraction method, rather than the currently applied principal component analysis (PCA) and principal axes factoring. A simulation study, based on data with major and minor factors, showed that all procedures consistently point at the number of major common factors. A polychoric-based PA slightly outperformed a Pearson-based PA, but convergence problems may hamper its empirical application. In empirical practice, PA-MRFA with a 95% threshold based on polychoric correlations or, in case of nonconvergence, Pearson correlations with mean thresholds appear to be a good choice for identification of the number of common factors. PA-MRFA is a common-factor-based method and performed best in the simulation experiment. PA based on PCA with a 95% threshold is second best, as this method showed good performances in the empirically relevant conditions of the simulation experiment.
    Psychological Methods 06/2011; 16(2):209-20. · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • Urbano Lorenzo-Seva, Pere J Ferrando
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    ABSTRACT: Three-way component analysis aims to summarize all the information in a three-way data set related, for example, to the responses of individuals to a set of items in a set of situations. The data are decomposed into three component matrices (person, item and situation components) and a core matrix. Such data are generally obtained by means of a situation-response questionnaire administered to a sample of participants. This paper proposes a preprocessing procedure for controlling social desirability in these kinds of questionnaires. The essential idea is to isolate the variance due to social desirability response bias and remove it from the data set. The procedure is demonstrated through its empirical application in the personality domain. Its performance is also assessed by means of a simulation study which shows that the presence of social desirability bias in a data set had different consequences: (1) the variance effect due to persons increased, and the effect of the triple interaction persons × items × situations decreased; (2) the person component and core matrix were partially distorted. However, the social desirability bias in the data set was successfully controlled by our preprocessing method.
    British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 04/2011; 65(1):74-88. · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Urbano Lorenzo-Seva, Marieke E. Timmerman, Henk A. L. Kiers
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    ABSTRACT: A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an extensive simulation study in which the simulated data are based on major and minor factors. The study compares the method with four other methods such as parallel analysis and the minimum average partial test, which were selected because they have been proven to perform well and/or they are frequently used in applied research. The Hull method outperformed all four methods at recovering the correct number of major factors. Its usefulness was further illustrated by its assessment of the dimensionality of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory (Hendriks, Hofstee, & De Raad, 199923. Hendriks , A. A. J. , Hofstee , W. K. B. and De Raad , B. 1999 . The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) . Personality and Individual Differences , 27 : 307 – 325 . [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®], [CSA]View all references). This inventory has 100 items, and the typical methods for assessing dimensionality prove to be useless: the large number of factors they suggest has no theoretical justification. The Hull method, however, suggested retaining the number of factors that the theoretical background to the inventory actually proposes.
    Multivariate Behavioral Research 01/2011; 46(2):340-364. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Language switching is omnipresent in bilingual individuals. In fact, the ability to switch languages (code switching) is a very fast, efficient, and flexible process that seems to be a fundamental aspect of bilingual language processing. In this study, we aimed to characterize psychometrically self-perceived individual differences in language switching and to create a reliable measure of this behavioral pattern by introducing a bilingual switching questionnaire. As a working hypothesis based on the previous literature about code switching, we decomposed language switching into four constructs: (i) L1 switching tendencies (the tendency to switch to L1; L1-switch); (ii) L2 switching tendencies (L2-switch); (iii) contextual switch, which indexes the frequency of switches usually triggered by a particular situation, topic, or environment; and (iv) unintended switch, which measures the lack of intention and awareness of the language switches. A total of 582 Spanish-Catalan bilingual university students were studied. Twelve items were selected (three for each construct). The correlation matrix was factor-analyzed using minimum rank factor analysis followed by oblique direct oblimin rotation. The overall proportion of common variance explained by the four extracted factors was 0.86. Finally, to assess the external validity of the individual differences scored with the new questionnaire, we evaluated the correlations between these measures and several psychometric (language proficiency) and behavioral measures related to cognitive and attentional control. The present study highlights the importance of evaluating individual differences in language switching using self-assessment instruments when studying the interface between cognitive control and bilingualism.
    Frontiers in Psychology 01/2011; 2:388. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    Urbano Lorenzo-Seva, Pere J Ferrando
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    ABSTRACT: We provide an SPSS program that implements currently recommended techniques and recent developments for selecting variables in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors. The approach consists of: (1) optimally splitting the data for cross-validation, (2) selecting the final set of predictors to be retained in the equation regression, and (3) assessing the behavior of the chosen model using standard indices and procedures. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.
    Behavior Research Methods 12/2010; 43(1):1-7. · 2.12 Impact Factor