[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At northern latitudes, vitamin D is not synthesized endogenously during winter, causing low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a healthy Nordic diet based on Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) on plasma 25(OH)D and explored its dietary predictors.
In a Nordic multi-centre trial, subjects (n = 213) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to a control or a healthy Nordic diet favouring fish (≥300 g/week, including ≥200 g/week fatty fish), whole-grain products, berries, fruits, vegetables, rapeseed oil and low-fat dairy products. Plasma 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone were analysed before and after 18- to 24-week intervention.
At baseline, 45 % had vitamin D inadequacy (<50 nmol/l), whereas 8 % had deficiency (<25 nmol/l). Dietary vitamin D intake was increased by the healthy Nordic diet (P < 0.001). The healthy Nordic and the control diet reduced the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 42 % (P < 0.001) and 19 % (P = 0.002), respectively, without between-group difference (P = 0.142). Compared with control, plasma 25(OH)D (P = 0.208) and parathyroid hormone (P = 0.207) were not altered by the healthy Nordic diet. Predictors for 25(OH)D were intake of vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), vitamin D supplement, plasma EPA and plasma DHA. Nevertheless, only vitamin D intake and season predicted the 25(OH)D changes.
Consuming a healthy Nordic diet based on NNR increased vitamin D intake but not plasma 25(OH)D concentration. The reason why fish consumption did not improve vitamin D status might be that many fish are farmed and might contain little vitamin D or that frying fish may result in vitamin D extraction. Additional ways to improve vitamin D status in Nordic countries may be needed.
European Journal of Nutrition 02/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free nutritionally balanced school lunches are offered to all schoolchildren in basic education in Finland in each school day. Having school lunch on a regular basis has been found to reflect overall eating patterns. However, skipping part of or even the entire lunch is common. The present study investigated the determinants of the regular consumption of a nutritionally balanced school lunch among schoolchildren, with special reference to the role of sense of coherence (SOC).
In total, 887 children (457 girls and 424 boys), aged 10-17 years from three municipalities in Eastern Finland, filled in a web-based questionnaire in class during a school day and reported eating patterns, body height and weight and perception of body image. SOC was measured by using the 13-item scale. The statistical analysis was carried out with logistic regression modelling and the chi-squared test.
In addition to female gender, frequent shared family meals, perception of body image as appropriate and younger age, SOC was a significant determinant of regularly eating a nutritionally balanced school lunch in the final multivariate modelling. Strong SOC was also associated with more regular meal frequency and health-promoting snack choices.
To promote healthy eating patterns among school-aged children, special attention should be paid to children with weak SOC because they may need specific support and encouragement. They might lack sufficient belief in their own capability and/or do not have adequate support from their family to influence their eating and other lifestyle patterns.
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 02/2014; · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:Few studies have used biomarkers of whole-grain intake to study its relation to glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate the association between plasma alkylresorcinols (AR), a biomarker of whole-grain rye and wheat intake, and glucose metabolism in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS).Subjects/Methods:Participants were 30-65 years of age, with body mass index 27-40 kg/m(2) and had MetS without diabetes. Individuals were recruited through six centers in the Nordic countries and randomized to a healthy Nordic diet (ND, n=96), rich in whole-grain rye and wheat, or a control diet (n=70), for 18-24 weeks. In addition, associations between total plasma AR concentration and C17:0/C21:0 homolog ratio as an indication of the relative whole-grain rye intake, and glucose metabolism measures from oral glucose tolerance tests were investigated in pooled (ND+control) regression analyses at 18/24 weeks.Results:ND did not improve glucose metabolism compared with control diet, but the AR C17:0/C21:0 ratio was inversely associated with fasting insulin concentrations (P=0.002) and positively associated with the insulin sensitivity indices Matsuda ISI (P=0.026) and disposition index (P=0.022) in pooled analyses at 18/24 weeks, even after adjustment for confounders. The AR C17:0/C21:0 ratio was not significantly associated with insulin secretion indices. Total plasma AR concentration was not related to fasting plasma glucose or fasting insulin at 18/24 weeks.Conclusions:The AR C17:0/C21:0 ratio, an indicator of relative whole-grain rye intake, is associated with increased insulin sensitivity in a population with MetS.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 19 February 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.12.
European journal of clinical nutrition 02/2014; · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wheat bran is nutritionally an important source of dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals, but its negative influence on dough rheology, texture and sensory quality of bread limits its use in bread baking. The current study aimed at improving the technological functionality of bran by bioprocessing Wheat bran of different particle size (750, 400, 160, 50 μm) was fermented 8 h or 24 h with Lactobacillus brevis E95612 and Kazachstania exigua C81116 with or without addition of enzyme mixture with various carbohydrase activities. Kinetics of growth and acidification showed that the growth of the starters was enhanced in the presence of enzymes in bran having particle size of 160 and 50 μm. Fermentation was critical to improve dough stability and volume of bran enriched breads, whereas addition of enzymes had the most significant effect in improving bread shelf-life. Wheat bread containing 160 μm bran fermented 8 h with enzymes had mild flavour, the highest volume and shelf-life. Reduction of particle size increased perceived smoothness of mouthfeel but provided darker colour in bran-containing breads. The short 8 h bioprocessing, with or without enzymes did not increase pungent flavour or bitter aftertaste in comparison with the native bran.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of fibre and β-glucan on satiety have been reported in many studies, but no consensus has been reached. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breakfasts varying in the dose of oat bran (4 g or 8 g β-glucan). The approach was to study whether the food matrix (solid or liquid) into which the oat bran is incorporated influences postprandial satiety in otherwise similar meal settings. Thirty healthy females were offered four different breakfasts: biscuits + juice (0 g β-glucan), enriched biscuits + juice (4 g β-glucan), biscuits + enriched juice (4 g β-glucan) and enriched biscuits + enriched juice (8 g β-glucan) in a random order on separate test days. The sensations associated with hunger and satiety were evaluated using visual analogue scales (VAS) before and after ingesting the test breakfasts and every 30 minutes until 210 minutes. Oat bran addition in breakfasts increased postprandial satiety especially when both juice and biscuits were enriched (8 g of β-glucan). Addition of oat bran to juice enhanced satiety and related feelings more effectively than the addition into biscuits.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenolic acids are covalently bound to the arabinoxylan fibre matrix of wheat aleurone layer. In order to be bioavailable they need to be released by endogenous or bacterial enzymes and absorbed within the intestinal lumen. The intestinal microbiota can metabolize phenolic acids and other food-born phytochemicals. However, the effect of structure of the cereal bran or aleurone layer on these processes is not comprehensively studied.
The structure of aleurone layer was modified either by dry-grinding or by enzymatic treatments with xylanase alone or in combination with feruloyl esterase. Diet induced obese C57BL6/J mice were fed with high-fat diets containing either pure ferulic acid, or one of the four differentially treated aleurone preparations for 8 weeks. The diets were designed to be isocaloric and to have similar macronutrient composition. The urinary metabolite profiles were investigated using non-targeted LC-qTOF-MS-metabolomics approach.
The different dietary groups were clearly separated in the principal component analysis. Enzymatic processing of aleurone caused increased excretion of ferulic acid sulfate and glycine conjugates reflecting the increase in unbound form of readily soluble ferulic acid in the diet. The urinary metabolite profile of the diet groups containing native and cryo-ground aleurone was more intense with metabolites derived from microbial processing including hippuric acid, hydroxyl- and dihydroxyphenylpropionic acids. Furthermore, aleurone induced specific fingerprint on the urinary metabolite profile seen as excretion of benzoxazinoid metabolites, several small dicarboyxlic acids, and various small nitrogen containing compounds.
The structural modifications on wheat aleurone fraction resulted in altered metabolism of aleurone derived phenolic acids and other phytochemicals excreted in urine of diet-induced obese mice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breadmaking process can be defined by the succession of steps, with operating parameters and raw material properties as input variables and dough properties as output ones, rheological characteristics acting on both sides. With the help of domain specialists, we have defined the variables of breadmaking and focused on four main operations: mixing, proofing, laminating, and baking. Starting from concepts of rheology and multiscale analysis of dough structure, we propose Basic Knowledge Models (BKMs) defined as a common representation of product changes for each operation, in a realistic range of dough compositions, and we delineate the areas where they are not available. Once completed, these BKMs could provide a tool to design the texture of various bread products.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extensive use of wheat bran as a food ingredient is limited due to its bitter taste and hard texture. To overcome these, some preprocessing methods, such as fermentation with yeast and lactic acid bacteria or enzymatic treatments have been proposed. The current work studied microbial communities, acidification, ethanol formation and metabolite profile of wheat bran fermented in either aerated or anaerobic conditions. In aerated conditions, yeasts grew better and the production of organic acids was smaller, and hence pH was higher. In anaerobic conditions, lactic acid bacteria and endogenous heterotrophic bacteria grew better. Aeration had a large effect on the sourdough metabolite profile, as analyzed by UPLC–qTOF-MS. Anaerobic conditions induced degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids, whereas the amount of sinapic acid increased. Aeration caused degradation of amino acids and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of polyamines. The results suggest that the control of oxygen could be used for tailoring the properties of bran sourdough.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005-2010) identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1) more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2) one definition for Europe - when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3) reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4) useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cereal foods are a major source of energy in diets worldwide, and contribute to the intake of dietary fibre, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and many minerals. Many of them are characterized by rapid glycaemic responses, and also carry refined ingredients such as sugar and fat. In order to increase the nutrient density of cereal-based foods it is important to use as much of the grain raw material as possible in the consumer end product. The strong evidence that foods rich in whole grain and dietary fibre and with slow glycaemic response have health-protective effects has stimulated interest in developing new technologies to improve the nutrition profiles of cereal foods, and to modulate physiological responses in consumers. These developments should address the issues raised by the increased content of insoluble dietary fibre in recipes, which requires a re-examination of the relationship between structure and properties, in the light of current rheological models. These aspects are reviewed in this paper.
Journal of Cereal Science 01/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fruit of Lycium barbarum (Solanaceae), known as Goji berry, or wolfberry, has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine, and is increasingly becoming popular in Western diets due to its potential health benefits.
The majority of commercially produced Goji berries come from certain regions in Asia. In this study we explored the discrimination of phytochemical content between four different geographic origins of Goji berries by applying non-targeted liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-qTOF-MS) metabolite profiling. Principal component analysis was able to clearly distinguish the berries by the geographic origin when applied to the non-targeted profiling data of Mongolian, Chinese and two Tibetan origin Goji berry extracts. Furthermore, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) provided indicative markers of discrimination between the different origins, and quality threshold cluster analysis classified the most discriminative compounds according to their occurrence between the different origins. The largest cluster included the most discriminative metabolites in the Mongolian variety, which was also seen as the most distant group in the PCA analysis as compared to the other countries of origin.
Mongolian Goji berries were mainly characterized by significantly higher levels of several flavonol glycosides, such as quercetin and kaempferol glycosides; isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acid and phenolic acids such as coumaric acid. In addition to the various phytochemical metabolites identified, a pesticide compound was found especially in the extracts of Goji berries from China.
The present non-targeted metabolite profiling proved to be a useful approach of the Foodomics field for assessment of geographical origin of berries.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the combined effects of wholegrain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
Altogether 131 subjects (40-70 y, BMI 26-39 kg/m(2)) with impaired glucose metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome were randomized into three groups with 12-week periods according to a parallel study design. They consumed either: a) wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish 3 times a week, and bilberries 3 portions per day (HealthyDiet), b) wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products (WGED), or c) refined wheat breads as cereal products (Control). Altogether 106 subjects completed the study. Serum metabolic profile was studied using an NMR-based platform providing information on lipoprotein subclasses and lipids as well as low-molecular-weight metabolites.
There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline or at the end of the intervention. Mixed model analyses revealed significant changes in lipid metabolites in the HealthyDiet group during the intervention compared to the Control group. All changes reflected increased polyunsaturation in plasma fatty acids, especially in n-3 PUFAs, while n-6 and n-7 fatty acids decreased. According to tertiles of changes in fish intake, a greater increase of fish intake was associated with increased concentration of large HDL particles, larger average diameter of HDL particles, and increased concentrations of large HDL lipid components, even though total levels of HDL cholesterol remained stable.
The results suggest that consumption of diet rich in whole grain, bilberries and especially fatty fish causes changes in HDL particles shifting their subclass distribution toward larger particles. These changes may be related to known protective functions of HDL such as reverse cholesterol transport and could partly explain the known protective effects of fish consumption against atherosclerosis.
The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00573781.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e90352. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interactions between the diet and intestinal microbiota play a role in health and disease, including obesity and related metabolic complications. There is great interest to use dietary means to manipulate the microbiota to promote health. Currently, the impact of dietary change on the microbiota and the host metabolism is poorly predictable and highly individual. We propose that the responsiveness of the gut microbiota may depend on its composition, and associate with metabolic changes in the host.
Our study involved three independent cohorts of obese adults (n = 78) from Belgium, Finland, and Britain, participating in different dietary interventions aiming to improve metabolic health. We used a phylogenetic microarray for comprehensive fecal microbiota analysis at baseline and after the intervention. Blood cholesterol, insulin and inflammation markers were analyzed as indicators of host response. The data were divided into four training set - test set pairs; each intervention acted both as a part of a training set and as an independent test set. We used linear models to predict the responsiveness of the microbiota and the host, and logistic regression to predict responder vs. non-responder status, or increase vs. decrease of the health parameters.
Our models, based on the abundance of several, mainly Firmicute species at baseline, predicted the responsiveness of the microbiota (AUC = 0.77-1; predicted vs. observed correlation = 0.67-0.88). Many of the predictive taxa showed a non-linear relationship with the responsiveness. The microbiota response associated with the change in serum cholesterol levels with an AUC of 0.96, highlighting the involvement of the intestinal microbiota in metabolic health.
This proof-of-principle study introduces the first potential microbial biomarkers for dietary responsiveness in obese individuals with impaired metabolic health, and reveals the potential of microbiota signatures for personalized nutrition.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e90702. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biscuits contain high amount of fat and sugar thus having high calorie but low nutrient density. Wheat bran is a good source of dietary fibre (DF) and protein and is thus a good candidate for nutritional enrichment of cereal foods. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of bran incorporation and particle size reduction on biscuit microstructure, texture and in vitro starch digestibility. Five different biscuits containing 5-15 % DF were produced. Two different particle sized wheat brans were used: coarse (450 μm) and fine (68 μm). Bran particle size reduction increased the elastic modulus and hardness of biscuits. Biscuits containing fine bran had visually more compact structure without any surface or internal defects than those with coarse bran. Fine bran containing sample had the highest hardness value. Sensory evaluation showed that roughness and breakdown of biscuits in the mouth was significant for the coarse bran with highest level of bran addition. The instrumental elastic modulus, stress and hardness were closely related to sensory hardness and strength to break. Increasing DF content from 5 to 15 % increased hydrolysis index by 16%, from 32 to 37.
Journal of Cereal Science 01/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rye bran is a high-fibre ingredient also containing
starch and protein. The aim of this work was to investigate the
effects of extrusion processing and bran particle size on the
structural and mechanical properties of extruded rye bran.
Native rye bran particle size of 750–1,250 μm was milled to
produce feed material with three different average particle
sizes (coarse, 440 μm; medium, 143 μm; fine, 28 μm). A
co-rotating twin screw extruder was used for extrusion with
various processing parameters. Extrusion processing did not
have a significant (P <0.05) effect on soluble dietary fibre
(SDF) content but the amount of insoluble dietary fibre
(IDF) increased by 7.1–9.5 % in medium- and 11.3–12.3 %
in fine-particle-sized rye bran extrudates as compared to the
raw material prior to extrusion. Decreasing the particle size of
rye bran to 28 μm resulted in lower amounts of IDF and total
dietary fibre, but a higher amount of SDF after extrusion
compared to coarse-particle-sized rye bran. Decreasing the
particle size of rye bran to 28 μm gave more expanded
(179–223 %), less hard (145–336 N), more crispy (2.7–7.2×
10−4) and porous (79.2–83.9 %) extrudates compared to the
coarse-particle-sized rye bran extrudates, which were less
expanded (151–176 %), harder (210–433 N), less crispy
(0.5–2.8×10−4) and less porous (64.4–65.1 %). Reduction of
the particle size of rye bran significantly (P <0.05) increased
the crispiness compared to the extrudates made of coarseparticle-
sized rye bran. The results demonstrated that the
structural and mechanical properties of rye bran extrudates
can be improved without starch addition by reducing the
particle size of bran.
Food and Bioprocess Technology 11/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the work was to test the hypothesis that at low water content enzyme action on biomass is enhanced when the raw material is in the form of a continuous mass instead of powder/granular form. Effects of two pre-mixing methods, blade-mixing and extrusion, on xylanase action were studied during stationary incubation of wheat bran of different particle sizes, also in comparison with incubation at high water content with continuous stirring. The use of an extruder enhanced arabinoxylan (AX) solubilisation at low water content (<54%), as compared to blade-mixing. AX solubilisation was highest in the high-water stirring treatment, but based on molecular weight, xylanase action on solubilised AX was similar as in the extrusion-aided process. Pre-mixing by extrusion enabled efficient enzyme action at low water content without the requirement for continuous mixing, probably due to the enhanced diffusion by the formation of a continuous mass in the extruder.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brewer's spent grain (BSG), the major side-stream from brewing, is rich in protein, lignin and non-starch polysaccharides. Lignin is a polyphenolic macromolecule considered resilient towards breakdown and utilization by colon microbiota, although some indications of release of small phenolic components from lignin in animals have been shown. The aim of this study was to investigate if the human intestinal microbiota can release lignans and small phenolic compounds from whole BSG, a lignin-enriched insoluble fraction from BSG and a deferuloylated fraction, in a metabolic in vitro colon model. The formation of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) was also investigated. More lignin-related monomers and dilignols were detected from the lignin-enriched fraction than from BSG or deferuloylated BSG. SCFA formation was not suppressed by any of the fractions. It was shown that small lignin-like compounds were released from these samples in the in vitro colon model, originating most likely from lignin.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 09/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ellagitannins are polyphenols abundant in strawberries, raspberries, and cloudberries. The effects of a mixture of these berries were studied in a randomized controlled trial with subjects having symptoms of metabolic syndrome. The study focused on serum lipid profiles, gut microbiota, and ellagitannin metabolites. The results indicate that bioavailability of ellagitannins appears to be dependent on the composition of gut microbiota.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 08/2013; · 4.31 Impact Factor