JET EFDA Contributors

Ghent University, Gand, Flanders, Belgium

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Publications (338)409.26 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The behaviour of tungsten in the core of hybrid scenario plasmas in JET with the ITER-like wall is analysed and modelled with a combination of neoclassical and gyrokinetic codes. In these discharges, good confinement conditions can be maintained only for the first 2–3 s of the high power phase. Later W accumulation is regularly observed, often accompanied by the onset of magneto-hydrodynamical activity, in particular neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), both of which have detrimental effects on the global energy confinement. The dynamics of the accumulation process is examined, taking into consideration the concurrent evolution of the background plasma profiles, and the possible onset of NTMs. Two time slices of a representative discharge, before and during the accumulation process, are analysed with two independent methods, in order to reconstruct the W density distribution over the poloidal cross-section. The same time slices are modelled, computing both neoclassical and turbulent transport components and consistently including the impact of centrifugal effects, which can be significant in these plasmas, and strongly enhance W neoclassical transport. The modelling closely reproduces the observations and identifies inward neoclassical convection due to the density peaking of the bulk plasma in the central region as the main cause of the accumulation. The change in W neoclassical convection is directly produced by the transient behaviour of the main plasma density profile, which is hollow in the central region in the initial part of the high power phase of the discharge, but which develops a significant density peaking very close to the magnetic axis in the later phase. The analysis of a large set of discharges provides clear indications that this effect is generic in this scenario. The unfavourable impact of the onset of NTMs on the W behaviour, observed in several discharges, is suggested to be a consequence of a detrimental combination of the effects of neoclassical transport and of the appearance of an island.
    Nuclear Fusion 08/2014; 54(8). · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The termination of the current and the loss of runaway electrons following runaway current plateau formation during disruptions have been investigated in the JET, DIII-D and FTU tokamaks. Substantial conversion of magnetic energy into runaway kinetic energy, up to ∼10 times the initial plateau runaway kinetic energy, has been inferred for the slowest current terminations. Both modelling and experiment suggest that, in present devices, the efficiency of conversion into runaway kinetic energy is determined to a great extent by the characteristic runaway loss time, τ diff, and the resistive time of the residual ohmic plasma after the disruption, τ res, increasing with the ratio τ diff/τ res. It is predicted that, in large future devices such as ITER, the generation of runaways by the avalanche mechanism will play an important role, particularly for slow runaway discharge terminations, increasing substantially the amount of energy deposited by the runaways onto the plasma-facing components by the conversion of magnetic energy of the runaway plasma into runaway kinetic energy. Estimates of the power fluxes on the beryllium plasma-facing components during runaway termination in ITER indicate that for runaway currents of up to 2 MA no melting of the components is expected. For larger runaway currents, minimization of the effects of runaway impact on the first wall requires a reduction in the kinetic energy of the runaway beam before termination and, in addition, high plasma density n e and low ohmic plasma resistance (long τ res) to prevent large conversion of magnetic into runaway kinetic energy during slow current terminations.
    Nuclear Fusion 08/2014; 54(8). · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When the ITER-like wall was installed in JET, one of the 218 Be inner wall guard limiter tiles had been enriched with 10Be as a bulk isotopic marker. During the shutdown in 2012–2013, a set of tiles were sampled nondestructively to collect material for accelerator mass spectroscopy measurements of 10Be concentration. The letter shows how the marker experiment was set up, presents first results and compares them to preliminary predictions of marker redistribution, made with the ASCOT numerical code. Finally an outline is shown of what experimental data are likely to become available later and the possibilities for comparison with modelling using the WallDYN, ERO and ASCOT codes are discussed.
    Nuclear Fusion 08/2014; 54(8). · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent developments in theory-based modelling of core heavy impurity transport are presented, and shown to be necessary for quantitative description of present experiments in JET and ASDEX Upgrade. The treatment of heavy impurities is complicated by their large mass and charge, which result in a strong response to plasma rotation or any small background electrostatic field in the plasma, such as that generated by anisotropic external heating. These forces lead to strong poloidal asymmetries of impurity density, which have recently been added to numerical tools describing both neoclassical and turbulent transport. Modelling predictions of the steady-state two-dimensional tungsten impurity distribution are compared with experimental densities interpreted from soft X-ray diagnostics. The modelling identifies neoclassical transport enhanced by poloidal asymmetries as the dominant mechanism responsible for tungsten accumulation in the central core of the plasma. Depending on the bulk plasma profiles, neoclassical temperature screening can prevent accumulation, and can be enhanced by externally heated species, demonstrated here in ICRH plasmas.
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    EPS 2014; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The former all-carbon wall on JET has been replaced with beryllium in the main torus and tungsten in the divertor to mimic the surface materials envisaged for ITER. Comparisons are presented between Type I H-mode characteristics in each design by examining respective scans over deuterium fuelling and impurity seeding, required to ameliorate exhaust loads both in JET at full capability and in ITER.
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    ABSTRACT: For a two week period during the Joint European Torus (JET) 2012 experimental campaign, the same high confinement plasma was repeated 151 times. The dataset was analysed to produce a probability density function (pdf) for the waiting times between edge-localised plasma instabilities ("ELMS"). The result was entirely unexpected. Instead of a smooth single peaked pdf, a succession of 4-5 sharp maxima and minima uniformly separated by 7-8 millisecond intervals was found. Here we explore the causes of this newly observed phenomenon, and conclude that it is either due to a self-organised plasma phenomenon or an interaction between the plasma and a real-time control system. If the maxima are a result of "resonant" frequencies at which ELMs can be triggered more easily, then future ELM control techniques can, and probably will, use them. Either way, these results demand a deeper understanding of the ELMing process.
    Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 06/2014; 56(7). · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper numerical simulations with COREDIV code of JET discharges with ITER-like wall are presented. We concentrate on the JET H-mode and hybrid scenarios with nitrogen seeding and all simulations have been performed with the same transport model and only the discharge input parameters like auxiliary heating Paux, line average plasma density nline, confinement factor H98, nitrogen input flux ΓpuffN were changed in the calcu lations. The separatrix density nsepe is an input parameter in our model and has been kept equal to 0.4÷0.5nlinein the simulations, with the recycling coefficient adjusted accordingly. It has been shown that COREDIV is able to reproduce basic parameters of nitrogen seeded discharges for both H-mode and hybrid scenarios. We have achieved reasonable agreement with global plasma parameters like radiations levels, Zeff and tungsten concentrations and the plasma profiles, including density, temperature and radiation are in very good agreement with experimental data. The agreement of the code results with the experimental data might be even better, if the simulations are further tuned taking into account uncertainties to the sputtering model, separatrix density or SOL transport. Simulations show that the observed Zeff level is defined mostly by the low Z impurity content, Be and N2 in the considered shots. It has been found that the tungsten radiation plays always very important role and can not be mitigated even by strong influx of nitrogen. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
    Beiträge aus der Plasmaphysik 06/2014; 54(4‐6).
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    ABSTRACT: After the code parameters have been fixed by the numerical modeling of a well diagnosed JET pulse, the electron density and the input power have been changed, resulting in 4 density scans (〈ne〉 in the range 3.8 – 8.2 x 1019m-3) at Pin = 17, 22, 27, 32 MW. At any given power level, W flux decreases with increasing 〈ne〉 as a consequence of the decrease in Te at the target plates. Also the W concentration in the core (cW) decreases, but this not necessarily leads to reduced core radiation. Indeed, while at high Pin the core radiation decreases with density, at low Pin it increases. At high 〈ne〉 the increase in the input power leads to enhanced PradPrad, leaving, however, nearly unchanged the power radiated fraction frad Indeed, the increase in frad withPin is observed only at low 〈ne〉, up to a level of about frad = 0.4. These numerical results, linked to the non-linear self-consistent physics of W production and transport, suggest the best conditions are achieved when the level of the electron density is adapted to the level of the available Pin. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
    Beiträge aus der Plasmaphysik 06/2014; 54(4‐6).
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    ABSTRACT: Resonant magnetic perturbation experiments at JET with the ITER-like wall have shown the formation of radially propagating pre-ELM structures in the heat flux profile on the outer divertor. These appear a few milliseconds before the major divertor heat load, caused by type-I edge-localized modes (ELMs). The formation of the pre-ELM structures is accompanied by an increase in the Dα emission. For some pronounced examples, the propagation appears to end at the positions where an increased heat load is seen during the ELM crash a few milliseconds later. These observations are presented and discussed along with a comparison of a thermoelectric edge currents model.
    Nuclear Fusion 04/2014; 54(7):072004. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ITER-like wall recently installed in JET comprises solid beryllium limiters and a combination of bulk tungsten and tungsten-coated carbon fibre composite divertor tiles without active cooling. During a beryllium power handling qualification experiment performed in limiter configuration with 5 MW neutral beam injection input power, accidental beryllium melt events, melt layer motion and splashing were observed locally on a few beryllium limiters in the plasma contact areas. The Lorentz force is responsible for the observed melt layer movement. To move liquid beryllium against the gravity force, the current flowing from the plasma perpendicularly to the limiter surface must be higher than 6 kA m−2. The thermo-emission current at the melting point of beryllium is much lower. The upward motion of the liquid beryllium against gravity can be due to a combination of the Lorentz force from the secondary electron emission and plasma pressure force.
    Physica Scripta 04/2014; 2014(T159):014041. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the nature of the primary instability present in the pedestal forming region prior to the transition into H mode is analysed using a gyrokinetic code on JET-ILW profiles. The linear analysis shows that the primary instability is of resistive nature, and can therefore be stabilized by increased temperature, hence power. The unstable modes are identified as being resistive ballooning modes. Their growth rates decrease for temperatures increasing towards the experimentally measured temperature at the L-H transition. The growth rates are larger for lower effective charge Zeff. This dependence is shown to be in qualitative agreement with recent and past experimental observations of reduced Zeff associated with lower L-H power thresholds.
    01/2014; 54(2).
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    ABSTRACT: An overview of the recent results of Lower Hybrid (LH) experiments at JET with the ITER-like wall (ILW) is presented. Topics relevant to LH wave coupling are addressed as well as issues related to ILW and LH system protections. LH wave coupling was studied in conditions determined by ILW recycling and operational constraints. It was concluded that LH wave coupling was not significantly affected and the pre-ILW performance could be recovered after optimising the launcher position and local gas puffing. SOL density measurements were performed using a Li-beam diagnostic. Dependencies on the D2 injection rate from the dedicated gas valve, the LH power and the LH launcher position were analysed. SOL density modifications due to LH were modelled by the EDGE2D code assuming SOL heating by collisional dissipation of the LH wave and/or possible ExB drifts in the SOL. The simulations matched reasonably well the measured SOL profiles. Observations of arcs and hotspots with visible and IR cameras viewing the LH launcher are presented.
    01/2014; 1580(1).
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    ABSTRACT: A comparison of the L-H power threshold (Pthr) in JET with all carbon, JET-C, and beryllium/tungsten wall (the ITER-like choice), JET-ILW, has been carried out in experiments with slow input power ramps and matched plasma shapes, divertor configuration and IP/BT pairs. The low density dependence of the L-H power threshold, namely an increase below a minimum density ne,min, which was first observed in JET with the MkII-GB divertor and C wall and subsequently not observed with the current MkII-HD geometry, is observed again with JET-ILW. At plasma densities above ne,min, Pthr is reduced by ̃30%, and by ̃40% when the radiation from the bulk plasma is subtracted (Psep), with JET-ILW compared to JET-C. At the L-H transition the electron temperature at the edge, where the pedestal later develops, is also lower with JET-ILW, for a given edge density. With JET-ILW the minimum density is found to increase roughly linearly with magnetic field, n_{e,min} \sim B_{T}^{4/5} , while the power threshold at the minimum density scales as P_{sep,\min} \sim B_{T}^{5/2} . The H-mode power threshold in JET-ILW is found to be sensitive both to variations in main plasma shape (Psep decreases with increasing lower triangularity and increases with upper triangularity) and in divertor configuration. When the data are recast in terms of Psep and Zeff or subdivertor neutral pressure a linear correlation is found, pointing to a possible role of Zeff and/or subdivertor neutral pressure in the L-H transition physics. Depending on the chosen divertor configuration, Pthr can be up to a factor of two lower than the ITPA scaling law for densities above ne,min. A shallow edge radial electric field well is observed at the L-H transition. The edge impurity ion poloidal velocity remains low, close to its L-mode values, 5 km s-1 ± 2-3 km s-1, at the L-H transition and throughout the H-mode phase, with no measureable increase within the experimental uncertainties. The edge toroidal rotation profile does not contribute to the depth of the negative Er well and thus may not be correlated with the formation of the edge transport barrier in JET.
    01/2014; 54(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) were used for dose measurements at JET. Several hundreds of LiF detectors of various types, standard LiF:Mg,Ti and highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P were produced. LiF detectors consisting of natural lithium are sensitive to slow neutrons, their response to neutrons being enhanced by 6Li-enriched lithium or suppressed by using lithium consisting entirely of 7Li. Pairs of 6LiF/7LiF detectors allow distinguishing between neutron/non-neutron components of a radiation field. For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. TLDs, located in the centre of cylindrical moderators, were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth in July 2012, and exposure took place during the last two weeks of the experimental campaign. Measurements of the gamma dose were obtained for all positions over a range of about five orders of magnitude variation. As the TLDs were also calibrated in a thermal neutron field, the neutron fluence at the experimental position could be derived. The experimental results are compared with calculations using the MCNP code. The results confirm that the TLD technology can be usefully applied to measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts.
    Fusion Engineering and Design. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A key feature of disruptions during vertical displacement events, discovered in JET in 1996, is the toroidal variation in the measured plasma current I p , i.e. the plasma current asymmetries, lasting for almost the entire current quench. The unique magnetic diagnostics at JET (full set of poloidal coils and saddle loops recorded either from two toroidally opposite or from four toroidally orthogonal locations) allow for a comprehensive analysis of asymmetrical disruptions with a large scale database. This paper presents an analysis of 4854 disruptions over an 18 year period that includes both the JET carbon (C) wall and the ITER-like (IL) wall (a mixed beryllium/tungsten first wall). In spite of the I p quench time significantly increasing for the IL-wall compared to C-wall disruptions, the observed toroidal asymmetry time integral (∼ sideways force impulse), did not increase for IL-wall disruptions. The I p asymmetry has a dominantly n = 1 structure. Its motion in the toroidal direction has a sporadic behaviour, in general. The distributions of the number of rotation periods are found to be very similar for both C- and IL-wall disruptions, and multi-turn rotation was sometimes observed. The I p asymmetry amplitude has no degradation with rotation frequency for either the C- or IL-wall disruption. Therefore dynamic amplification remains a potentially serious issue for ITER due to possible mechanical resonance of the machine components with the rotating asymmetry.
    Nuclear Fusion. 01/2014; 54(7):073009.
  • Physics of Plasmas (1994-present). 01/2014; 21(6).
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    M Maslov, M N A Beurskens, M Kempenaars, J Flanagan, JET EFDA contributors
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    ABSTRACT: The LIDAR Thomson scattering concept was proposed in 1983 and then implemented for the first time on the JET tokamak in 1987. A number of modifications were performed and published in 1995, but since then no major changes were made for almost 15 years. In 2010 a refurbishment of the diagnostic was started, with as main goals to improve its performance and to test the potential of new detectors which are considered as candidates for ITER. During the subsequent years a wide range of activities was performed aimed at increasing the diagnostic's light throughput, improvement of signal to noise ratio and amendment of the calibration procedures. Previously used MA-2 detectors were replaced by fast GaAsP detectors with much higher average QE. After all the changes were implemented, a significant improvement of the measured data was achieved. Statistical errors of measured temperature and density were reduced by a factor of 2 or more, depending on plasma conditions, and comfortably surpassed the values requested for ITER Core Thomson Scattering (10% for Te and 5% for ne). Excellent agreement with other diagnostics (conventional High Resolution Thomson Scattering, ECE, Reflectometer) was achieved over a wide range of plasma conditions. It was demonstrated that together with long term reliability and modest access port requirements, LIDAR can provide measurements of a quality similar to a conventional imaging Thomson Scattering instrument.
    Journal of Instrumentation. 12/2013; 8(11).
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the JET ITER-like Wall Project was to provide JET with the plasma facing material combination now selected for the DT phase of ITER (bulk beryllium main chamber limiters and a full tungsten divertor) and, in conjunction with the upgraded neutral beam heating system, to achieve ITER relevant conditions. The design of the bulk Be plasma facing components had to be compatible with increased heating power and pulse length, as well as to reuse the existing tile supports originally designed to cope with disruption loads from carbon based tiles and be installed by remote handling. Risk reduction measures (prototypes, jigs, etc) were implemented to maximize efficiency during the shutdown. However, a large number of clashes with existing components not fully captured by the configuration model occurred. Restarting the plasma on the ITER-like Wall proved much easier than for the carbon wall and no deconditioning by disruptions was observed. Disruptions have been more threatening than expected due to the reduced radiative losses compared to carbon, leaving most of the plasma magnetic energy to be conducted to the wall and requiring routine disruption mitigation. The main chamber power handling has achieved and possibly exceeded the design targets.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
409.26 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2014
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Applied Physics
      Gand, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2011
    • Fusion for Energy
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
      • Center for Research In Plasma Physics
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2010
    • Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
    • MIT Portugal
      Porto Salvo, Lisbon, Portugal
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2009
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC)
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2007
    • Princeton University
      • Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
      Princeton, NJ, United States
  • 2006
    • The University of Warwick
      • Department of Physics
      Warwick, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2005
    • Forschungszentrum Jülich
      • • Zentralabteilung für Chemische Analysen (ZCH)
      • • Plasmaphysik (IEK-4)
      Jülich, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2003
    • Chalmers University of Technology
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
    • Culham Centre for Fusion Energy
      Abingdon-on-Thames, England, United Kingdom