E. Moebius

University of New Hampshire, Дарем, New Hampshire, United States

Are you E. Moebius?

Claim your profile

Publications (472)1187.82 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has observed the interstellar neutral (ISN) gas flow over the past 6 yr during winter/spring when the Earth's motion opposes the ISN flow. Since IBEX observes the interstellar atom trajectories near their perihelion, we can use an analytical model based upon orbital mechanics to determine the interstellar parameters. Interstellar flow latitude, velocity, and temperature are coupled to the flow longitude and are restricted by the IBEX observations to a narrow tube in this parameter space. In our original analysis we found that pointing the spacecraft spin axis slightly out of the ecliptic plane significantly influences the ISN flow vector determination. Introducing the spacecraft spin axis tilt into the analytical model has shown that IBEX observations with various spin axis tilt orientations can substantially reduce the range of acceptable solutions to the ISN flow parameters as a function of flow longitude. The IBEX operations team pointed the IBEX spin axis almost exactly within the ecliptic plane during the 2012-2014 seasons, and about 5° below the ecliptic for half of the 2014 season. In its current implementation the analytical model describes the ISN flow most precisely for the spin axis orientation exactly in the ecliptic. This analysis refines the derived ISN flow parameters with a possible reconciliation between velocity vectors found with IBEX and Ulysses, resulting in a flow longitude λ∞ = 745 ± 17 and latitude β∞ = −52 ± 03, but at a substantially higher ISN temperature than previously reported.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2015; 804(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/804/1/42 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) measurements from 2009-2010 identified a set of possible solutions with very tight coupling between the interstellar He inflow longitude, latitude, speed, and temperature. The center of this allowable parameter space suggested that the heliosphere could be moving more slowly and in a slightly different direction with respect to the interstellar medium than indicated by earlier Ulysses observations. In this study we examine data from 2012-2014 and compare results from an analytic analysis and a detailed computer model. For observations where the IBEX spacecraft pointing is near the ecliptic plane, the latest measurements indicate a different portion of IBEX's four-dimensional tube of possible parameters—one that is more consistent with the Ulysses flow direction and speed, but with a much higher temperature. Together, the current combined IBEX/Ulysses values we obtain are V ISM∞ ~ 26 km s-1, λISM∞ ~ 75°, βISM∞ ~ -5°, and T He∞ ~ 7000-9500 K. These indicate that the heliosphere is in a substantially warmer region of the interstellar medium than thought from the earlier Ulysses observations alone, and that this warmer region may be roughly isothermal. However, measurements taken when IBEX was pointing ~5° south of the ecliptic are inconsistent with this solution and suggest a slower speed, lower temperature, and flow direction similar to IBEX's prior central values. IBEX measures much deeper into the tails of the distributions of the inflowing interstellar material than Ulysses did and these observations indicate that the heliosphere's interstellar interaction is likely far more complex and interesting than previously appreciated.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2015; 801(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/801/1/28 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The journey of the Sun through space carries the solar system through a dynamic interstellar environment that is presently characterized by Mach 1 motion between the heliosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). The interaction between the heliosphere and ISM is an evolving process due to the variable solar wind and to interstellar turbulence. Frisch et al. presented a meta-analysis of the historical data on the interstellar wind flowing through the heliosphere and concluded that temporal changes in the ecliptic longitude of the wind were statistically indicated by the data available in the refereed literature at the time of that writing. Lallement and Bertaux disagree with this result, and suggested, for instance, that a key instrumental response function of IBEX-Lo was incorrect and that the STEREO pickup ion data are unsuitable for diagnosing the flow of interstellar neutrals through the heliosphere. Here we show that temporal variations in the interstellar wind through the heliosphere are consistent with our knowledge of local ISM. The statistical analysis of the historical helium wind data is revisited, and a recent correction of a typographical error in the literature is incorporated into the new fits. With this correction, and including no newer IBEX results, these combined data still indicate that a change in the longitude of the interstellar neutral wind over the past forty years is statistically likely, but that a constant flow longitude is now also statistically possible. It is shown that the IBEX instrumental response function is known, and that the STEREO pickup ion data have been correctly utilized in this analysis.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2015; 801(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/801/1/61 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The circular ribbon of enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission remains a critical signature for understanding the interaction between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. We study the symmetry of the ribbon flux and find strong, spectrally dependent reflection symmetry throughout the energy range 0.7-4.3 keV. The distribution of ENA flux around the ribbon is predominantly unimodal at 0.7 and 1.1 keV, distinctly bimodal at 2.7 and 4.3 keV, and a mixture of both at 1.7 keV. The bimodal flux distribution consists of partially opposing bilateral flux lobes, located at highest and lowest heliographic latitude extents of the ribbon. The vector between the ribbon center and heliospheric nose (which defines the so-called BV plane) appears to play an organizing role in the spectral dependence of the symmetry axis locations as well as asymmetric contributions to the ribbon flux. The symmetry planes at 2.7 and 4.3 keV, derived by projecting the symmetry axes to a great circle in the sky, are equivalent to tilting the heliographic equatorial plane to the ribbon center, suggesting a global heliospheric ordering. The presence and energy dependence of symmetric unilateral and bilateral flux distributions suggest strong spectral filtration from processes encountered by an ion along its journey from the source plasma to its eventual detection at IBEX.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2015; 799(1):68. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/68 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Physics Conference Series 01/2015; 577:012023. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/577/1/012023
  • Journal of Physics Conference Series 01/2015; 577:012019. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/577/1/012019
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes the IBEX ribbon, which stretches across much of the sky observed in energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). The ribbon covers a narrow (~20°-50°) region that is believed to be roughly perpendicular to the interstellar magnetic field. Superimposed on the IBEX ribbon is the globally distributed flux that is controlled by the processes and properties of the heliosheath. This is a second study that utilizes a previously developed technique to separate ENA emissions in the ribbon from the globally distributed flux. A transparency mask is applied over the ribbon and regions of high emissions. We then solve for the globally distributed flux using an interpolation scheme. Previously, ribbon separation techniques were applied to the first year of IBEX-Hi data at and above 0.71 keV. Here we extend the separation analysis down to 0.2 keV and to five years of IBEX data enabling first maps of the ribbon and the globally distributed flux across the full sky of ENA emissions. Our analysis shows the broadening of the ribbon peak at energies below 0.71 keV and demonstrates the apparent deformation of the ribbon in the nose and heliotail. We show global asymmetries of the heliosheath, including both deflection of the heliotail and differing widths of the lobes, in context of the direction, draping, and compression of the heliospheric magnetic field. We discuss implications of the ribbon maps for the wide array of concepts that attempt to explain the ribbon's origin. Thus, we present the five-year separation of the IBEX ribbon from the globally distributed flux in preparation for a formal IBEX data release of ribbon and globally distributed flux maps to the heliophysics community.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 10/2014; 215(1):13. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/215/1/13 · 14.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We study the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath observed with the IBEX-Lo sensor of the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) from solar wind energies down to the lowest available energy (15 eV). All available IBEX-Lo data from 2009 January until 2013 June were included. The sky regions imaged when the spacecraft was outside of Earth's magnetosphere and when the Earth was moving toward the direction of observation offer a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio even at very low energies. We find that the ENA ribbon—a 20° wide region of high ENA intensities—is most prominent at solar wind energies whereas it fades at lower energies. The maximum emission in the ribbon is located near the poles for 2 keV and closer to the ecliptic plane for energies below 1 keV. This shift is an evidence that the ENA ribbon originates from the solar wind. Below 0.1 keV, the ribbon can no longer be identified against the globally distributed ENA signal. The ENA measurements in the downwind direction are affected by magnetospheric contamination below 0.5 keV, but a region of very low ENA intensities can be identified from 0.1 keV to 2 keV. The energy spectra of heliospheric ENAs follow a uniform power law down to 0.1 keV. Below this energy, they seem to become flatter, which is consistent with predictions. Due to the subtraction of local background, the ENA intensities measured with IBEX agree with the upper limit derived from Lyα observations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 796(1):9. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/796/1/9 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper we report on a two-year study to estimate the Ne/O abundance ratio in the gas phase of the local interstellar cloud (LIC). Based on the first two years of observations with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer, we determined the fluxes of interstellar neutral (ISN) O and Ne atoms at the Earth's orbit in spring 2009 and 2010. A temporal variation of the Ne/O abundance ratio at the Earth's orbit could be expected due to solar cycle-related effects such as changes of ionization. However, this study shows that there is no significant change in the Ne/O ratio at the Earths orbit from 2009 to 2010. We used time-dependent survival probabilities of the ISNs to calculate the Ne/O abundance ratio at the termination shock. Then we estimated the Ne/O abundance ratio in the gas phase of the LIC with the use of filtration factors and the ionization fractions. From our analysis, the Ne/O abundance ratio in the LIC is 0.33 ± 0.07, which is in agreement with the abundance ratio inferred from pickup-ion measurements.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2014; 795(1):97. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/795/1/97 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interstellar neutrals penetrating into the inner heliosphere are ionized by photoionization, charge exchange with solar wind ions, and electron impact ionization (EI). These processes comprise the first step in the evolution of interstellar pickup ion (PUI) distributions. Typically, PUI distributions have been described in terms of velocity distribution functions that cool adiabatically under solar wind expansion, with a cooling index of 3/2 [Vasyliunas & Siscoe, 1976]. Recently, the cooling index has been determined experimentally in observations of He PUI distributions with ACE/SWICS and found to vary substantially over the solar cycle [Chen et al., 2013]. The experimental determination of the cooling index depends on the knowledge of the ionization rates and their spatial variation. Usually, ionization rates increase with 1/r2 as neutral particles approach the Sun, which is not exactly true for electron impact ionization, because the electron temperature increases with decreasing distance from the Sun due to the complexity of its distributions and different radial gradients in temperature. This different dependence on distance may become important in the study of the evolution of PUI distributions and is suspected as one of the potential reasons for the observed variation of the cooling index. Therefore, we investigate in this paper the impact of electron ionization on the variability of the cooling index. We find that the deviation of the electron ionization rate from the canonical 1/r2 behavior of other ionization processes plays only a minor role.
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 09/2014; 119(9). DOI:10.1002/2014JA020357 · 3.44 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes enhanced Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) emission in the keV energy range from a narrow (~20° wide) "ribbon" in the sky that appears to be centered on the direction of the local interstellar (LIS) magnetic field. The Milagro collaboration, the Asγ collaboration and the IceCube observatory have recently made global maps of cosmic ray fluxes in the TeV energy range, revealing anisotropic structures ordered in part by the local interstellar magnetic field and the interstellar flow. This paper following from a recent publication in Science makes the link between these disparate observations by developing a simple model of the magnetic structure surrounding the heliosphere in the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) that is consistent with both IBEX ENA fluxes and TeV cosmic ray anisotropies. The model also employs the revised velocity direction of the LIC derived from neutral He observations by IBEX. By modeling the propagation of cosmic rays through this magnetic field structure, we specifically show that (1) the large-scale TeV anisotropy provides a roughly consistent orientation for the local interstellar magnetic field at the center of the IBEX Ribbon and corroborates the ~ 3 μG magnitude of the local interstellar magnetic field derived from IBEX observations of the global heliosphere; (2) and small-scale structures in cosmic rays (over < 30° angular scales) are influenced by the interstellar field interaction with the heliosphere at energies < 10 TeV. Thus, we provide a link between IBEX ENA observations, IBEX neutral observations of interstellar He, and TeV cosmic ray anisotropies, which are strongly influenced by the interactions between the local interstellar magnetic field, the flow of the local interstellar plasma, and the global heliosphere.
    Journal of Physics Conference Series 08/2014; 531(1):012010. DOI:10.1088/1742-6596/531/1/012010
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) returned its first five years of scientific observations from 2009 to 2013. In this study, we examine, validate, initially analyze, and provide to the broad scientific community this complete set of energetic neutral atom (ENA) observations for the first time. IBEX measures the fluxes of ENAs reaching 1 AU from sources in the outer heliosphere and most likely the very nearby interstellar space beyond the heliopause. The data, maps, and documentation provided in this study represent the fourth major release of the IBEX data, incorporate important improvements, and should be used for future studies and as the citable reference for the current version of the IBEX data. In this study, we also examine five years of time evolution in the outer heliosphere and the resulting ENA emissions. These observations show a complicated variation with a general decrease in ENA fluxes from 2009 to 2012 over most regions of the sky, consistent with a 2-4 year recycle time for the previously decreasing solar wind flux. In contrast, the heliotail fluxes continue to decrease, again consistent with a significantly more distant source in the downwind direction. Finally, the Ribbon shows the most complicated time variations, with a leveling off in the southern hemisphere and continued decline in the northern one; these may be consistent with the Ribbon source being significantly farther away in the north than in the south. Together, the observations and results shown in this study expose the intricacies of our heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 07/2014; 213(2):20. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/213/2/20 · 14.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigate the signals from neutral He atoms observed from Earth orbit in 2010 by IBEX. The full He signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral He that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately two-fold slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ~7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ~19deg from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems a long-term feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere, which brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. Possible sources for the Warm Breeze include (1) the secondary population of interstellar helium, created via charge exchange and perhaps elastic scattering of neutral interstellar He atoms on interstellar He+ ions in the outer heliosheath, or (2) a gust of interstellar He originating from a hypothetic wave train in the Local Interstellar Cloud. A secondary population is expected from models, but the characteristics of the Warm Breeze do not fully conform to modeling results. If, nevertheless, this is the explanation, IBEX-Lo observations of the Warm Breeze provide key insights into the physical state of plasma in the outer heliosheath. If the second hypothesis is true, the source is likely to be located within a few thousand of AU from the Sun, which is the propagation range of possible gusts of interstellar neutral helium with the Warm Breeze characteristics against dissipation via elastic scattering in the Local Cloud.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 05/2014; 213(2). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/213/2/29 · 14.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 04/2014; 211(2):32. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/211/2/32 · 14.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ionic charge states of solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide direct information about the source plasma, the acceleration environment, and their transport. Recent studies report that both gradual and impulsive SEP events show mean iron charge states langQ Ferang ~ 10-14 at low energies E <= 0.1 MeV nuc-1, consistent with their origin from typical corona material at temperatures 1-2 MK. Observed increases of langQ Ferang up to 20 at energies 0.1-0.5 MeV nuc-1 in impulsive SEPs are attributed to stripping during acceleration. However, Q Fe > 16 is occasionally found in the solar wind, particularly coming from active regions, in contrast to the exclusively reported langQ Ferang <= 14 for low energy SEPs. Here we report results from a survey of all 89 SEP events observed with Advanced Composition Explorer Solar Energetic Particle Ionic Charge Analyzer (SEPICA) in 1998-2000 for iron charge states augmented at low energy with Solar and Heliospheric Observatory CELIAS suprathermal time-of-flight (STOF). Nine SEP events with langQ Ferang >= 14 throughout the entire SEPICA and STOF energy range have been identified. Four of the nine events are impulsive events identified through velocity dispersion that are consistent with source temperatures >=2 MK up to ~4 MK. The other five events show evidence of interplanetary acceleration. Four of them involve re-acceleration of impulsive material, whose original energy dependent charge states appear re-distributed to varying extent bringing higher charge states to lower energy. One event, which shows flat but elevated langQ Ferang ~ 14.2 over the entire energy range, can be associated with interplanetary acceleration of high temperature material. This event may exemplify a rare situation when a second shock plows through high temperature coronal mass ejection material.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 785(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/785/1/26 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the heliosheath beyond the termination shock, low energy (<0.5 keV) neutral atoms are created by charge exchange with interstellar neutrals. Detecting these neutrals from Earth's orbit is difficult because their flux is reduced substantially by ionization losses as they propagate from about 100 to 1 AU and because there are a variety of other signals and backgrounds that compete with this weak signal. Observations from IBEX-Lo and -Hi from two opposing vantage points in Earth's orbit established a lower energy limit of about 0.1 keV on measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosphere and the form of the energy spectrum from about 0.1 to 6 keV in two directions in the sky. Below 0.1 keV, the detailed ENA spectrum is not known, and IBEX provides only upper limits on the fluxes. However, using some assumptions and taking constraints on the spectrum into account, we find indications that the spectrum turns over at an energy between 0.1 and 0.2 keV.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 784(2):89. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/784/2/89 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer is developed for the detection and chemical analysis of nanometer-sized particles originating near the Sun. Nano-dust particles are thought to be produced by mutual collisions between interplanetary dust particles slowly spiraling toward the Sun and are accelerated outward to high velocities by interaction with the solar wind plasma. The WAVES instruments on the two STEREO spacecraft reported the detection, strong temporal variation, and potentially high flux of these particles. Here we report on the optimization and the results from the detailed characterization of the instrument's performance using submicrometer sized dust particles accelerated to 8–60 km/s. The Nano Dust Analyzer (NDA) concept is derived from previously developed detectors. It has a 200 cm2 effective target area and a mass resolution of approximately m/Δm = 50. The NDA instrument is designed to reliably detect and analyze nanometer-sized dust particles while being pointed close to the Sun's direction, from where they are expected to arrive. Measurements by such an instrument will determine the size-dependent flux of the nano-dust particles and its variations, it will characterize the composition of the nano-dust and, ultimately, it may determine their source. The flight version of the NDA instrument is estimated to be <5 kg and requires <10 W for operation.
    Review of Scientific Instruments 03/2014; 85(3):035113-035113-12. DOI:10.1063/1.4868506 · 1.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Observations with the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) have shown enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission from a narrow, circular ribbon likely centered on the direction of the local interstellar medium (LISM) magnetic field. Here, we show that recent determinations of the local interstellar velocity, based on interstellar atom measurements with IBEX, are consistent with the interstellar modulation of high energy (TeV) cosmic rays and diffusive propagation from supernova sources revealed in global anisotropy maps of ground-based high-energy cosmic-ray observatories (Milagro, Asγ and IceCube). Establishing a consistent local interstellar magnetic field direction using IBEX ENAs at hundreds to thousands of eV and galactic cosmic rays at tens of TeV has wide-ranging implications for the structure of our heliosphere and its interactions with the local interstellar medium, particularly important at the time when the Voyager spacecraft are leaving our heliosphere.
    Science 02/2014; 343(6174). DOI:10.1126/science.1245026 · 31.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on a comprehensive signal processing procedure for very low signal levels for the measurement of neutral deuterium in the local interstellar medium from a spacecraft in Earth orbit. The deuterium measurements were performed with the IBEX-Lo camera on NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) satellite. Our analysis technique for these data consists of creating a mass relation in three-dimensional time of flight space to accurately determine the position of the predicted D events, to precisely model the tail of the H events in the region where the H tail events are near the expected D events, and then to separate the H tail from the observations to extract the very faint D signal. This interstellar D signal, which is expected to be a few counts per year, is extracted from a strong terrestrial background signal, consisting of sputter products from the sensor's conversion surface. As reference we accurately measure the terrestrial D/ H ratio in these sputtered products and then discriminate this terrestrial background source. During the three years of the mission time when the deuterium signal was visible to IBEX, the observation geometry and orbit allowed for a total observation time of 115.3 days. Because of the spinning of the spacecraft and the stepping through eight energy channels the actual observing time of the interstellar wind was only 1.44 days. With the optimised data analysis we found three counts that could be attributed to interstellar deuterium. These results update our earlier work.
    Entropy 01/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.3390/e16021134 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extreme UV (EUV) spectra from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED)/Solar EUV Experiment are used to infer photoionization rates in the inner heliosphere. Relating these rates to various proxies describing the solar EUV radiation, we construct a multi-linear model which allows us to extrapolate ionization rates back to periods when no routine measurements of the solar EUV spectral distribution have been available. Such information is important, e.g., for comparing conditions of the interstellar neutral particles in the inner heliosphere at the time of Ulysses/GAS observations with conditions during the more recent observations of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer. From a period of 11 yr when detailed spectra from both TIMED and three proxies—Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/CELIAS/SEM-rates, F10.7 radio flux, and Mg II core-to-wing indices—have been available, we conclude that the simple model is able to reproduce the photoionization rates with an uncertainty of typically 5%.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 01/2014; 210(1):12-. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/210/1/12 · 14.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,187.82 Total Impact Points


  • 1–2015
    • University of New Hampshire
      • • Space Science Center
      • • Department of Physics
      Дарем, New Hampshire, United States
  • 2014
    • University of Montana
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Missoula, Montana, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Texas at San Antonio
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      • Space Science and Applications Group
      Los Alamos, California, United States
  • 2010
    • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
      • Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (IEAP)
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 2009
    • Southwest Research Institute
      • Space Science and Engineering Division
      San Antonio, Texas, United States
  • 2004
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2000
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Applied Physics Laboratory
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1999
    • Durham University
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1986–1998
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • Loyola University Maryland
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1981–1987
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Physics
      CGS, Maryland, United States