[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An International Expert Committee made recommendations for using the hemoglobin A(₁C) (A1C) assay as the preferred method for the diagnosis of diabetes in nonpregnant individuals. A concentration of at least 6.5% was considered as diagnostic. It is the aim of this study to compare the sensitivity of A1C with that of plasma glucose concentrations in subjects with early diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We chose 2 groups of subjects who had A1C not exceeding 6.4%. The first group of 89 subjects had family histories of diabetes (MODY or type 2 diabetes mellitus) and had oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and A1C determinations. They included 36 subjects with diabetes or IGT and 53 with normal OGTT. The second group of 58 subjects was screened for diabetes in our Diabetes Clinic by fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, or OGTT and A1C; and similar comparisons were made. Subjects with diabetes or IGT, including those with fasting hyperglycemia, had A1C ranging from 5.0% to 6.4% (mean, 5.8%). The subjects with normal OGTT had A1C of 4.2% to 6.3% (mean, 5.4%), or 5.5% for the 2 groups. The A1C may be in the normal range in subjects with diabetes or IGT, including those with fasting hyperglycemia. Approximately one third of subjects with early diabetes and IGT have A1C less than 5.7%, the cut point that the American Diabetes Association recommends as indicating the onset of risk of developing diabetes in the future. The results of our study are similar to those obtained by a large Dutch epidemiologic study. If our aim is to recognize early diabetic states to apply effective prophylactic procedures to prevent or delay progression to more severe diabetes, A1C is not sufficiently sensitive or reliable for diagnosis of diabetes or IGT. A combination of A1C and plasma glucose determinations, where necessary, is recommended for diagnosis or screening of diabetes or IGT.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 01/2011; 60(1):86-91. · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the genetic and clinical features of diabetic subjects in a 5-generation Michigan-Kentucky pedigree ascertained through a proband with pancreatic agenesis and homozygous for the IPF1 mutation Pro63fsx60. Diabetic and nondiabetic family members were genotyped and phenotyped. We also carried out genetic studies to determine the history of the IPF1 mutation in the Michigan-Kentucky family and a Virginia family with the same mutation. We identified 110 individuals; 34 are currently being treated for diabetes and 10 of these are Pro63fsX60 carriers (ie, MODY4). Subjects with MODY as well as those with type 2 diabetes are characterized by obesity and hyperinsulinemia. Genetic studies suggest that the IPF1 mutation was inherited from an ancestor common to both the Michigan-Kentucky and Virginia families. MODY4 and type 2 diabetes in the Michigan-Kentucky pedigree are associated with obesity and hyperinsulinemia. Obesity and hyperinsulinemia have been observed occasionally in other subtypes of MODY, which suggests that hyperinsulinemia may be a general phenomenon when obesity occurs in MODY subjects. Hypoinsulinemia in nonobese MODY subjects seems to be caused by a functional defect in the beta cell. Genetic testing should be considered in multigenerational obese diabetic subjects, particularly when such families contain young diabetic members.
Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 07/2010; 156(1):7-14.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The International Expert Committee recommends that the diagnosis of diabetes be made if hemo globin A1c (HbA1c) level is greater, similar 6.5% and confirmed with a repeat HbA1c test. The committee recommends against "mixing different methods to diagnose diabetes" because "the tests are not completely concordant: using different tests could easily lead to confusion". Fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postglucose-load plasma glucose, and oral glucose tolerance tests are recommended for the diagnosis of diabetes only if HbA1c testing is not possible due to unavailability of the assay, patient factors that preclude its inter pretation, and during pregnancy. HbA1c testing has the advantages of greater clinical convenience, preanalytic stability, and assay standardization, but when used as the sole diagnostic criterion for diabetes, it has the potential for systematic error. Factors that may not be clinically evident impact HbA1c test results and may systematically raise or lower the value relative to the true level of glycemia. For this reason, HbA1c should be used in combination with plasma glucose determinations for the diagnosis of diabetes. If an HbA1c test result is discordant with the clinical picture or equivocal, plasma glucose testing should be performed. A diagnostic cut-off point of HbA1c greater, similar 6.5% misses a substantial number of people with type 2 diabetes, including some with fasting hyperglycemia, and misses most people with impaired glucose tolerance. Combining the use of HbA1c and plasma glucose measurements for the diagnosis of diabetes offers the benefits of each test and reduces the risk of systematic bias inherent in HbA1c testing alone.
Polskie archiwum medycyny wewnȩtrznej 01/2010; 120(1-2):37-40. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus is a rare disorder known to be caused by activating mutations in KCNJ11 or ABCC8, inactivating mutations in INS, or very rarely in GCK or insulin promotor factor-1 (IPF-1) genes. We report a patient with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus and severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Ultrasound examination revealed pancreatic agenesis with a suggestion of a small amount of tissue in the head of the pancreas. Genetic testing revealed that the neonate had a homozygous Pro63fsX60 IPF-1 mutation. This is the second reported case of neonatal diabetes mellitus secondary to a homozygous mutation in the IPF-1 gene and supports the previously proposed biological role of IPF-1 in the pancreatic development in human.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subjects with the Q268X mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha gene (RW pedigree/maturity-onset diabetes of the young [MODY]-1) have diminished insulin and glucagon secretory responses to arginine. To determine if pancreatic polypeptide (PP) secretion is likewise involved, we studied PP responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in 17 RW pedigree members: 6 nondiabetic mutation-negative [ND(-)], 4 nondiabetic mutation-positive [ND(+)], and 7 diabetic mutation-positive [D(+)]. Subjects received 0.08 U/kg body wt human regular insulin as an intravenous bolus to produce moderate self-limited hypoglycemia. PP areas under the curve (PP-AUCs) were compared among groups. With hypoglycemia, the PP-AUC was lower in the D(+) group (14,907 +/- 6,444 pg/ml, P = 0.03) and the ND(+) group (14,622 +/- 6,015 pg/ml, P = 0.04) compared with the ND(-) group (21,120 +/- 4,158 pg/ml). In addition, to determine if the beta-cell secretory defect in response to arginine involves amylin in addition to insulin secretion, we analyzed samples from 17 previously studied RW pedigree subjects. We compared the AUCs during arginine infusions for the 3 groups both at euglycemia and hyperglycemia as well as their C-peptide-to-amylin ratios. The D(+) and ND(+) groups had decreased amylin AUCs during both arginine infusions compared with the ND(-) group, but had similar C-peptide-to-amylin ratios. These results suggest that the HNF-4alpha mutation in the RW/MODY1 pedigree confers a generalized defect in islet cell function involving PP cells in addition to beta- and alpha-cells, and beta-cell impairment involving proportional deficits in insulin and amylin secretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha is a transcription factor that plays an important role in regulation of gene expression in pancreatic beta-cells and in the liver. Heterozygous mutations in the HNF-4alpha gene are responsible for maturity-onset diabetes of the young 1 (MODY1), which is characterized by pancreatic beta-cell-deficient insulin secretion. HNF-4alpha is a major transcriptional regulator of many genes expressed in the liver. However, no liver defect has been identified in individuals with HNF-4alpha mutations. In this study, we have identified HNF-4alpha target genes that are mainly expressed in the liver, including alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha1-antichymotrypsin, alpha-fetal protein, ceruloplasmin, IGF binding protein 1, transferrin, apolipoprotein(AI) [apo(AI)], apo(AII), apo(B), and apo(CIII). Serum levels of these proteins and Lp(a) and triglycerides were measured in 24 members of the HNF-4alpha/MODY1 RW pedigree (Q268X mutation), including 12 diabetic patients with HNF-4alpha mutations (D-HNF4+/-), 6 nondiabetic subjects with HNF-4alpha mutations (N-HNF4+/-), 6 normal relatives (N-HNF4+/+), 6 unrelated normal matched control subjects (N-HNF4+/+), and 12 matched diabetic (non-MODY1-5) patients (D-HNF4+/+). Serum levels of apo(AII), apo(CIII), lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], and triglyceride were significantly reduced in HNF4+/- subjects (26.9, 19.8, 12.1, and 72.1 mg/dl, respectively) compared with HNF4+/+ subjects (37.4, 26.5, 45.2, and 124.2 mg/dl, respectively) (P = 0.00001, P = 0.01, P = 0.00006, and P = 0.000003, respectively). This reduction was not found when apo(AII), apo(CIII), Lp(a), and triglyceride levels were compared in D-HNF4+/- versus N-HNF4+/- or in D-HNF4+/+ versus N-HNF4+/+ subjects, which indicates that HNF-4alpha haploinsufficiency rather than hyperglycemia is the primary cause of decreased serum protein and triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, we determined that genetic or environmental modifiers other than HNF-4alpha do not appear to contribute to the observed decrease of HNF-4alpha-regulated serum proteins. This study demonstrates that a heterozygous HNF-4alpha mutation leads to an HNF-4alpha-dependent hepatocyte secretory defect of liver-specific proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nondiabetic subjects with the Q268X mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha/MODY1 gene have impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion. To ascertain the effects of the nonglucose secretagogue arginine on insulin and glucagon secretion in these subjects, we studied 18 members of the RW pedigree: 7 nondiabetic mutation negative (ND[-]), 7 nondiabetic mutation positive (ND[+]), and 4 diabetic mutation positive (D[+]). We gave arginine as a 5-g bolus, followed by a 25-min infusion at basal glucose concentrations, and after glucose infusion to clamp plasma glucose at approximately 200 mg/dl. The acute insulin response (AIR), the 10-60 min insulin area under the curve (AUC), and the insulin secretion rate (ISR) were compared, as were the acute glucagon response (AGR) and glucagon AUC. The ND[+] and D[+] groups had decreased insulin AUC and ISR and decreased glucose potentiation of AIR, insulin AUC, and ISR to arginine administration when compared with the ND[-] group. At basal glucose concentrations, glucagon AUC was greatest for the ND[-] group, intermediate for the ND[+] group, and lowest for the D[+] group. During the hyperglycemic clamp, there was decreased suppression of glucagon AUC for both ND[+] and D[+] groups compared with the ND[-] group. The decreased ISR to arginine in the ND[+] group compared with the ND[-] group, magnified by glucose potentiation, indicated that HNF-4alpha affects the signaling pathway for arginine-induced insulin secretion. The decrease in glucagon AUC and decreased suppression of glucagon AUC with hyperglycemia suggest that mutations in HNF-4alpha may lead to alpha-cell as well as beta-cell secretory defects or a reduction in pancreatic islet mass.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The disease non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is characterized by abnormally high blood glucose resulting from a relative deficiency of insulin. It affects about 2% of the world's population and treatment of diabetes and its complications are an increasing health-care burden. Genetic factors are important in the aetiology of NIDDM, and linkage studies are starting to localize some of the genes that influence the development of this disorder. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), a single-gene disorder responsible for 2-5% of NIDDM, is characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance and an age of onset of 25 years or younger. MODY genes have been localized to chromosomes 7, 12 and 20 (refs 5, 7, 8) and clinical studies indicate that mutations in these genes are associated with abnormal patterns of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The gene on chromosome 7 (MODY2) encodes the glycolytic enzyme glucokinases which plays a key role in generating the metabolic signal for insulin secretion and in integrating hepatic glucose uptake. Here we show that subjects with the MODY3-form of NIDDM have mutations in the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha, which is encoded by the gene TCF1). HNF-1alpha is a transcription factor that helps in the tissue-specific regulation of the expression of several liver genes and also functions as a weak transactivator of the rat insulin-I gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The disease maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a genetically heterogeneous monogenic form of non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), characterized by early onset, usually before 25 years of age and often in adolescence or childhood, and by autosomal dominant inheritance. It has been estimated that 2-5% of patients with NIDDM may have this form of diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies have shown that prediabetic MODY subjects have normal insulin sensitivity but suffer from a defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, suggesting that pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction rather than insulin resistance is the primary defect in this disorder. Linkage studies have localized the genes that are mutated in MODY on human chromosomes 20 (MODY1), 7 (MODY2) and 12 (MODY3), with MODY2 and MODY3 being allelic with the genes encoding glucokinase, a key regulator of insulin secretion, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF-1alpha), a transcription factor involved in tissue-specific regulation of liver genes but also expressed in pancreatic islets, insulinoma cells and other tissues. Here we show that MODY1 is the gene encoding HNF-4alpha (gene symbol, TCF14), a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily and an upstream regulator of HNF-1alpha expression.