[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyanobacteria, algae, and plants oxidize water to the O2 we breathe, and consume CO2 during the synthesis of biomass. Although these vital processes are functionally and structurally well separated in photosynthetic organisms, there is a long-debated role for CO2/HCO3(-) in water oxidation. Using membrane-inlet mass spectrometry we demonstrate that HCO3(-) acts as a mobile proton acceptor that helps to transport the protons produced inside of photosystem II by water oxidation out into the chloroplast's lumen, resulting in a light-driven production of O2 and CO2. Depletion of HCO3(-) from the media leads, in the absence of added buffers, to a reversible down-regulation of O2 production by about 20%. These findings add a previously unidentified component to the regulatory network of oxygenic photosynthesis and conclude the more than 50-y-long quest for the function of CO2/HCO3(-) in photosynthetic water oxidation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2014; 111(17):6299-6304. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1323277111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over 40 years ago, Joliot et al. (Photochem Photobiol 10:309-329, 1969) designed and employed an elegant and highly sensitive electrochemical technique capable of measuring O2 evolved by photosystem II (PSII) in response to trains of single turn-over light flashes. The measurement and analysis of flash-induced oxygen evolution patterns (FIOPs) has since proven to be a powerful method for probing the turnover efficiency of PSII. Stemler et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71(12):4679-4683, 1974), in Govindjee's lab, were the first to study the effect of "bicarbonate" on FIOPs by adding the competitive inhibitor acetate. Here, we extend this earlier work by performing FIOPs experiments at various, strictly controlled inorganic carbon (Ci) levels without addition of any inhibitors. For this, we placed a Joliot-type bare platinum electrode inside a N2-filled glove-box (containing 10-20 ppm CO2) and reduced the Ci concentration simply by washing the samples in Ci-depleted media. FIOPs of spinach thylakoids were recorded either at 20-times reduced levels of Ci or at ambient Ci conditions (390 ppm CO2). Numerical analysis of the FIOPs within an extended Kok model reveals that under Ci-depleted conditions the miss probability is discernibly larger (by 2-3 %) than at ambient conditions, and that the addition of 5 mM HCO3 (-) to the Ci-depleted thylakoids largely restores the original miss parameter. Since a "mild" Ci-depletion procedure was employed, we discuss our data with respect to a possible function of free or weakly bound HCO3 (-) at the water-splitting side of PSII.
Photosynthesis Research 07/2013; 117(1):401-412. DOI:10.1007/s11120-013-9875-5 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A tool for stoichiometric co-expression of effector and target proteins to study intracellular protein trafficking processes has been provided by the so called 2A peptide technology. In this system, the 16-20 amino acid 2A peptide from RNA viruses allows synthesis of multiple gene products from single transcripts. However, so far the use of the 2A technology in plant systems has been limited.
The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of the 2A peptide technology to study the effects exerted by dominant mutant forms of three small GTPase proteins, RABD2a, SAR1, and ARF1 on intracellular protein trafficking in plant cells. Special emphasis was given to CAH1 protein from Arabidopsis, which is trafficking to the chloroplast via a poorly characterized endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi pathway. Dominant negative mutants for these GTPases were co-expressed with fluorescent marker proteins as polyproteins separated by a 20 residue self-cleaving 2A peptide. Cleavage efficiency analysis of the generated polyproteins showed that functionality of the 2A peptide was influenced by several factors. This enabled us to design constructs with greatly increased cleavage efficiency compared to previous studies. The dominant negative GTPase variants resulting from cleavage of these 2A peptide constructs were found to be stable and active, and were successfully used to study the inhibitory effect on trafficking of the N-glycosylated CAH1 protein through the endomembrane system.
We demonstrate that the 2A peptide is a suitable tool when studying plant intracellular protein trafficking and that transient protoplast and in planta expression of mutant forms of SAR1 and RABD2a disrupts CAH1 trafficking. Similarly, expression of dominant ARF1 mutants also caused inhibition of CAH1 trafficking to a different extent. These results indicate that early trafficking of the plastid glycoprotein CAH1 depends on canonical vesicular transport mechanisms operating between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51973. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051973 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The β-class carbonic anhydrases (β-CAs) are widely distributed among lower eukaryotes, prokaryotes, archaea, and plants. Like all CAs, the β-enzymes catalyze an important physiological reaction, namely the interconversion between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. In plants the enzyme plays an important role in carbon fixation and metabolism. To further explore the structure-function relationship of β-CA, we have determined the crystal structures of the photoautotroph unicellular green alga Coccomyxa β-CA in complex with five different inhibitors: acetazolamide, thiocyanate, azide, iodide, and phosphate ions. The tetrameric Coccomyxa β-CA structure is similar to other β-CAs but it has a 15 amino acid extension in the C-terminal end, which stabilizes the tetramer by strengthening the interface. Four of the five inhibitors bind in a manner similar to what is found in complexes with α-type CAs. Iodide ions, however, make contact to the zinc ion via a zinc-bound water molecule or hydroxide ion--a type of binding mode not previously observed in any CA. Binding of inhibitors to Coccomyxa β-CA is mediated by side-chain movements of the conserved residue Tyr-88, extending the width of the active site cavity with 1.5-1.8 Å. Structural analysis and comparisons with other α- and β-class members suggest a catalytic mechanism in which the movements of Tyr-88 are important for the CO(2)-HCO(3)(-) interconversion, whereas a structurally conserved water molecule that bridges residues Tyr-88 and Gln-38, seems important for proton transfer, linking water molecules from the zinc-bound water to His-92 and buffer molecules.
PLoS ONE 12/2011; 6(12):e28458. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0028458 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intact cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as well as isolated thylakoid membranes and photosystem II complexes were used to examine a possible mechanism of anthracene (ANT) interaction with the photosynthetic apparatus. Since ANT concentrations above 1 mM were required to significantly inhibit the rate of oxygen evolution in PS II membrane fragments it may indicate that the toxicant did not directly interact with this photosystem. On the other hand, stimulation of oxygen uptake by ANT-treated thylakoids suggested that ANT could either act as an artificial electron acceptor in the photosynthetic electron transport chain or function as an uncoupler. Electron transfer from excited chlorophyll to ANT is impossible due to the very low reduction potential of ANT and therefore we propose that toxic concentrations of ANT increase the thylakoid membrane permeability and thereby function as an uncoupler, enhancing electron transport in vitro. Hence, its unspecific interference with photosynthetic membranes in vitro suggests that the inhibitory effect observed on intact cell photosynthesis is caused by uncoupling of phosphorylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of suppression of the carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity by a CA-inhibitor, acetazolamide (AA), on the photosynthetic activities of photosystem II (PS II) particles from higher plants were investigated. AA along with CA-activity inhibits the PS II photosynthetic electron transfer and the AA-induced suppression is totally reversed by the addition of bicarbonate (3-5 mM). Similar effect of recovery in the PS II photosynthetic activity was also revealed upon the addition of known artificial electron donors (potassium ferrocyanide and TMPD). Significance and possible functions of CA for the PS II donor side are discussed.
Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology 07/2011; 104(1-2):366-71. DOI:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2011.04.001 · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Arabidopsis CAH1 alpha-type carbonic anhydrase is one of the few plant proteins known to be targeted to the chloroplast through the secretory pathway. CAH1 is post-translationally modified at several residues by the attachment of N-glycans, resulting in a mature protein harbouring complex-type glycans. The reason of why trafficking through this non-canonical pathway is beneficial for certain chloroplast resident proteins is not yet known. Therefore, to elucidate the significance of glycosylation in trafficking and the effect of glycosylation on the stability and function of the protein, epitope-labelled wild type and mutated versions of CAH1 were expressed in plant cells.
Transient expression of mutant CAH1 with disrupted glycosylation sites showed that the protein harbours four, or in certain cases five, N-glycans. While the wild type protein trafficked through the secretory pathway to the chloroplast, the non-glycosylated protein formed aggregates and associated with the ER chaperone BiP, indicating that glycosylation of CAH1 facilitates folding and ER-export. Using cysteine mutants we also assessed the role of disulphide bridge formation in the folding and stability of CAH1. We found that a disulphide bridge between cysteines at positions 27 and 191 in the mature protein was required for correct folding of the protein. Using a mass spectrometric approach we were able to measure the enzymatic activity of CAH1 protein. Under circumstances where protein N-glycosylation is blocked in vivo, the activity of CAH1 is completely inhibited.
We show for the first time the importance of post-translational modifications such as N-glycosylation and intramolecular disulphide bridge formation in folding and trafficking of a protein from the secretory pathway to the chloroplast in higher plants. Requirements for these post-translational modifications for a fully functional native protein explain the need for an alternative route to the chloroplast.
PLoS ONE 06/2011; 6(6):e21021. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0021021 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-time of flight technique, we determined major metabolite changes during induction of the carbon-concentrating mechanism in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In total, 128 metabolites with significant differences between high- and low-CO(2)-grown cells were detected, of which 82 were wholly or partially identified, including amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. In a 24-h time course experiment, we show that the amino acids serine and phenylalanine increase transiently while aspartate and glutamate decrease after transfer to low CO(2). The biggest differences were typically observed 3 h after transfer to low-CO(2) conditions. Therefore, we made a careful metabolomic examination at the 3-h time point, comparing low-CO(2) treatment to high-CO(2) control. Five metabolites involved in photorespiration, 11 amino acids, and one lipid were increased, while six amino acids and, interestingly, 21 lipids were significantly lower. Our conclusion is that the metabolic pattern during early induction of the carbon-concentrating mechanism fit a model where photorespiration is increasing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PsbO protein is an important constituent of the water-oxidizing complex, located on the lumenal side of photosystem II. We report here the efficient expression of the spinach PsbO in E. coli where the solubility depends entirely on the formation of the disulfide bond. The PsbO protein purified from a pET32 system that includes thioredoxin fusion is properly folded and functionally active. Urea unfolding experiments imply that the reduction of the single disulfide bridge decreases stability of the protein. Analysis of inter-residue contact density through the PsbO molecule shows that Cys51 is located in a cluster with high contact density. Reduction of the Cys28-Cys51 bond is proposed to perturb the packing interactions in this cluster and destabilize the protein as a whole. Taken together, our results give evidence that PsbO exists in solution as a compact highly ordered structure, provided that the disulfide bridge is not reduced.
Photosynthesis Research 09/2008; 98(1-3):391-403. DOI:10.1007/s11120-008-9327-9 · 3.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Water oxidation in photosystem II (PSII) is still insufficiently understood and is assumed to involve HCO(3)(-). A Chlamydomonas mutant lacking a carbonic anhydrase associated with the PSII donor side shows impaired O(2) evolution in the absence of HCO(3)(-). The O(2) evolution for saturating, continuous illumination (R(O2)) was slower than in the wild type, but was elevated by HCO(3)(-) and increased further by Cah3. The R(O2) limitation in the absence of Cah3/HCO(3)(-) was amplified by H(2)O/D(2)O exchange, but relieved by an amphiphilic proton carrier, suggesting a role of Cah3/HCO(3)(-) in proton translocation. Chlorophyll fluorescence indicates a Cah3/HCO(3)(-) effect at the donor side of PSII. Time-resolved delayed fluorescence and O(2)-release measurements suggest specific effects on proton-release steps but not on electron transfer. We propose that Cah3 promotes proton removal from the Mn complex by locally providing HCO(3)(-), which may function as proton carrier. Without Cah3, proton removal could become rate limiting during O(2) formation and thus, limit water oxidation under high light. Our results underlie the general importance of proton release at the donor side of PSII during water oxidation.
The EMBO Journal 04/2008; 27(5):782-91. DOI:10.1038/emboj.2008.12 · 10.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Besides an essential role in optimizing water oxidation in photosystem II (PSII), it has been reported that the spinach PsbO protein binds GTP [C. Spetea, T. Hundal, B. Lundin, M. Heddad, I. Adamska, B. Andersson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (2004) 1409-1414]. Here we predict four GTP-binding domains in the structure of spinach PsbO, all localized in the beta-barrel domain of the protein, as judged from comparison with the 3D-structure of the cyanobacterial counterpart. These domains are not conserved in the sequences of the cyanobacterial or green algae PsbO proteins. MgGTP induces specific changes in the structure of the PsbO protein in solution, as detected by circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy. Spinach PsbO has a low intrinsic GTPase activity, which is enhanced fifteen-fold when the protein is associated with the PSII complex in its dimeric form. GTP stimulates the dissociation of PsbO from PSII under light conditions known to also release Mn(2+) and Ca(2+) ions from the oxygen-evolving complex and to induce degradation of the PSII reaction centre D1 protein. We propose the occurrence in higher plants of a PsbO-mediated GTPase activity associated with PSII, which has consequences for the function of the oxygen-evolving complex and D1 protein turnover.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hypothesis presented here for proton transfer away from the water oxidation complex of Photosystem II (PSII) is supported by biochemical experiments on the isolated PsbO protein in solution, theoretical analyses of better understood proton transfer systems like bacteriorhodopsin and cytochrome oxidase, and the recently published 3D structure of PS II (Pdb entry 1S5L). We propose that a cluster of conserved glutamic and aspartic acid residues in the PsbO protein acts as a buffering network providing efficient acceptors of protons derived from substrate water molecules. The charge delocalization of the cluster ensures readiness to promptly accept the protons liberated from substrate water. Therefore protons generated at the catalytic centre of PSII need not be released into the thylakoid lumen as generally thought. The cluster is the beginning of a localized, fast proton transfer conduit on the lumenal side of the thylakoid membrane. Proton-dependent conformational changes of PsbO may play a role in the regulation of both supply of substrate water to the water oxidizing complex and the resultant proton transfer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Active extracellular carbonic anhydrases (CAs) were found in the alkaliphilic stromatolite-forming cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes. Enzyme activity was detected in intact cells and in the cell envelope fraction. Western blot analysis of polypeptides from the cell envelope suggested the presence of at least two polypeptides cross-reacting with antibodies against both alpha and beta classes of CA. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed putative alpha-CA localized in the glycocalyx. This alpha-CA has a molecular mass of about 34 kDa and a pI of 3.5. External CAs showed two peaks of activity at around pH 10 and 7.5. The possible involvement of extracellular CAs of M. chthonoplastes in photosynthetic assimilation of inorganic carbon and its relationship to CaCO(3) deposition during mineralization of cyanobacterial cells are discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CAex) for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) accumulation in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was investigated. It was found that when algal cells were bubbled with ambient air, cell-wall-less mutant cells exhibited the same high photosynthetic affinity for CO2 as wild-type cells despite a 10 times lower activity of CAex. It was also found that the affinity for CO2 was further increased when the total DIC concentration of the algal medium was reduced from that in equilibrium with ambient air to even lower levels. This increased affinity was not correlated with any further increase in the CAex activity.Dextran-bound sulfonamide (DBS. 100 μM bound ligand) completely inhibited the activity of CAex in intact, low-DIC grown, wild-type cells, while photosynthesis at <2 μM CO2(aq) proceeded at a far greater rate than could be maintained by CO2 supplied from the spontaneous dehydration of HCO−3. DBS-inhibition of CAex, during the induction of the DIC-accumulating mechanism in previously high-DIC grown cells, only caused a 50% inhibition of photosynthesis at 10 μM CO2(aq) after 1 h of low-DIC acclimation. It was also shown that 50 μM acetazolamide (AZ) inhibited photosynthesis at low DIC concentrations to a relatively higher degree than DBS, suggesting that AZ inhibited intracellular CA as well.Taken together, these results suggest that low-DIC grown cells of C. reinhardtii have the ability to transport HCO−3 across the plasma membrane in addition to the CAex-mediated, facilitated diffusion and/or transport of CO2. It is also suggested that the relative importance of these two fluxes (CO2 or HCO−3) is dependent on the growth and experimental conditions. Facilitated CO2 uptake seems to be most prevalent, supported by HCO−3-transport under more or less extreme situations, such as a reduction of CO2 to extremely low concentrations, leakage of CAex to the medium as in cultures of cell-wall-less mutant cells or when the activity of CAex has been artificially inhibited.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of blue and red light on the adaptation to low CO2 conditions was studied in high-CO2 grown cultures of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa (82T) and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii(137+) by measuring O2 exchange under various inorganic carbon (Ci) concentrations. At equal photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), blue light was more favourable for adaptation in both species, compared to red light. The difference in photosynthetic oxygen evolution between cells adapted to low Ciunder blue and red light was more pronounced when oxygen evolution was measured under low Ci compared to high Ci conditions. The effect of light quality on adaptation remained for several hours. The different effects caused by blue and red light was observed in C. pyrenoidosa over a wide range of PPFD with increasing differences at increasing PPFD. The maximal difference was obtained at a PPFD above 1 500 μmol m−2s−1. We found no difference in the extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity between blue- and red light adapted cells.The light quality effect recorded under Ci-limiting conditions in C. reinhardtii cells adapted to air, was only 37% less when instead of pure blue light red light containing 12.5% of blue light (similar PPFD as blue light) was used during adaptation to low carbon. This indicates that in addition to affecting photosynthesis, blue light affected a sensory system involved in algal adaptation to low Ci conditions. Since the affinity for Ci of C. Pyrenoidosa and C. reinhardtii cells adapted to air under blue light was higher than that of cells adapted under red light, we suggest that induction of some component(s) of the Ci accumulating mechanism is regulated by the light quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lyophilized chloroplasts of Pisum sativum (pea) have been extracted with petroleum ether of different polarity (obtained by adding varying amounts of ethanol to the petroleum ether). Extracted thylakoids have then been solubilized by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and chlorophyll-protein complexes have been isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Absorption- and low temperature fluorescence emission spectro-scopy have been used to characterize thylakoids and purified chlorophyll-protein complexes.Weakly polar solvents extracted mainly chlorophyll a. SDS-PAGE scan profiles of similarly extracted thylakoids contained no photosystem II chlorophyll a reaction center antennae (CP-an) and the amount of photosystem I chlorophyll a reaction center antennae (CP-a1) was reduced as compared with an unextracted control. This was due partly to the extraction of chlorophyll a prior to SDS-PAGE, and partly to the increased solubilization of chlorophyll a by SDS as a result of β-carotene extraction. By increasing the polarity of the solvent CP-a1 also disappeared in the scan profile, leaving only the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex (CP-a/b) and SDS complexed chlorophyll.From these results we conclude that the chlorophyll molecules in the reaction center antennae are relatively more hydrophobically associated than the molecules in the light-harvesting CP-a/b complex. The chlorophyll a of CP-au and the far red absorbing chlorophyll a fraction of CP-a1 appear to be the most hydrophobically associated chlorophyll molecules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recovery from 60 min of photoinhibitory treatment at photosynthetic photon flux densities of 500, 1400 and 2200 μMmol m−2 s− was followed in cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii grown at 125 μMmol m−2 s−1. These light treatments represent photoregulation, moderate photoinhibition and strong photoinhibition, respectively. Treatment in photoregulatory light resulted in an increased maximal rate of oxygen evolution (Pmax) and an increased quantum yield (Φ), but a 15% decrease in Fv/FM. Treatment at moderately photoinhibitory light resulted in a 30% decrease in Fv/FM and an approximately equal decrease in Φ. Recovery in dim light restored Fv/FM within 15 and 45 min after high light treatment at 500 and 1400 μMmol m−2 s−1, respectively. Convexity (Θ), a measure of the extent of co-limitation between PS II turnover and whole-chain electron transport, and Φ approached, but did not reach the control level during recovery after exposure to 1400 μMmol m−2 s−1, whereas Pmax increased above the control. Treatment at 2200 μMmol m−2 s−1 resulted in a strong reduction of the modeled parameters Φ, Θ and Pmax. Subsequent recovery was initially rapid but the rate decreased, and a complete recovery was not reached within 120 min. Based on the results, it is hypothesized that exposure to high light results in two phenomena. The first, expressed at all three light intensities, involves redistribution within the different aspects of PS II heterogeneity rather than a photoinhibitory destruction of PS II reaction centers. The second, most strongly expressed at 2200 μmol m−2 s−1, is a physical damage to PS II shown as an almost total loss of PS IIα and PS II QB-reducing centers. Thus recovery displayed two phase, the first was rapid and the only visible phase in algae exposed to 500 and 1400 μmol m−2 s−1. The second phase was slow and visible only in the later part of recovery in cells exposed to 2200 μmol m−2 s−1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photoinhibition of photosynthesis and subsequent recovery were studied in cultures of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii L. (wt strain 137 c mating type +) acclimated at high (27°C) and low (12°C) temperature, Photoinhibition was assayed by fluorescence kinetics (77K) and oxygen evolution measurements under growth temperature conditions Inhibition of 50% was obtained by exposing cultures acclimated at high temperature to a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 1 600 μmol m−2 S−1 at. 27°C. and cultures acclimated at low temperature to a PPFD of 900 μmol m−2 s−1 at 12°C When the photoinhibitory conditions were shifted it was revealed that algae acclimated at low temperature had acquired an increased resistance to photoinhibition at both 12 and 27°C. Furthermore, acclimation at low temperature increased the capacity to recover from 50% photoinhibition at both 12 and 27°C Studies of photoinhibition in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, chloramphenicol, revealed that in response to acclimation at low temperature during growth the algae became more dependent on protein synthesis to avoid photoinhibition. It is suggested that acclimation at low temperature rendered C. reinhardtii an increased resistance to photoinhibition by. increasing the rate of turnover of photodamaged proteins in photosystem II (PS II). However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the increased resistance to photoinhibition of C. reinhardtii acclimated at low temperature also involves modifications of the mechanism of photoinhibition.