Adam M Benham

Durham University, Durham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (37)180.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A new family of platinum(II) complexes of the form PtL(n)SR have been prepared, where L(n) represents a cyclometalating, N(∧)C(∧)N-bound tridentate ligand and SR is a monodentate thiolate ligand. The complexes fall into two groups, those of PtL(1)SR where HL(1) = 1,3-bis(2-pyridyl)benzene, and those of PtL(2)SR, where HL(2) = methyl 3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)benzoate. Each group consists of five complexes, where R = CH3, C6H5, p-C6H4-CH3, p-C6H4-OMe, p-C6H4-NO2. These compounds, which are bright red, orange, or yellow solids, are formed readily upon treatment of PtL(n)Cl with the corresponding potassium thiolate KSR in solution at room temperature. The replacement of the chloride by the thiolate ligand is accompanied by profound changes in the photophysical properties. A broad, structureless, low-energy band appears in the absorption spectra, not present in the spectra of PtL(n)Cl. In the photoluminescence spectra, the characteristic, highly structured phosphorescence bands of PtL(n)Cl in the green region are replaced by a broad, structureless emission band in the red region. These new bands are assigned to a πS/dPt → π*N(∧)C(∧)N charge-transfer transition from the thiolate/platinum to the N(∧)C(∧)N ligand. This assignment is supported by electrochemical data and TD-DFT calculations and by the observation that the decreasing energies of the bands correlate with the electron-donating ability of the substituent, as do the increasing nonradiative decay rate constants, in line with the energy-gap law. However, the pair of nitro-substituted complexes do not fit the trends. Their properties, including much longer luminescence lifetimes, indicate that the lowest-energy excited state is localized predominantly on the arenethiolate ligand for these two complexes. Red-emitting thiolate adducts may be relevant to the use of PtL(n)Cl complexes in bioimaging, as revealed by the different distributions of emission intensity within live fibroplast cells doped with the parent complex, according to the region of the spectrum examined.
    Inorganic chemistry. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Ero proteins are central to oxidative protein folding in the ER, but their expression varies in a tissue specific manner. The aim of this work was to establish the expression of Ero1α in the digestive system and to examine the behavior of Ero1α in pre-malignant Barrett's esophagus, esophageal and gastric cancers and esophageal cancer cell lines. Results: Ero1α is expressed in the columnar epithelium of Barrett's tissue, and in esophageal tumors and gastric tumors. Homocysteine, a precursor in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine, induces the active Ox1 form of Ero1α in the esophageal cancer cell line OE33. Innovation: These results demonstrate for the first time that Ero1α can sense the level of an amino acid precursor, identifying a potential link between diet, antioxidants and oxidative protein folding in the ER. Conclusion: The high expression of Ero1α in cancers of the esophagus and stomach demonstrates the importance of ER redox regulation in the GI tract in health and disease. Proteins and metabolites involved in disulfide bond formation and redox regulation may be suitable targets for both biomarker and drug development in gastro-intestinal cancer.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 02/2013; · 8.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The protein folding machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ensures that proteins entering the eukaryotic secretory pathway acquire appropriate post-translational modifications and reach a stably folded state. An important component of this protein folding process is the supply of disulfide bonds. These are introduced into client proteins by ER resident oxidoreductases, including ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1). Ero1 is usually considered to function in a linear pathway, by 'donating' a disulfide bond to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and receiving electrons that are passed on to the terminal electron acceptor molecular oxygen. PDI engages with a range of clients as the direct catalyst of disulfide bond formation, isomerization or reduction. In this paper, we will consider the interactions of Ero1 with PDI family proteins and chaperones, highlighting the effect that redox flux has on Ero1 partnerships. In addition, we will discuss whether higher order protein complexes play a role in Ero1 function.
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 01/2013; 368(1617):20110403. · 6.23 Impact Factor
  • Adam M Benham
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    ABSTRACT: In a complex multicellular organism, different cell types engage in specialist functions, and as a result, the secretory output of cells and tissues varies widely. Whereas some quiescent cell types secrete minor amounts of proteins, tissues like the pancreas, producing insulin and other hormones, and mature B cells, producing antibodies, place a great demand on their endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our understanding of how protein secretion in general is controlled in the ER is now quite sophisticated. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge, particularly when applying insight gained from model systems to the more complex situations found in vivo. This article describes recent advances in our understanding of the ER and its role in preparing proteins for secretion, with an emphasis on glycoprotein quality control and pathways of disulfide bond formation.
    Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 06/2012; 4(8):a012872. · 9.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 3 (ADAM3) is a sperm membrane protein critical for both sperm migration from the uterus into the oviduct and sperm primary binding to the zona pellucida (ZP). Here we show that the testis-specific protein disulfide isomerase homolog (PDILT) cooperates with the testis-specific calreticulin-like chaperone, calsperin (CALR3), in the endoplasmic reticulum and plays an indispensable role in the disulfide-bond formation and folding of ADAM3. Pdilt(-/-) mice were male infertile because ADAM3 could not be folded properly and transported to the sperm surface without the PDILT/CALR3 complex. Peculiarly we find that not only Pdilt(-/-), but also Adam3(-/-), spermatozoa effectively fertilize eggs when the eggs are surrounded in cumulus oophorus. These findings reveal that ADAM3 requires testis-specific private chaperones to be folded properly and that the principle role of ADAM3 is for sperm migration into the oviduct but not for the fertilization event. Moreover, the importance of primary sperm ZP binding, which has been thought to be a critical step in mammalian fertilization, should be reconsidered.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2012; 109(10):3850-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • Adam M Benham
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    ABSTRACT: Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and its homologs have essential roles in the oxidative folding and chaperone-mediated quality control of proteins in the secretory pathway. In this review, the importance of PDI in health and disease will be examined, using examples from the fields of lipid homeostasis, hemostasis, infectious disease, cancer, neurodegeneration, and infertility. RECENT ADVANCES: Recent structural studies, coupled with cell biological, biochemical, and clinical approaches, have demonstrated that PDI family proteins are involved in a wide range of physiological and disease processes. Critical issues in the field include understanding how and why a PDI family member is involved in a given disease, and defining the physiological client specificity of the various PDI proteins when they are expressed in different tissues. Future directions are likely to include the development of new and more specific reagents to study and manipulate PDI family function. The development of conditional mouse models in concert with clinical data will help us to understand the in vivo function of the different PDIs at the organism level. Taken together with advances in structural biology and biochemical studies, this should help us to further understand and modify PDIs' functional interactions.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 12/2011; 16(8):781-9. · 8.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pre-lamin A and progerin have been implicated in normal aging, and the pathogenesis of age-related degenerative diseases is termed 'laminopathies'. Here, we show that mature lamin A has an essential role in cellular fitness and that oxidative damage to lamin A is involved in cellular senescence. Primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) aged replicatively or by pro-oxidants acquire a range of dysmorphic nuclear shapes. We observed that conserved cysteine residues in the lamin A tail domain become hyperoxidized in senescent fibroblasts, which inhibits the formation of lamin A inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds. Both in the absence of lamin A and in the presence of a lamin A cysteine-to-alanine mutant, which eliminates these cysteine residues (522, 588, and 591), mild oxidative stress induced nuclear disorganization and led to premature senescence as a result of decreased tolerance to ROS stimulators. Human dermal fibroblasts lacking lamin A or expressing the lamin A cysteine-to-alanine mutant displayed a gene expression profile of ROS-responsive genes characteristic of chronic ROS stimulation. Our findings suggest that the conserved C-terminal cysteine residues are essential for lamin A function and that loss or oxidative damage to these cysteine residues promotes cellular senescence.
    Aging cell 09/2011; 10(6):1067-79. · 7.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Calnexin (CANX) and calreticulin (CALR) are homologous lectin chaperones located in the endoplasmic reticulum and cooperate to mediate nascent glycoprotein folding. In the testis, calmegin (CLGN) and calsperin (CALR3) are expressed as germ cell-specific counterparts of CANX and CALR, respectively. Here, we show that Calr3(-/-) males produced apparently normal sperm but were infertile because of defective sperm migration from the uterus into the oviduct and defective binding to the zona pellucida. Whereas CLGN was required for ADAM1A/ADAM2 dimerization and subsequent maturation of ADAM3, a sperm membrane protein required for fertilization, we show that CALR3 is a lectin-deficient chaperone directly required for ADAM3 maturation. Our results establish the client specificity of CALR3 and demonstrate that the germ cell-specific CALR-like endoplasmic reticulum chaperones have contrasting functions in the development of male fertility. The identification and understanding of the maturation mechanisms of key sperm proteins will pave the way toward novel approaches for both contraception and treatment of unexplained male infertility.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(7):5639-46. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The MHC is central to the adaptive immune response. The human MHC class II is encoded by three different isotypes, HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP, each being highly polymorphic. In contrast to HLA-DR, the intracellular assembly and trafficking of HLA-DP molecules have not been studied extensively. However, different HLA-DP variants can be either protective or risk factors for infectious diseases (e.g. hepatitis B), immune dysfunction (e.g. berylliosis), and autoimmunity (e.g. myasthenia gravis). Here, we establish a system to analyze the chaperone requirements for HLA-DP and to compare the assembly and trafficking of HLA-DP, -DQ, and -DR directly. Unlike HLA-DR1, HLA-DQ5 and HLA-DP4 can form SDS-stable dimers supported by invariant chain (Ii) in the absence of HLA-DM. Uniquely, HLA-DP also forms dimers in the presence of HLA-DM alone. In model antigen-presenting cells, SDS-stable HLA-DP complexes are resistant to treatments that prevent formation of SDS-stable HLA-DR complexes. The unexpected properties of HLA-DP molecules may help explain why they bind to a more restricted range of peptides than other human MHC class II proteins and frequently present viral peptides.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(52):40800-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mammalian fertilization comprises sperm migration through the female reproductive tract, biochemical and morphological changes to sperm, and sperm-egg interaction in the oviduct. Recent gene knockout approaches in mice have revealed that many factors previously considered important for fertilization are largely dispensable, or if they are essential, they have an unexpected function. These results indicate that what has been observed in in vitro fertilization (IVF) differs significantly from what occurs during "physiological" fertilization. This Review focuses on the advantages of studying fertilization using gene-manipulated animals and highlights an emerging molecular mechanism of mammalian fertilization.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 04/2010; 120(4):984-94. · 15.39 Impact Factor
  • Adam M Benham
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    ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a critical role as a compartment for protein folding in eukaryotic cells. Defects in protein folding contribute to a growing list of diseases, and advances in our understanding of the molecular details of protein folding are helping to provide more efficient ways of producing recombinant proteins for industrial and medicinal use. Moreover, research performed in recent years has shown the importance of the ER as a signalling compartment that contributes to overall cellular homeostasis. Hamlet's castle provided a stunning backdrop for the latest European network meeting to discuss this subject matter in Elsinore, Denmark, from 3 to 5 June 2009. Organized by researchers at the Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, the meeting featured 20 talks by both established names and younger scientists, focusing on topics such as oxidative protein folding and maturation (in particular in the ER, but also in other compartments), cellular redox regulation, ER-associated degradation, and the unfolded protein response. Exciting new advances were presented, and the intimate setting with about 50 participants provided an excellent opportunity to discuss current key questions in the field.
    FEBS Journal 10/2009; 276(23):6905-11. · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • Adam M. Benham, Andrew J. Lemin
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A-molecular & Integrative Physiology - COMP BIOCHEM PHYSIOL PT A. 01/2009; 153(2).
  • Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A-molecular & Integrative Physiology - COMP BIOCHEM PHYSIOL PT A. 01/2009; 153(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Glycoprotein folding is mediated by lectin-like chaperones and protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) in the endoplasmic reticulum. Calnexin and the PDI homologue ERp57 work together to help fold nascent polypeptides with glycans located toward the N-terminus of a protein, whereas PDI and BiP may engage proteins that lack glycans or have sugars toward the C-terminus. In this study, we show that the PDI homologue PDILT is expressed exclusively in postmeiotic male germ cells, in contrast to the ubiquitous expression of many other PDI family members in the testis. PDILT is induced during puberty and represents the first example of a PDI family member under developmental control. We find that PDILT is not active as an oxido-reductase, but interacts with the model peptide Delta-somatostatin and nonnative bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor in vitro, indicative of chaperone activity. In vivo, PDILT forms a tissue-specific chaperone complex with the calnexin homologue calmegin. The identification of a redox-inactive chaperone partnership defines a new system of testis-specific protein folding with implications for male fertility.
    Molecular Biology of the Cell 09/2007; 18(8):2795-804. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Misfolding of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules has been implicated in the rheumatic autoimmune disease ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and has been linked to the unfolded protein response (UPR) in rodent AS models. XBP1 and ATF6alpha are two important transcription factors that initiate and co-ordinate the UPR. Here we show that misoxidised MHC class I heavy chains activate XBP1 processing in a similar manner to tunicamycin, with tunicamycin and dithiothreitol (DTT) inducing differential XBP1 processing. Unexpectedly, ATF6alpha mRNA is alternatively spliced during reducing stress in lymphocytes. This shorter ATF6alpha message lacks exon 7 and may have a regulatory role in the UPR.
    FEBS Letters 06/2007; 581(9):1819-24. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing enrichment of dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO, in DMSO-water mixtures causes a reversal in the thermodynamic dissociation constants, pK as, and has a marked effect on the redox potentails of the thiolic and amino groups in cysteine and the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) mimic BMC, Vectrase. This paper illustrates the effect of a hydrogen-bonding environment on the ionisation and redox properties of thiol groups in amino acids. A combination of potentiometry and Raman spectroscopy was applied to rationalise the observations. Intracellular environments are full of hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding environments. The results illustrate the profound effects of the local environment on the thiol group.
    Journal of Solution Chemistry 01/2007; 36(4):517-529. · 1.13 Impact Factor
  • Marcel van Lith, Adam M Benham
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    ABSTRACT: HLA-DM (DM) is a heterodimeric MHC molecule that catalyzes the peptide loading of classical MHC class II molecules in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments of APCs. Although the function of DM is well-established, little is known about how DMalpha and beta-chains fold, oxidize, and form a complex in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we show that glycosylation promotes, but is not essential for, DMalphabeta ER exit. However, glycosylation of DMalpha N15 is required for oxidation of the alpha-chain. The DMalpha and beta-chains direct each others fate: single DMalpha chains cannot fully oxidize without DMbeta, while DMbeta forms disulfide-linked homodimers without DMalpha. Correct oxidation and subsequent ER egress depend on the unique DMbeta C25 and C35 residues. This suggests that the C25-C35 disulfide bond in the peptide-binding domain overcomes the need for stabilizing peptides required by other MHC molecules.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2006; 177(8):5430-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    Marcel van Lith, Adam M. Benham
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    ABSTRACT: HLA-DM (DM) is a heterodimeric MHC molecule that catalyzes the peptide loading of classical MHC class II molecules in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments of APCs. Although the function of DM is well-established, little is known about how DMα and β-chains fold, oxidize, and form a complex in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we show that glycosylation promotes, but is not essential for, DMαβ ER exit. However, glycosylation of DMα N15 is required for oxidation of the α-chain. The DMα and β-chains direct each others fate: single DMα chains cannot fully oxidize without DMβ, while DMβ forms disulfide-linked homodimers without DMα. Correct oxidation and subsequent ER egress depend on the unique DMβ C25 and C35 residues. This suggests that the C25-C35 disulfide bond in the peptide-binding domain overcomes the need for stabilizing peptides required by other MHC molecules.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2006; 177(8):5430-5439. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disulfide bond catalysis is an essential component of protein biogenesis in the secretory pathway, from yeast through to man. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes the oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bonds and is re-oxidized by an endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase (ERO). The elucidation of ERO function was greatly aided by the genetic analysis of two ero mutants, whose impairment results from point mutations in the FAD binding domain of the Ero protein. The ero1-1 and ero1-2 yeast strains have conditional and dithiothreitol-sensitive phenotypes, but the effects of the mutations on the behavior of Ero proteins has not been reported. Here, we show that these Gly to Ser and His to Tyr mutations do not prevent the dimerization of Ero1beta or the non-covalent interaction of Ero1beta with PDI. However, the Gly to Ser mutation abolishes disulfide-dependent PDI-Ero1beta heterodimers. Both the Gly to Ser and His to Tyr mutations make Ero1beta susceptible to misoxidation and aggregation, particularly during a temperature or redox stress. We conclude that the Ero FAD binding domain is critical for conformational stability, allowing Ero proteins to withstand stress conditions that cause client proteins to misfold.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2006; 281(35):25018-25. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This aim of this paper is to expound the complexity of thiol redox systems in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells to the electroanalytical community. A summary of the state of the art in electrochemical methods for detection of thiols gives an insight into the challenges that need to be addressed to bridge the disparity between current analytical techniques and applications in a 'real' biological scenario.
    The Analyst 05/2006; 131(4):459-73. · 3.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

553 Citations
180.52 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • Durham University
      • School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010–2011
    • Osaka University
      • Research Institute for Microbial Diseases
      Ibaraki, Osaka-fu, Japan
  • 2000–2001
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • Division of Organic Chemistry and Catalysis
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands