[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to recommendations of the 6th WHO Advisory Committee on Buruli ulcer, directly observed treatment with the combination of rifampin and streptomycin, administered daily for 8 weeks, was recommended to 310 patients diagnosed with Buruli ulcer in Pobè, Bénin. Among the 224 (72%) eligible patients for whom treatment was initiated, 215 (96%) were categorized as treatment successes, and 9, including 1 death and 8 losses to follow-up, were treatment failures. Of the 215 successfully treated patients, 102 (47%) were treated exclusively with antibiotics and 113 (53%) were treated with antibiotics plus surgical excision and skin grafting. The size of lesions at treatment initiation was the major factor associated with surgical intervention: 73% of patients with lesions of >15 cm in diameter underwent surgery, whereas only 17% of patients with lesions of <5 cm had surgery. No patient discontinued therapy for side effects from the antibiotic treatment. One year after stopping treatment, 208 of the 215 patients were actively retrieved to assess the long-term therapeutic results: 3 (1.44%) of the 208 retrieved patients had recurrence of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, 2 among the 107 patients treated only with antibiotics and 1 among the 108 patients treated with antibiotics plus surgery. We conclude that the WHO-recommended streptomycin-rifampin combination is highly efficacious for treating M. ulcerans disease. Chemotherapy alone was successful in achieving cure in 47% of cases and was particularly effective against ulcers of less than 5 cm in diameter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data from 1,700 patients living in southern Benin were collected at the Centre Sanitaire et Nutritionnel Gbemoten, Zagnanado, Benin, from 1997 through 2001. In the Zou region in 1999, Buruli ulcer (BU) had a higher detection rate (21.5/100,000) than leprosy (13.4/100,000) and tuberculosis (20.0/100,000). More than 13% of the patients had osteomyelitis. Delay in seeking treatment declined from 4 months in 1989 to 1 month in 2001, and median hospitalization time decreased from 9 months in 1989 to 1 month in 2001. This reduction is attributed, in part, to implementing an international cooperation program, creating a national BU program, and making advances in patient care.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Buruli ulcer, a disease with long-term consequences, is emerging in west Africa. Thus, a functional limitation scoring system is needed to assess its nature and severity. A list of daily activities was developed for this disease. Following treatment of Buruli ulcer, persons in Benin (n = 47) and Ghana (n = 41) were investigated. Nineteen items were identified with good internal consistency. Participants (median age = 14 years) could not perform 23% of their daily activities. Twenty-nine participants did not have any functional limitation. The average limitation score was 31% in Benin and 15% in Ghana (P = 0.006). The mean limitation score in participants without visible contractures (n = 65) was 13%, whereas patients with visible contractures (n = 20) or an amputation (n = 3) had a score of more than 50%. Validity and reliability should be further analyzed to optimize the scale for use in individual evaluation, as an end point in intervention trials, and in planning of resources needed for the care of patients with functional limitations.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 04/2004; 70(3):318-22. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, or Buruli ulcer (BU), causes significant morbidity in West Africa. Clinically, the disease presents in the skin as either nonulcerative or ulcerative forms and often invades bones either subjacent to the skin lesion (contiguous osteomyelitis) or remote from the skin lesion (metastatic osteomyelitis). Osteomyelitis represents a severe form of the disease that often requires numerous surgical interventions, even amputations. Surgery is accepted as the present definitive treatment for BU. In the absence of an effective drug treatment, the need for the development of preventive and control strategies becomes paramount. No specific vaccine, however, is presently available for BU. Of 372 consecutive patients in Benin presenting with BU (confirmed by microbiological and histopathological analyses) whose Mycobacterium bovis BCG scar statuses were known, 196 children (<15 years old) and 108 adults had neonatal BCG vaccination scars. Of 196 children with BCG scars, 17 (8.7%) had osteomyelitis, while 7 of 28 children without BCG scars (25.0%) had osteomyelitis. Of 108 adults with BCG scars, 17 (15.7%) had osteomyelitis, while 14 of 40 adults without BCG scars (35.0%) had osteomyelitis. Our results show that effective BCG vaccination at birth provides significant protection against the development of M. ulcerans osteomyelitis in children and adults. Therefore, health authorities should give attention to the enhancement of neonatal BCG vaccination coverage in all countries of Africa where BU is endemic. Protection against severe forms of BU and childhood tuberculosis would likewise be improved by this intervention.
Infection and Immunity 02/2004; 72(1):62-5. DOI:10.1128/IAI.72.1.62-65.2004 · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this transversve qualitative study on traditional treatment for Buruli ulcer in Benin was to track the treatment itinerary of patients, the main phases of traditional treatment, cost and efficacy of such treatment, and the knowledge and skills of traditional practitioners. A total of 20 traditional practitioners, 35 patients treated by traditional therapy, and 35 patients treated by surgery were included. Findings showed that both traditional and surgical treatment was sought at a late stage. Reasons determining the type of treatment chosen included religion, access to adequate care facilities, constraints involved in surgical treatment, duration of hospitalization, and fear of scarring. The four main steps in traditional treatment were diagnosis, removal of necrotic tissue, wound care, and exorcism. The cost of traditional treatment was high not only in currency but also by payment in kind (eg., livestock and land). Although it is performed with patient consent, traditional treatment presents a number of risks. Information campaigns are necessary to inform populations about available treatments and the possible risks associated with each modality. Care centers must do more to lessen the constraints involved in surgical treatment both in terms of duration of hospitalization and cosmetic outcome.
Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 02/2004; 64(2):145-50.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated cultural beliefs and psychosocial factors associated with Buruli ulcer in southern Benin in order to elaborate and deliver appropriate health education messages. We conducted a qualitative study among 130 adults and 30 children in Zou province, a highly endemic region. Focus group interviews of inhabitants, patients and their assistants, health care professionals and traditional healers took place in Dasso, Ouinhi, Sagon and Zagnanado. Drawing sessions followed by individual interviews were organized among school children in Dasso and Sagon. We found that although Buruli ulcer is well known and recognized - even at a very early stage of the disease - and perceived as threatening, most people are reluctant to seek treatment at the health care centre. They are unclear about the origin of the disease (environmental factors or sorcery) and treatment is considered devastating, expensive and ineffective in some cases.
Tropical Medicine & International Health 09/2003; 8(8):750-9. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3156.2003.01089.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, or Buruli ulcer (BU), causes significant morbidity in West Africa. In 233 consecutive, laboratory-confirmed samples from BU patients in Benin whose Mycobacterium bovis BCG scar status was known, 130 children (<15 years old) and 75 adults had a neonatal BCG vaccination scar. Of 130 children with BCG scars, 10 (7.7%) had osteomyelitis, while 3 of 9 children without BCG scars (33.3%) had osteomyelitis. Our observations support the conclusion that having a BCG vaccination scar provides significant protection against M. ulcerans osteomyelitis in children with BU disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The World Health Organization recognizes Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer) as a reemerging disease. Classically, lesions are indolent, undermined ulcers of the skin. The characteristic histopathologic changes are provoked by a soluble toxin of M ulcerans that is necrotizing and immunosuppressive. After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli ulcer is the third most common mycobacterial disease in humans. We report Buruli ulcer in a patient in Benin, West Africa, with widespread edema and diffuse induration of approximately one half of the skin of the trunk. There was no ulceration. The tissue studied was a 16-cm portion excised from the center of the large surgical specimen. Histopathologic analysis showed massive contiguous necrosis of the dermis and subcutis in sections of biopsy specimens from the center, at 2-cm intervals in two radii from the center to the periphery, and at 5-cm intervals around the margin. Acid-fast bacilli infiltrated all specimens except at one peripheral site. Samples of the entire surgical specimen taken from seven sites before fixation were polymerase chain reaction and culture positive for M ulcerans. The disseminated nonulcerative form of M ulcerans infection is well known, but is now increasingly frequent in some highly endemic areas, especially in West Africa. This patient died within 48 hours postsurgery, but cause of death was not established. The only regularly effective treatment for advanced lesions is surgical excision of all infected tissue. Estimation of the lateral limits of invasion by M ulcerans may help the surgeon establish the optimal extent of excision. Refinement of the basic concept we used and adaptation to preoperative assessment of the limit of bacterial invasion are urgently needed, especially for massive lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared various diagnostic tests for their abilities to detect Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in specimens from patients with clinically active disease. Specimens from 10 patients from the area of Zangnanado (Department of Zou, Benin) with advanced, ulcerated active M. ulcerans infections were studied by direct smear, histopathology, culture, PCR, and oligonucleotide-specific capture plate hybridization (OSCPH). A total of 27 specimens, including 12 swabs of exudate collected before debridement and 15 fragments of tissue obtained during debridement, were submitted to bacteriologic and histopathologic analysis. The histopathologic evaluation of tissues from all six patients so tested revealed changes typical of those caused by M. ulcerans infection. Five specimens were contaminated, and M. ulcerans was cultivated on Löwenstein-Jensen medium from 12 of the remaining 22 (54.5%) specimens. Detection of mycobacteria was performed by PCR, and M. ulcerans was detected by OSCPH with a new probe (5'-CACGGGATTCATGTCCTGT-3') reacting with M. ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum. In 10 of 22 (45.5%) specimens, M. ulcerans was identified by PCR-OSCPH. There was no statistically significant difference between the detection of M. ulcerans by culture and by PCR-OSCPH (P > 0.05). This is the first demonstration of an amplification system (PCR-OSCPH) with a sensitivity similar to that of culture for the direct and rapid recognition of M. ulcerans in clinical specimens. This system is capable of identifying M. ulcerans, even in paucibacillary lesions. Our findings suggest that PCR-OSCPH should be used in the quest for the elusive environmental reservoir(s) of M. ulcerans.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 05/1997; 35(5):1097-100. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium ulcerans causes extensive ulcers (Buruli ulcers) in the skin of humans. Analysis of the 3'-terminal region of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of 17 strains of M. ulcerans from Africa, the Americas, and Australia revealed three subgroups corresponding to the continent of origin, and some variable phenotypic characteristics. This sequence is useful for the rapid detection of M. ulcerans and discriminates M. marinum and M. shinshuense from M. ulcerans.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 05/1996; 34(4):962-5. · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium ulcerans skin infection or Buruli ulcers are common in children in many rural tropical areas. The usual clinical appearance is a deep, rapidly developing chronic ulcer associated with necrosis of subcutaneous fat. Patients are usually seen at an advanced stage. Bacteriologic identification is not always possible because the pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is an atypical mycobacteria that is difficult to isolate and grows slowly in culture. Medium although of little assistance in tropical regions, the histological features are highly characteristic and can allow diagnosis in areas in which the disease is rare and unsuspected. The pathogenic effects of Mycobacterium ulcerans are due to the production of a necrotizing exotoxin with an immunosuppressive action. Treatment using antituberculosis and antileprosy drugs has been disappointing. Surgery is usually required and causes extensive sequels in many cases, the best technique being an excision/graft procedure. Many epidemiologic characteristics of Buruli ulcers which are andemic in regions with and aquatic ecosystem are still unclear including the mode of infection, transmission and reservoir. Recent outbreaks, particularly in west Africa, may be related to changes in the natural environment.
Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 02/1995; 55(4):363-73.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium ulcerans skin infections or Buruli ulcers are common in children in many rural tropical areas. The usual clinical appearance is a deep, rapidly developing, chronic ulcer associated with necrosis of subcutaneous fat. Patients are usually seen at an advanced stage. Bacteriologic identification is not always possible because the pathogen, Myobacterium ulcerans, is an atypical mycobacteria that is difficult to isolate and grows slowly in culture. Medium although of little assistance in tropical regions, the histological features are highly characteristic and can allow diagnosis in areas in which the disease is rare and unsuspected. The pathogenic effects of Myobacterium ulcerans are due to the production of a necrotizing exotoxin with an immunosuppressive action. Treatment using antituberculosis and antileprosy drugs has been disappointing. Surgery is usually required and causes extensive sequels in many cases, the best technique being an excision/graft procedure. Many epidemiologic characteristics of Buruli ulcers which are endemic in regions with an aquatic ecosystem are still unclear including the mode of infection, transmission, and reservoir. Recent outbreaks, particularly in west Africa, may be related to changes in the natural environment.
Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 01/1995; 55(4):363-373.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous Mycobacterium infection is an endemic disease in Mono, Ouémé and Zou districts in the south of Benin, where it seems rarely known. The authors are reporting the results of a clinical, bacteriological, epidemiological and therapeutical study about 227 patients. Children are the principal targets of this disease. Ulceration are often seen in a critical step (3 or 4) and acid-fast bacilli have been found from 189 of 227 patients tested by bacilloscopy (smear microscopy). Medical treatments (antituberculosis and antileprosis drugs) are still disappointing. Also when necessary, surgery is done (broad excision, skin transplant afterwards) with promising results. However, complications like deformities and flexion contractors can persist after surgical treatment. In the south Benin, Buruli's ulcers are one of the major public health problems.
Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique 02/1994; 87(3):170-5.