[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rfv3 is a host resistance gene that operates through an unknown mechanism to control the development of the virus-neutralizing antibody response required for recovery from infection with Friend retrovirus. The Rfv3 gene was previously mapped to an approximately 20-centimorgan (cM) region of chromosome 15. More refined mapping was not possible, due to a lack of microsatellite markers and leakiness in the Rfv3 phenotype, which prevented definitive phenotyping of individual recombinant mice. In the present study, we overcame these difficulties by taking advantage of seven new microsatellite markers in the Rfv3 region and by using progeny tests to accurately determine the Rfv3 phenotype of recombinant mice. Detailed linkage analysis of relevant crossovers narrowed the location of Rfv3 to a 0.83-cM region. Mapping of closely linked genes in an interspecific backcross panel allowed us to exclude two previous candidate genes, Ly6 and Wnt7b. These studies also showed for the first time that the Hsf1 gene maps to the Rfv3-linked cluster of genes including Il2rb, Il3rb, and Pdgfb. This localization of Rfv3 to a region of less than 1 cM now makes it feasible to attempt the cloning of Rfv3 by physical methods.
Journal of Virology 10/1999; 73(9):7848-52. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many human viruses not only cause acute diseases but also establish persistent infections. Such persistent viruses can cause chronic diseases or can reactivate to cause acute diseases in AIDS patients or patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies. While the prevention of persistent infections is an important consideration in the design of modern vaccines, surprisingly little is known about this aspect of protection. In the current study, we tested the feasibility of vaccine prevention of retroviral persistence by using a Friend virus model that we recently developed. In this model, persistent virus can be detected at very low levels by immunosuppressing the host to reactivate virus or by transferring persistently infected spleen cells into highly susceptible mice. Two vaccines were analyzed, a recombinant vaccinia virus vector expressing Friend virus envelope protein and a live attenuated Friend virus. Both vaccines reduced pathogenic virus loads to levels undetectable by infectious center assays. However, only the live, attenuated vaccine prevented immunosuppression-induced reactivation of persistent virus. Thus, even very low levels of persistent Friend virus posed a significant threat during immunosuppression. Our results demonstrate that vaccine protection against establishment of retroviral persistence is attainable.
Journal of Virology 06/1999; 73(5):3753-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection by live attenuated retroviruses provides excellent protection from challenge with pathogenic viruses in several animal models, but little is known about which immune effectors are necessary for protection. We examined this using adoptive transfer experiments in the Friend virus mouse model. Transfers of immune spleen cells into naive mice conferred complete protection, and transfers of purified lymphocyte subsets demonstrated that this effect required complex immune responses involving CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and also B cells. In addition, passive immunization experiments demonstrated that antibodies alone reduced virus loads but did not prevent infection. These findings may have implications for retroviral vaccine design in general.
Nature Medicine 03/1999; 5(2):189-93. · 22.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recovery from infection with the Friend murine leukemia retrovirus complex (FV) requires T-helper cells and cytotoxic T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies. Several host genes, including genes of the major histocompatibility complex (H-2) and an H-2-unlinked gene, Rfv-3, influence these FV-specific immune responses. (B10.A x A/Wy)F1 mice, which have the H-2(a/a) Rfv-3(r/s) genotype, fail to mount a detectable FV-specific T-cell proliferative response but nevertheless produce FV-specific neutralizing immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and can eliminate FV viremia. Thus, this IgM response, primarily influenced by the Rfv-3 gene, may be T-cell independent. To test this idea, mice were depleted of either CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cell populations in vivo and were monitored for the effect on the neutralizing antibody response following FV infection. Surprisingly, mice in which CD4(+) cells were depleted showed undetectable FV-neutralizing antibody responses and high viremia levels compared to nondepleted or CD8-depleted animals. In addition to knocking out the FV antibody response, CD4(+) T-cell depletion reduced survival time significantly, further indicating the importance of CD4(+) T cells. These studies revealed the first evidence for a functional T-cell response following FV infection in these low-recovery mice and showed that CD4(+) T-helper cells are required for the Rfv-3-controlled FV antibody response.
Journal of Virology 12/1998; 72(11):9400-3. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Live-attenuated retroviruses have been shown to be effective retroviral vaccines, but currently little is known regarding the mechanisms of protection. In the present studies, we used Friend virus as a model to analyze characteristics of a live-attenuated vaccine in protection against virus-induced disease. Highly susceptible mice were immunized with nonpathogenic Friend murine leukemia helper virus (F-MuLV), which replicates poorly in adult mice. Further attenuation of the vaccine virus was achieved by crossing the Fv-1 genetic resistance barrier. The minimum dose of vaccine virus required to protect 100% of the mice against challenge with pathogenic Friend virus complex was determined to be 10(3) focus-forming units of attenuated virus. Live vaccine virus was necessary for induction of immunity, since inactivated F-MuLV did not induce protection. To determine whether immune cells mediated protection, spleen cells from vaccinated donor mice were adoptively transferred into syngeneic recipients. The results indicated that immune mechanisms rather than viral interference mediated protection.
Journal of Virology 09/1998; 72(8):6554-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactivations of persistent viral infections pose a significant medical problem in immunocompromised cancer, transplant, and AIDS patients, yet little is known about how persistent viral infections are immunologically controlled. Here we describe a mouse model for investigating the role of the immune response in controlling a persistent retroviral infection. We demonstrate that, following recovery from acute Friend virus infection, a small number of B cells evade immunological destruction and harbor persistent virus. In vivo depletions of T-cell subsets in persistently infected mice revealed a critical role for CD4(+) T cells in controlling virus replication, spread to the erythroid lineage, and induction of erythroleukemia. The CD4(+) T-cell effect was independent of CD8(+) T cells and in some cases was also independent of virus-neutralizing antibody responses. Thus, the CD4(+) T cells may have had a direct antiviral effect. These results may have relevance for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections where loss of CD4(+) T cells is associated with an increase in HIV replication, reactivation of persistent viruses, and a high incidence of virus-associated cancers.
Journal of Virology 09/1998; 72(8):6559-64. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several immunological epitopes are known to be located within the Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) envelope protein, but their relative contributions to protection from Friend virus-induced disease are not known. To determine how expression of various immunological determinants affected protection, mice were immunized with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing different portions of the F-MuLV envelope protein, and they were then challenged with a lethal dose of Friend virus complex. The disease parameters that were followed in the mice were early viremia, early splenomegaly, and late splenomegaly. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the F-MuLV gp70 were found to protect against late splenomegaly, the primary clinical sign associated with virus-induced erythroleukemia. However, neither region alone protected against early splenomegaly and early viremia, indicating poor immunological control over early virus replication and spread through the spleen and blood. In contrast, mice immunized with a vaccine expressing the entire F-MuLV envelope protein were protected against all three disease parameters. The results indicated that expression of multiple immunological determinants including both T-helper and B cell epitopes was necessary for full protection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retroviral vector (pSFF) derived from murine Friend spleen focus forming virus was used to transduce murine hematopoietic stem cells and express a cell surface marker protein, mutated murine prion protein, in vitro and in vivo after transplantation. To enhance retroviral vector integration in bone marrow cells, mice were treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to increase stem cell mitotic activity, which peaked on day 8 post-5-FU. The infectivity titer of the vector, pSFF-mPrP-3F4, was determined by a novel assay in which antigen-positive foci of infected cells were detected after replication and spread of the vector in cultures of mixed packaging cell lines. Infection of Sca-1+/Lineageneg-low cells with pSFF-mPrP-3F4 resulted in marker protein expression in 40% of the progeny cells after 7 days of culture. Transplantation of marrow cells or sorted Sca-1+/Lineageneg-low cells transduced with vector resulted in 3F4-positive mPrP expression in 11% to 37% of donor-derived peripheral blood leukocytes at 2 weeks. Though the percentage of 3F4-positive blood cells gradually declined, at 28 weeks 23% of recipient mice still maintained expression of the marker gene. Expression was observed in lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages and was detected in Sca-1+/Lineageneg-low marrow cells. The multilineage, high-frequency expression observed suggests that pSFF may be useful in gene therapy directed at hematopoietic stem cells and their differentiated progeny.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Friend murine leukemia virus is a retrovirus complex that induces rapid erythroleukemia and immunosuppression in susceptible strains of adult mice. Using this model, we directly examined the T-cell subsets required for a protective retrovirus vaccine. Paradoxically, recovery in mice immunized with a chimeric envelope containing only T-helper (TH) and B-cell epitopes was dependent on CD8+ T cells as well as CD4+ T cells despite the fact that the vaccine contained no CD8+ cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. However, the requirement for CD8+ T cells was overcome by inclusion of additional TH and B-cell epitopes in the immunizing protein. These additional epitopes primed for more rapid production of virus-neutralizing antibody which appeared to limit virus spread sufficiently to protect even in the absence of CD8+ T cells. Inclusion of an immunodominant CTL epitope in the vaccine was not sufficient to overcome dependence on CD4+ T cells. These data suggest that TH priming is more critical for retrovirus immunity than CTL priming.
Journal of Virology 01/1996; 70(1):368-72. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Administration of virus-specific antibodies is known to be an effective early treatment for some viral infections. Such immunotherapy probably acts by antibody-mediated neutralization of viral infectivity and is often thought to function independently of T-cell-mediated immune responses. In the present experiments, we studied passive antibody therapy using Friend murine leukemia virus complex as a model for an immunosuppressive retroviral disease in adult mice. The results showed that antibody therapy could induce recovery from a well-established retroviral infection. However, the success of therapy was dependent on the presence of both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Thus, cell-mediated responses were required for recovery from infection even in the presence of therapeutic levels of antibody. The major histocompatibility type of the mice was also an important factor determining the relative success of antibody therapy in this system, but it was less critical for low-dose than for high-dose infections. Our results imply that limited T-cell responsiveness as dictated by major histocompatibility genes and/or stage of disease may have contributed to previous immunotherapy failures in AIDS patients. Possible strategies to improve the efficacy of future therapies are discussed.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/1995; 92(23):10492-5. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from normal adult mouse bone marrow based on surface antigen expression (Thy-1.1(low)Lin(neg)Ly-6A/E+) and further selected for low retention of rhodamine 123. This population of cells (Rh-123low) could mediate radioprotection and long-term (greater than 12 months) repopulation after transplantation of as few as 25 cells. Transfer of five genetically marked Rh-123low cells in the presence of 10(5) normal bone marrow cells resulted in reconstitution of peripheral blood by greater than 10% donor cells in 64% (30 of 47) of recipient mice. Of 46 animals surviving after 24 weeks, 10 had over 50% donor-derived cells in peripheral blood. Two general patterns of long-term reconstitution were observed: one in which many donor-derived cells were observed 5 to 6 weeks after reconstitution and another in which donor-derived cells were rare initially but expanded with time. This result suggests that two classes of long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells exist, differing in their ability to function early in the course of transplantation. Alternatively, distinct anatomic sites of engraftment may dictate these two outcomes from a single type of cell. As an approach to measure the extent of self-renewal by the injected cells, recipients of five or 200 stem cells were killed 8 to 13 months after the transplants, and Thy-1.1(low)Lin(neg)Ly-6A/E+ progeny of the original injected cells were isolated for a second transplant. While a numerical expansion of cells expressing the cell surface phenotype of stem cells was observed, along with activity in the colony-forming unit-spleen assay, the expanded cells were vastly inferior in radioprotection and long-term reconstitution assays when compared with cells freshly isolated from normal animals. This result demonstrates that in stem cell expansion experiments, cell surface antigen expression is not an appropriate indicator of stem cell function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice homozygous for the b allele of the MHC gene, H-2D, have a high incidence of recovery from Friend virus infections, while mice heterozygous for the b allele at H-2D have a very low incidence of recovery. Previous experiments indicated that the low recovery rates associated with heterozygosity at H-2D might be related to a gene dosage effect requiring the expression of two H-2Db alleles for high recovery. We investigated the effects of reduced H-2Db expression on recovery from Friend disease by using H-2b homozygous mice carrying a single beta 2-microglobulin gene disruption. These mice had reductions in cell surface H-2Db expression comparable to those of H-2Da/b heterozygotes. Numerous cell types with various levels of H-2Db expression were examined, and in each case, the expression levels in the beta 2-microglobulin mutants closely reflected those observed in the H-2Da/b heterozygotes. We found, however, that reduced expression did not affect recovery from Friend disease, indicating that heterozygous levels of H-2Db expression are sufficient for the high-recovery phenotype previously associated only with H-2Db homozygotes.
Journal of Virology 05/1994; 68(4):2059-64. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cell surface molecule Ly-6A/E provides a convenient marker for primitive stem cells in the hematopoietic tissues of both fetal and adult mice. However, previous studies have shown that Ly-6A/E expression by lymphocytes is variable depending on the haplotype of the Ly-6 locus. Therefore, strain-specific variation in Ly-6A/E expression by bone marrow (BM) cells was investigated. The results show that Ly-6a mice have, on average, 50% of the number of BM cells expressing Ly-6A/E relative to that for Ly-6b mice. Furthermore, among the 5% of BM cells that do not express antigens characteristic of mature T, B, myeloid, or erythroid lineages, which include the primitive hematopoietic stem cell compartment, Ly-6a mice have, on average, more than fivefold fewer Ly-6A/E+ cells relative to that for Ly-6b mice. Isolation of Ly-6A/E- and Ly-6A/E+ cells from mice of both haplotypes showed that, whereas 99% of the marrow repopulating activity (MRA) of C57BL/Ka (Ly-6b) mice could be recovered in the Ly-6A/E+ fraction, only about 25% of the MRA of BALB/c (Ly-6a) was recoverable in the same population. On a per-cell basis, the Ly-6A/E+ cells that were isolated from BALB/c mice were essentially equivalent in MRA to those isolated from C57BL/Ka mice. Thus, whereas a large percentage of the hematopoietic stem cells of Ly-6a mice do not express the Ly-6A/E molecule, the antigen may be used to isolate a subset of stem cells from these mice. These results show that hematopoietic stem cell phenotype can vary between mouse strains and imply that caution should be exercised in the identification of human stem cell antigens such as CD34, because a similar variability may occur between individual humans. To further explore the influence of Ly-6 haplotype on Ly-6A/E expression by specific cell subsets, lymph-node lymphocytes from a panel of mouse strains were analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry for correlated expression of Ly-6A/E, CD4, and CD8. All Ly-6a strains examined had less than 20% Ly-6A/E+ cells, and those cells were predominantly CD8+ T lymphocytes. In contrast, the Ly-6b strains had greater than 30% Ly-6A/E+ cells, and those cells included CD4+, CD8+, and B lymphocytes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse hematopoietic stem cells can be identified and enriched from populations of normal bone marrow cells by immunofluorescent labeling of cell surface molecules followed by flow cytometric separation. We show here that the majority of hematopoietic stem cell activity, as defined by long-term competitive repopulation of irradiated animals and by a secondary transplant assay for spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S), could be localized in Ly-6b haplotype mice to a fraction of bone marrow cells that expresses the Ly-6A/E (Sca-1) molecule. Further, an analysis of hematopoietic stem cell activity in bone marrow of mouse strains expressing the Thy-1.1 allele indicated that the vast majority of activity was included in the Thy-1low population. In contrast, hematopoietic stem cell activity found in the bone marrow of Thy-1.2 genotype mouse strains was recovered in both the Thy-1neg and the Thy-1low populations. However, similar to Thy-1.1 strains, most activity was localized to the Ly-6A/E+ population of cells. The difference in Thy-1 phenotype of hematopoietic stem cell activity apparent between Thy-1.1- and Thy-1.2-expressing mouse strains was not caused by differences in the staining intensity of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) specific for the Thy-1 alleles. Furthermore, an antiframework MoAb that stains both alleles of Thy-1 separated hematopoietic stem cell activity from mice expressing the two alleles in the same manner as did allele-specific MoAb. The results of this study show that Thy-1 expression is not an invariant characteristic of mouse hematopoietic stem cells, and that mice expressing the Thy-1.1 allele are unique in that hematopoietic stem cell activity is found exclusively in the Thy-1low population.