Sonja R Surman

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Maryland, United States

Are you Sonja R Surman?

Claim your profile

Publications (31)122.38 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A recombinant chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza type 3 virus (rB/HPIV3) vector expressing the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion F glycoprotein previously exhibited disappointing levels of RSV F immunogenicity and genetic stability in children (Bernstein et al., Pediatr Infect Dis J 2012;31:109-114; Yang et al., Vaccine 2013;31:2822-2827). To investigate parameters that might affect vaccine performance and stability, we constructed and characterized rB/HPIV3 viruses expressing RSV F from the 1(st) (pre-N), 2(nd) (N-P), 3(rd) (P-M), and 6(th) (HN-L) genome positions. There was a 30- to 69-fold gradient in RSV F expression from the 1(st) to the 6(th) position. The inserts moderately attenuated vector replication in vitro and in the upper and lower respiratory tracts (URT, LRT) of hamsters: this was not influenced by the level of RSV F expression and syncytium formation. Surprisingly, inserts in the 2(nd), 3(rd), and 6(th) positions conferred increased temperature-sensitivity: this was greatest for the 3(rd) position and was the most attenuating in vivo. Each rB/HPIV3 vector induced a high titer of neutralizing antibodies in hamsters against RSV and HPIV3. Protection against RSV challenge was greater for position 2 than 6. Evaluation of insert stability suggested that RSV F is under selective pressure to be silenced during vector replication in vivo, but this was not exacerbated by a high level of RSV F expression and generally involved a small percentage of recovered vector. Vector passaged in vitro accumulated mutations in the HN ORF, causing a dramatic increase in plaque size that may have implications for vaccine production and immunogenicity.Importance The research findings presented in this manuscript will be instrumental for improving the design of a bivalent pediatric vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3, two major causes of severe respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. Moreover, this knowledge has general application to the development and clinical evaluation of other mononegavirus vectors and vaccines.
    Journal of Virology 01/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interferons (IFNs) play a crucial role in the antiviral immune response. Whereas the C proteins of wild-type human parainfluenza virus type 1 (WT HPIV1) inhibit both IFN-β induction and signaling, a HPIV1 mutant encoding a single amino acid substitution (F170S) in the C proteins is unable to block either host response. Here, signaling downstream of the type 1 IFN receptor was examined in Vero cells to define at what stage WT HPIV1 can block, and F170S HPIV1 fails to block, IFN signaling. WT HPIV1 inhibited phosphorylation of both Stat1 and Stat2, and this inhibition was only slightly reduced for F170S HPIV1. Degradation of Stat1 or Stat2 was not observed. The HPIV1 C proteins were found to accumulate in the perinuclear space, often forming large granules, and co-localized with Stat1 and the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6PR) that is a marker for late endosomes. Upon stimulation with IFN-β, both the WT and F170S C proteins remained in the perinuclear space, but only the WT C proteins prevented Stat1 translocation to the nucleus. In addition, WT HPIV1 C proteins, but not F170S C proteins, co-immunoprecipitated both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated Stat1. Our findings suggest that the WT HPIV1 C proteins form a stable complex with Stat1 in perinuclear granules that co-localize with M6PR, and that this direct interaction between the WT HPIV1 C proteins and Stat1 is the basis for the ability of HPIV1 to inhibit IFN signaling. The F170S mutation in HPIV1 C did not prevent perinuclear co-localization with Stat1, but apparently weakened this interaction such that, upon IFN stimulation, Stat1 was translocated to the nucleus to induce an antiviral response.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e28382. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract illness in children, yet a licensed vaccine or antiviral drug is not available. We evaluated the safety, tolerability, infectivity, and immunogenicity of two intranasal, live-attenuated HPIV3 vaccines, designated rHPIV3-N(B) and rB/HPIV3, that were cDNA-derived chimeras of HPIV3 and bovine PIV3 (BPIV3). These were evaluated in adults, HPIV3 seropositive children, and HPIV3 seronegative children. A total of 112 subjects participated in these studies. Both rB/HPIV3 and rHPIV3-N(B) were highly restricted in replication in adults and seropositive children but readily infected seronegative children, who shed mean peak virus titers of 10(2.8) vs. 10(3.7)pfu/mL, respectively. Although rB/HPIV3 was more restricted in replication in seronegative children than rHPIV3-N(B), it induced significantly higher titers of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies against HPIV3. Taken together, these data suggest that the rB/HPIV3 vaccine is the preferred candidate for further clinical development.
    Vaccine 12/2011; 30(26):3975-81. · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is an important yet underappreciated cause of lower respiratory tract illness in children, and a licensed vaccine is not yet available. A live-attenuated investigational HPIV3 vaccine virus designated rcp45 was derived from cDNA by using reverse genetics. rcp45 is genetically similar to the biologically derived cp45 vaccine virus and contains all of the known attenuating mutations of cp45, but has the advantage of a short, well-characterized passage history. We evaluated the tolerability, infectivity, and immunogenicity of 2 intranasal doses of rcp45 administered 4 to 10 weeks apart in a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. A total of 45 infants and children between 6 and 36 months of age participated in this study. Tolerability and antibody responses to vaccine or placebo were assessed in all recipients. Infectivity was assessed by quantitation of vaccine virus shedding in a subset of vaccinated children. rcp45 was well tolerated and highly infectious in HPIV3-seronegative children. A second dose of vaccine administered 4 to 10 weeks after the first dose was restricted in replication and did not boost serum antibody responses. The stability of 9 cp45 mutations, including the 6 major attenuating mutations, was examined and confirmed for viral isolates from 10 children. The level of attenuation and immunogenicity of cDNA-derived rcp45 is comparable to what was previously observed with the biologically derived cp45 vaccine, and preliminary data suggest that the attenuating mutations in this vaccine virus are genetically stable. Continued clinical development of rcp45 is warranted.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 08/2011; 30(10):e186-91. · 3.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) is an important respiratory pathogen in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. We found that infection with wild-type (WT) HPIV1 suppressed the innate immune response in human airway epithelial cells by preventing not only phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) but also degradation of IκBβ, thereby inhibiting IRF3 and NF-κB activation, respectively. Both of these effects were ablated by a F170S substitution in the HPIV1 C proteins (F170S) or by silencing the C open reading frame [P(C-)], resulting in a potent beta interferon (IFN-β) response. Using murine knockout cells, we found that IFN-β induction following infection with either mutant relied mainly on melanoma-associated differentiation gene 5 (MDA5) rather than retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I). Infection with either mutant, but not WT HPIV1, induced a significant accumulation of intracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). These mutant viruses directed a marked increase in the accumulation of viral genome, antigenome, and mRNA that was coincident with the accumulation of dsRNA. In addition, the amount of viral proteins was reduced compared to that of WT HPIV1. Thus, the accumulation of dsRNA might be a result of an imbalance in the N protein/genomic RNA ratio leading to incomplete encapsidation. Protein kinase R (PKR) activation and IFN-β induction followed the kinetics of dsRNA accumulation. Interestingly, the C proteins did not appear to directly inhibit intracellular signaling involved in IFN-β induction; instead, their role in preventing IFN-β induction appeared to be in suppressing the formation of dsRNA. PKR activation contributed to IFN-β induction and also was associated with the reduction in the amount of viral proteins. Thus, the HPIV1 C proteins normally limit the accumulation of dsRNA and thereby limit activation of IRF3, NF-κB, and PKR. If C protein function is compromised, as in the case of F170S HPIV1, the resulting PKR activation and reduction in viral protein levels enable the host to further reduce C protein levels and to mount a potent antiviral type I IFN response.
    Journal of Virology 02/2011; 85(4):1495-506. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) was modified to create rHPIV1-P(C-), a virus in which expression of the C proteins (C', C, Y1, and Y2) was silenced without affecting the amino acid sequence of the P protein. Infectious rHPIV1-P(C-) was readily recovered from cDNA, indicating that the four C proteins were not essential for virus replication. Early during infection in vitro, rHPIV1-P(C-) replicated as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HPIV1, but its titer subsequently decreased coincident with the onset of an extensive cytopathic effect not observed with wt rHPIV1. rHPIV1-P(C-) infection, but not wt rHPIV1 infection, induced caspase 3 activation and nuclear fragmentation in LLC-MK2 cells, identifying the HPIV1 C proteins as inhibitors of apoptosis. In contrast to wt rHPIV1, rHPIV1-P(C-) and rHPIV1-C(F170S), a mutant encoding an F170S substitution in C, induced interferon (IFN) and did not inhibit IFN signaling in vitro. However, only rHPIV1-P(C-) induced apoptosis. Thus, the anti-IFN and antiapoptosis activities of HPIV1 were separable: both activities are disabled in rHPIV1-P(C-), whereas only the anti-IFN activity is disabled in rHPIV1-C(F170S). In African green monkeys (AGMs), rHPIV1-P(C-) was considerably more attenuated than rHPIV1-C(F170S), suggesting that disabling the anti-IFN and antiapoptotic activities of HPIV1 had additive effects on attenuation in vivo. Although rHPIV1-P(C-) protected against challenge with wt HPIV1, its highly restricted replication in AGMs and in primary human airway epithelial cell cultures suggests that it might be overattenuated for use as a vaccine. Thus, the C proteins of HPIV1 are nonessential but have anti-IFN and antiapoptosis activities required for virulence in primates.
    Journal of Virology 08/2008; 82(18):8965-77. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previously, we identified several attenuating mutations in the L polymerase protein of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) and genetically stabilized those mutations using reverse genetics [Nolan SM, Surman S, Amaro-Carambot E, Collins PL, Murphy BR, Skiadopoulos MH. Live-attenuated intranasal parainfluenza virus type 2 vaccine candidates developed by reverse genetics containing L polymerase protein mutations imported from heterologous paramyxoviruses. Vaccine 2005;39(23):4765-74]. Here we describe the discovery of an attenuating mutation at nucleotide 15 (15(T-->C)) in the 3' genomic promoter that was also present in the previously characterized mutants. We evaluated the properties of this promoter mutation alone and in various combinations with the L polymerase mutations. Amino acid substitutions at L protein positions 460 (460A or 460P) or 948 (948L), or deletion of amino acids 1724 and 1725 (Delta1724), each conferred a temperature sensitivity (ts) phenotype whereas the 15(T-->C) mutation did not. The 460A and 948L mutations each contributed to restricted replication in the lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys, but the Delta1724 mutation increased attenuation only in certain combinations with other mutations. We constructed two highly attenuated viruses, rV94(15C)/460A/948L and rV94(15C)/948L/Delta1724, that were immunogenic and protective against challenge with wild-type HPIV2 in African green monkeys and, therefore, appear to be suitable for evaluation in humans.
    Vaccine 08/2007; 25(34):6409-22. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe a method for the generation of clinical grade, live-attenuated vaccines in Vero cells entirely from cDNA plasmids. The entire electroporation procedure can be completed in less than 15 minutes and this is a significant improvement over previous lipid or electroporation based transfection techniques that also involve a heat-shock step. Importantly, the virus preparations can be generated with a minimal use of animal product derived materials, an important consideration for a vaccine candidate that is to be tested in humans. Since it is likely that all live-attenuated parainfluenza virus and pneumovirus vaccines in the future will be generated using reverse genetics, this simplified method provides guidance on how this can be achieved.
    Journal of Virological Methods 05/2007; 141(1):30-3. · 1.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two recombinant, live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) mutant viruses have been developed, using a reverse genetics system, for evaluation as potential intranasal vaccine candidates. These rHPIV1 vaccine candidates have two non-temperature sensitive (non-ts) attenuating (att) mutations primarily in the P/C gene, namely CR84GHNT553A (two point mutations used together as a set) and CDelta170 (a short deletion mutation), and two ts att mutations in the L gene, namely LY942A (a point mutation), and LDelta1710-11 (a short deletion), the last of which has not been previously described. The latter three mutations were specifically designed for increased genetic and phenotypic stability. These mutations were evaluated on the HPIV1 backbone, both individually and in combination, for attenuation, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in African green monkeys (AGMs). The rHPIV1 mutant bearing the novel LDelta1710-11 mutation was highly ts and attenuated in AGMs and was immunogenic and efficacious against HPIV1 wt challenge. The rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALY942A and rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALDelta1710-11 vaccine candidates were highly ts, with shut-off temperatures of 38 degrees C and 35 degrees C, respectively, and were highly attenuated in AGMs. Immunization with rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALY942A protected against HPIV1 wt challenge in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. In contrast, rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALDelta1710-11 was not protective in AGMs due to over-attenuation, but it is expected to replicate more efficiently and be more immunogenic in the natural human host. The rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALY942A and rHPIV1-CR84G/Delta170HNT553ALDelta1710-11 vaccine candidates are clearly highly attenuated in AGMs and clinical trials are planned to address safety and immunogenicity in humans.
    Virology Journal 02/2007; 4:67. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) and mutants containing point and deletion (Delta) mutations in the P/C gene (r-CDelta10-15HNT553A, r-CR84G, r-CF170S and r-CDelta170), which have previously been evaluated as HPIV1 vaccine candidates, were evaluated for their effect on the type I interferon (IFN) response in vitro. HPIV1 wt infection inhibited the IFN response by inhibiting IFN regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) activation and IFN production in A549 cells and IFN signaling in Vero cells. In contrast, r-CR84G, r-CF170S and r-CDelta170 were defective for inhibition of IRF-3 activation and IFN production and r-CF170S and r-CDelta170 did not inhibit IFN signaling. Thus, HPIV1 antagonizes the IFN response at both the level of induction and signaling, and antagonism at both levels was disrupted by mutations in the P/C gene. Because CF170S affects C and not P, the anti-IFN function can be attributed to the C proteins. These data, in the context of previous in vivo studies, suggest that the loss of antagonism of the IFN response at both the level of induction and signaling, observed with the P/C mutants, r-CF170S and r-CDelta170, was necessary for significant attenuation in African green monkeys (AGMs).
    Virology 09/2006; 352(1):61-73. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The P/C gene of human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) encodes a nested set of related accessory C proteins, C'/C/Y1/Y2, which have been shown in other paramyxoviruses to have a role in evasion of the type I interferon (IFN) response following virus infection. We previously demonstrated that a set of two amino acid substitutions, CR84G/HNT553A, and a separate amino acid substitution, CF170S, are independently attenuating for HPIV1 in African green monkeys (AGMs). However, in each case the attenuation (att) phenotype is vulnerable to reversion by a single nucleotide change back to wild type. Using reverse genetics, recombinant HPIV1 (rHPIV1) vaccine candidates were generated that were designed for increased genetic and phenotypic stability by: (i) creating a two-amino acid deletion and substitution at the site of the CF170S mutation, yielding CDelta170; (ii) introducing a six amino acid deletion in the N-terminal region of C, CDelta10-15; and (iii) combining these stable deletion mutations with the att CR84G/HNT553A mutation. The resulting rHPIV1 vaccine candidates were evaluated for attenuation in hamsters and AGMs and for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in AGMs. The CDelta10-15 mutation was attenuating in hamsters but not in AGMs, and likely will be of limited value for an HPIV1 vaccine. Conversely, the CR84G/HNT553A mutation set was attenuating in AGMs but not in hamsters. Thus, these two mutations demonstrated reciprocal host range phenotypes involving different regions of C. The CDelta170 mutation conferred a significant level of attenuation in hamsters and AGMs that closely resembled that of CF170S and will be of particular utility for vaccine development because it involves a deletion of six nucleotides rendering it highly refractory to reversion. The combination of the CR84G/HNT553A mutation set and the CDelta170 deletion mutation yielded a virus, rCR84G/Delta170 HNT553A, that exhibited a satisfactory level of attenuation in hamsters and AGMs and was immunogenic and highly protective against HPIV1 wt challenge. This virus will be evaluated clinically as a live intranasal HPIV1 vaccine, one that can be further attenuated as necessary by the introduction of additional stabilized att mutations previously developed in the L protein.
    Vaccine 04/2006; 24(14):2674-84. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the individual contributions of the three surface glycoproteins of human metapneumovirus (HMPV), namely the fusion F, attachment G, and small hydrophobic SH proteins, to the induction of serum HMPV-binding antibodies, serum HMPV-neutralizing antibodies, and protective immunity. Using reverse genetics, each HMPV protein was expressed individually from an added gene in recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) and used to infect hamsters once or twice by the intranasal route. The F protein was highly immunogenic and protective, whereas G and SH were only weakly or negligibly immunogenic and protective, respectively. Thus, in contrast to other paramyxoviruses, the HMPV attachment G protein is not a major neutralization or protective antigen. Also, although the SH protein of HMPV is a virion protein that is much larger than its counterparts in previously studied paramyxoviruses, it does not appear to be a significant neutralization or protective antigen.
    Virology 03/2006; 345(2):492-501. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A set of recombinant, live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) vaccine candidates was evaluated for attenuation, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in African green monkeys (AGMs). Temperature sensitive (ts) and non-ts attenuating (att) mutations in the P/C and L genes were introduced individually or in various combinations into rHPIV1, including the C(R84G) and HN(T553A) mutations identified in the present work and the C(F170S), L(Y942A), and L(L992C) mutations identified previously. The rHPIV1 vaccine candidates exhibited a spectrum of attenuation in AGMs. One genetically and phenotypically stable vaccine candidate, rC(R84G/F170S)L(Y942A/L992C), was attenuated and efficacious in AGMs and is a promising live attenuated intranasal HPIV1 vaccine candidate suitable for clinical evaluation.
    Vaccine 10/2005; 23(38):4631-46. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Live-attenuated recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 2 (rHPIV2) vaccine candidates were created using reverse genetics by importing known attenuating mutations in the L polymerase protein from heterologous paramyxoviruses into the homologous sites of the HPIV2 L protein. Four recombinants (rF460L, rY948H, rL1566I, and rS1724I) were recovered and three were attenuated for replication in hamsters. The genetic stability of the imported mutations at three of the four sites was enhanced by use of alternative codons or by deletion of a pair of amino acids. rHPIV2s bearing these modified mutations exhibited enhanced attenuation. The genetically stabilized mutations conferring a high level of attenuation will be useful in generating a live-attenuated virus vaccine for HPIV2.
    Vaccine 10/2005; 23(39):4765-74. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The growth properties and antigenic relatedness of the CAN98-75 (CAN75) and the CAN97-83 (CAN83) human metapneumovirus (HMPV) strains, which represent the two distinct HMPV genetic lineages and exhibit 5 and 63% amino acid divergence in the fusion (F) and attachment (G) proteins, respectively, were investigated in vitro and in rodents and nonhuman primates. Both strains replicated to high titers (> or =6.0 log(10)) in the upper respiratory tract of hamsters and to moderate titers (> or =3.6 log(10)) in the lower respiratory tract. The two lineages exhibited 48% antigenic relatedness based on reciprocal cross-neutralization assay with postinfection hamster sera, and infection with each strain provided a high level of resistance to reinfection with the homologous or heterologous strain. Hamsters immunized with a recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 expressing the fusion F protein of the CAN83 strain developed a serum antibody response that efficiently neutralized virus from both lineages and were protected from challenge with either HMPV strain. This result indicates that the HMPV F protein is a major antigenic determinant that mediates extensive cross-lineage neutralization and protection. Both HMPV strains replicated to low titers in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of rhesus macaques but induced high levels of HMPV-neutralizing antibodies in serum effective against both lineages. The level of HMPV replication in chimpanzees was moderately higher, and infected animals developed mild colds. HMPV replicated the most efficiently in the respiratory tracts of African green monkeys, and the infected animals developed a high level of HMPV serum-neutralizing antibodies (1:500 to 1:1,000) effective against both lineages. Reciprocal cross-neutralization assays in which postinfection sera from all three primate species were used indicated that CAN75 and CAN83 are 64 to 99% related antigenically. HMPV-infected chimpanzees and African green monkeys were highly protected from challenge with the heterologous HMPV strain. Taken together, the results from hamsters and nonhuman primates support the conclusion that the two HMPV genetic lineages are highly related antigenically and are not distinct antigenic subtypes or subgroups as defined by reciprocal cross-neutralization in vitro.
    Journal of Virology 08/2004; 78(13):6927-37. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Y942H and L992F temperature-sensitive (ts) and attenuating amino acid substitution mutations, previously identified in the L polymerase of the HPIV3cp45 vaccine candidate, were introduced into homologous positions of the L polymerase of recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1). In rHPIV1, the Y942H mutation specified the ts phenotype in vitro and the attenuation (att) phenotype in hamsters, whereas the L992F mutation specified neither phenotype. Each of these codon mutations was generated by a single nucleotide substitution and therefore had the potential to readily revert to a codon specifying the wild-type amino acid residue. We introduced alternative amino acid assignments at codon 942 or 992 as a strategy to increase genetic stability and to generate mutants that exhibit a range of attenuation. Twenty-three recombinants with codon substitutions at position 942 or 992 of the L protein were viable. One highly ts and att mutant, the Y942A virus, which had a difference of three nucleotides from the codon encoding a wild-type tyrosine, also possessed a high level of genetic and phenotypic stability upon serial passage in vitro at restrictive temperatures compared to that of the parent Y942H virus, which possessed a single nucleotide substitution. We obtained mutants with substitutions at position 992 that, in contrast to the L992F virus, possessed the ts and att phenotypes. These findings identify the use of alternative codon substitution mutations as a method that can be used to generate candidate vaccine viruses with increased genetic stability and/or a modified level of attenuation.
    Journal of Virology 03/2004; 78(4):2029-36. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) is a significant cause of respiratory tract disease in infants and young children for which a vaccine is needed. In the present study, we sought to attenuate HPIV1 by the importation of one or more known attenuating point mutations from heterologous paramyxoviruses into homologous sites in HPIV1. The introduced mutations were derived from three attenuated paramyxoviruses: (i) HPIV3cp45, a live-attenuated HPIV3 vaccine candidate containing multiple attenuating mutations; (ii) the respiratory syncytial virus cpts530 with an attenuating mutation in the L polymerase protein; and (iii) a murine PIV1 (MPIV1) attenuated by a mutation in the accessory C protein. Recombinant HPIV1 (rHPIV1) mutants bearing a single imported mutation in C, any of three different mutations in L, or a pair of mutations in F exhibited a 100-fold or greater reduction in replication in the upper or lower respiratory tract of hamsters. Both temperature-sensitive (ts) (mutations in the L and F proteins) and non-ts (the mutation in the C protein) attenuating mutations were identified. rHPIV1 mutants containing a combination of mutations in L were generated that were more attenuated than viruses bearing the individual mutations, showing that the systematic accretion of mutations can yield progressive increases in attenuation. Hamsters immunized with rHPIV1 mutants bearing one or two mutations developed neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to challenge with wild-type HPIV1. Thus, importation of attenuating mutations from heterologous viruses is an effective means for rapidly identifying mutations that attenuate HPIV1 and for generating live-attenuated HPIV1 vaccine candidates.
    Journal of Virology 03/2004; 78(4):2017-28. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Members of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses have the unusual requirement that the nucleotide length of the viral genome must be an even multiple of six in order for efficient RNA replication, and hence virus replication, to occur. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) is the only member of the genus that has been reported to have a genome length that is not an even multiple of six, and it has also been recovered from a full-length antigenomic-sense cDNA that did not conform to the "rule of six." To reexamine the issue of nucleotide length in natural isolates of HPIV2, a complete consensus genomic sequence was determined for three HPIV2 strains: Greer, Vanderbilt/1994 (V94), and Vanderbilt/1998. Each of these strains was found to have a genome length of 15,654 nucleotides (nt), thus conforming in each case to the rule of six. To directly examine the requirement that the genomic length of HPIV2 be an even multiple of six, we constructed six full-length antigenomic HPIV2/V94 cDNAs that deviated from a polyhexameric length by 0 to 5 nt. Recombinant HPIV2s were readily recovered from all of the cDNAs, including those that did not conform to the rule of six. One recombinant HPIV2 isolate was completely sequenced for each of the nonpolyhexameric antigenomic cDNAs. These were found to contain small nucleotide insertions or deletions that conferred polyhexameric length to the recovered genome. Interestingly, almost all of the length corrections occurred within the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and large polymerase genes or the intervening intergenic region and thus were proximal to the insert that caused the deviation from the rule of six. These results demonstrate, in the context of complete infectious virus, that HPIV2 has a strong and seemingly absolute requirement for a polyhexameric genome.
    Journal of Virology 02/2003; 77(1):270-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Kansas strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is 100- to 1,000-fold restricted in replication in the respiratory tracts of nonhuman primates compared to human PIV3 (HPIV3), an important pathogen of infants and young children. BPIV3 is also restricted in replication in human infants and children, yet it is immunogenic and is currently being evaluated in clinical trials as a vaccine candidate to protect against illness caused by HPIV3. We have examined the genetic basis for the host range attenuation phenotype of BPIV3 by exchanging each open reading frame (ORF) of a recombinant wild-type HPIV3 with the analogous ORF from BPIV3, with the caveats that the multiple ORFs of the P gene were exchanged as a single unit and that the HN and F genes were exchanged as a single unit. Recombinant chimeric bovine-human PIV3s were recovered from cDNA, and the levels of viral replication in vitro and in the respiratory tract of rhesus monkeys were determined. Recombinant chimeric HPIV3s bearing the BPIV3 N or P ORF were highly attenuated in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of monkeys, whereas those bearing the BPIV3 M or L ORF or the F and HN genes were only moderately attenuated. This indicates that the genetic determinants of the host range restriction of replication of BPIV3 for primates are polygenic, with the major determinants being the N and P ORFs. Monkeys immunized with these bovine-human chimeric viruses, including the more highly attenuated ones, developed higher levels of HPIV3 hemagglutination-inhibiting serum antibodies than did monkeys immunized with BPIV3 and were protected from challenge with wild-type HPIV3. Furthermore, host range determinants could be combined with attenuating point mutations to achieve an increased level of attenuation. Thus, chimeric recombinant bovine-human PIV3 viruses that manifest different levels of attenuation in rhesus monkeys are available for evaluation as vaccine candidates to protect infants from the severe lower respiratory tract disease caused by HPIV3.
    Journal of Virology 02/2003; 77(2):1141-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1), a major cause of croup in infants and young children, accounts for 6% of hospitalizations for pediatric respiratory tract disease. The antigenically related Sendai virus, referred to here as murine PIV1 (MPIV1), is being considered for use as a live-attenuated vaccine to protect against HPIV1 (J. L. Hurwitz, K. F. Soike, M. Y., Sangster, A. Portner, R. E. Sealy, D. H. Dawson, and C. Coleclough, 1997, Vaccine 15(5), 533-540) and also as a recombinant vaccine vector expressing antigens to protect against viral disease in humans. However, in the 1950s MPIV1 was reported to have been isolated from humans, suggesting that zoonotic transmission might have occurred. It is therefore important to examine the ability of MPIV1 to replicate in nonhuman primates, i.e., surrogate hosts for humans. In the present study the level of replication of MPIV1 and HPIV1 was compared in African green monkeys and chimpanzees. Surprisingly, MPIV1 replicated as efficiently as HPIV1 in the upper and lower respiratory tract of African green monkeys at doses of 10(4) and 10(6) and replicated only slightly less efficiently at both sites in chimpanzees. African green monkeys immunized with MPIV1 were highly resistant to subsequent challenge with HPIV1 even though MPIV1 did not induce a detectable HPIV1-neutralizing antibody response. The high level of replication of MPIV1 observed in the upper and lower respiratory tract of these primates suggests that MPIV1 likely would require significant attenuation before it could be given to humans as a vaccine against HPIV1 or as a vaccine vector. Its ability to efficiently replicate in nonhuman primates suggests that MPIV1 lacks a significant host range restriction in primates and could theoretically cause zoonotic disease in humans.
    Virology 06/2002; 297(1):153-60. · 3.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

679 Citations
122.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2012
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      • Laboratory of Immunoregulation
      Maryland, United States
  • 2011
    • Osaka University
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of International Health
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2008
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Cystic Fibrosis and Pulmonary Diseases Research and Treatment Center
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1999–2004
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Laboratory of Infectious Diseases
      Bethesda, MD, United States