[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously identified the ANC2 gene in a screen for mutations that enhance the defects caused by yeast actin mutations. Here we report that ANC2 is an essential gene that encodes a member of the TCP-1 family. TCP-1-related proteins are subunits of cytosolic heteromeric protein complexes referred to as chaperonins. These complexes can bind to newly synthesized actin and tubulin in vitro and can convert these proteins into an assembly-competent state. We show that anc2-1 mutants contain abnormal and disorganized actin structures, are defective in cellular morphogenesis, and are hypersensitive to the microtubule inhibitor benomyl. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type Anc2p ameliorates defects in actin organization and cell growth caused by actin overproduction. Mutations in BIN2 and BIN3, two other genes that encode TCP-1-like proteins, also enhance the phenotypes of actin mutants. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TCP-1-like proteins are required for actin and tubulin function in vivo.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1994; 91(19):9116-20. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Null mutations in SAC6 and ABP1, genes that encode actin-binding proteins, failed to complement the temperature-sensitive phenotype caused by a mutation in the ACT1 gene. To identify novel genes whose protein products interact with actin, mutations that fail to complement act1-1 or act1-4, two temperature-sensitive alleles of ACT1, were isolated. A total of 14 extragenic noncomplementing mutations and 12 new alleles of ACT1 were identified in two independent screens. The 14 extragenic noncomplementing mutations represent alleles of at least four different genes, ANC1, ANC2, ANC3 and ANC4 (Actin NonComplementing). Mutations in the ANC1 gene were shown to cause osmosensitivity and defects in actin organization; phenotypes that are similar to those caused by act1 mutations. We conclude that the ANC1 gene product plays an important role in actin cytoskeletal function. The 12 new alleles of ACT1 will be useful for further elucidation of the functions of actin in yeast.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe here genetic interactions between mutant alleles of Actin-NonComplementing (ANC) genes and actin (ACT1) or actin-binding protein (SAC6, ABP1, TPM1) genes. The anc mutations were found to exhibit allele-specific noncomplementing interactions with different act1 mutations. In addition, mutant alleles of four ANC genes (ANC1, ANC2, ANC3 and ANC4) were tested for interactions with null alleles of actin-binding protein genes. An anc1 mutant allele failed to complement null alleles of the SAC6 and TPM1 genes that encode yeast fimbrin and tropomyosin, respectively. Also, synthetic lethality between anc3 and sac6 mutations, and between anc4 and tpm1 mutations was observed. Taken together, the above results strongly suggest that the ANC gene products contribute to diverse aspects of actin function. Finally, we report the results of tests of two models previously proposed to explain extragenic noncomplementation.