[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleation of microtubules is central to assembly of the mitotic spindle, which is required for each cell division. gamma-Tubulin is a universal component essential for microtubule nucleation from centrosomes. To elucidate the mechanism of microtubule nucleation in budding yeast we reconstituted and characterized the yeast gamma-tubulin complex (Tub4p complex) produced in insect cells. The recombinant complex has the same sedimentation coefficient (11.6 S) as the native complex in yeast cell extracts and contains one molecule of Spc97p, one molecule of Spc98p, and two molecules of Tub4p. The reconstituted Tub4p complex binds preformed microtubules and has a low nucleating activity, allowing us to begin a detailed analysis of conditions that enhance this nucleating activity. We tested whether binding of the recombinant Tub4p complex to the spindle pole body docking protein Spc110p affects its nucleating activity. The solubility of recombinant Spc110p in insect cells is improved by coexpression with yeast calmodulin (Cmd1p). The Spc110p/Cmd1p complex has a small sedimentation coefficient (4.2 S) and a large Stokes radius (14.3 nm), indicative of an elongated structure. The Tub4p complex binds Spc110p/Cmd1p via Spc98p and the K(d) for binding is 150 nM. The low nucleation activity of the Tub4p complex is not enhanced when it is bound to Spc110p/Cmd1p, suggesting that it requires additional components or modifications to achieve robust activity. Finally, we report the identification of a large 22 S Tub4p complex in yeast extract that contains multimers of Spc97p similar to gamma-tubulin ring complexes found in higher eukaryotic cells.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 05/2002; 13(4):1144-57. DOI:10.1091/mbc.02-01-0607 · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The yeast spindle pole body (SPB) component Spc110p (Nuf1p) undergoes specific serine/threonine phosphorylation as the mitotic spindle apparatus forms, and this phosphorylation persists until cells enter anaphase. We demonstrate that the dual-specificity kinase Mps1p is essential for the mitosis-specific phosphorylation of Spc110p in vivo and that Mps1p phosphorylates Spc110p in vitro. Phosphopeptides generated by proteolytic cleavage were identified and sequenced by mass spectrometry. Ser(60), Thr(64), and Thr(68) are the major sites in Spc110p phosphorylated by Mps1p in vitro, and alanine substitution at these sites abolishes the mitosis-specific isoform in vivo. This is the first time that phosphorylation sites of an SPB component have been determined, and these are the first sites of Mps1p phosphorylation identified. Alanine substitution for any one of these phosphorylated residues, in conjunction with an alanine substitution at residue Ser(36), is lethal in combination with alleles of SPC97, which encodes a component of the Tub4p complex. Consistent with a specific dysfunction for the alanine substitution mutations, simultaneous mutation of all four serine/threonine residues to aspartate does not confer any defect. Sites of Mps1p phosphorylation and Ser(36) are located within the N-terminal globular domain of Spc110p, which resides at the inner plaque of the SPB and binds the Tub4p complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spindle pole body (SPB) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae functions as the microtubule-organizing center. Spc110p is an essential structural component of the SPB and spans between the central and inner plaques of this multilamellar organelle. The amino terminus of Spc110p faces the inner plaque, the substructure from which spindle microtubules radiate. We have undertaken a synthetic lethal screen to identify mutations that enhance the phenotype of the temperature-sensitive spc110-221 allele, which encodes mutations in the amino terminus. The screen identified mutations in SPC97 and SPC98, two genes encoding components of the Tub4p complex in yeast. The spc98-63 allele is synthetic lethal only with spc110 alleles that encode mutations in the N terminus of Spc110p. In contrast, the spc97 alleles are synthetic lethal with spc110 alleles that encode mutations in either the N terminus or the C terminus. Using the two-hybrid assay, we show that the interactions of Spc110p with Spc97p and Spc98p are not equivalent. The N terminus of Spc110p displays a robust interaction with Spc98p in two different two-hybrid assays, while the interaction between Spc97p and Spc110p is not detectable in one strain and gives a weak signal in the other. Extra copies of SPC98 enhance the interaction between Spc97p and Spc110p, while extra copies of SPC97 interfere with the interaction between Spc98p and Spc110p. By testing the interactions between mutant proteins, we show that the lethal phenotype in spc98-63 spc110-221 cells is caused by the failure of Spc98-63p to interact with Spc110-221p. In contrast, the lethal phenotype in spc97-62 spc110-221 cells can be attributed to a decreased interaction between Spc97-62p and Spc98p. Together, these studies provide evidence that Spc110p directly links the Tub4p complex to the SPB. Moreover, an interaction between Spc98p and the amino-terminal region of Spc110p is a critical component of the linkage, whereas the interaction between Spc97p and Spc110p is dependent on Spc98p.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 09/1998; 9(8):2201-16. DOI:10.1091/mbc.9.8.2201 · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously identified the ANC2 gene in a screen for mutations that enhance the defects caused by yeast actin mutations. Here we report that ANC2 is an essential gene that encodes a member of the TCP-1 family. TCP-1-related proteins are subunits of cytosolic heteromeric protein complexes referred to as chaperonins. These complexes can bind to newly synthesized actin and tubulin in vitro and can convert these proteins into an assembly-competent state. We show that anc2-1 mutants contain abnormal and disorganized actin structures, are defective in cellular morphogenesis, and are hypersensitive to the microtubule inhibitor benomyl. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type Anc2p ameliorates defects in actin organization and cell growth caused by actin overproduction. Mutations in BIN2 and BIN3, two other genes that encode TCP-1-like proteins, also enhance the phenotypes of actin mutants. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TCP-1-like proteins are required for actin and tubulin function in vivo.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/1994; 91(19):9116-20. DOI:10.1073/pnas.91.19.9116 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe here genetic interactions between mutant alleles of Actin-NonComplementing (ANC) genes and actin (ACT1) or actin-binding protein (SAC6, ABP1, TPM1) genes. The anc mutations were found to exhibit allele-specific noncomplementing interactions with different act1 mutations. In addition, mutant alleles of four ANC genes (ANC1, ANC2, ANC3 and ANC4) were tested for interactions with null alleles of actin-binding protein genes. An anc1 mutant allele failed to complement null alleles of the SAC6 and TPM1 genes that encode yeast fimbrin and tropomyosin, respectively. Also, synthetic lethality between anc3 and sac6 mutations, and between anc4 and tpm1 mutations was observed. Taken together, the above results strongly suggest that the ANC gene products contribute to diverse aspects of actin function. Finally, we report the results of tests of two models previously proposed to explain extragenic noncomplementation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Null mutations in SAC6 and ABP1, genes that encode actin-binding proteins, failed to complement the temperature-sensitive phenotype caused by a mutation in the ACT1 gene. To identify novel genes whose protein products interact with actin, mutations that fail to complement act1-1 or act1-4, two temperature-sensitive alleles of ACT1, were isolated. A total of 14 extragenic noncomplementing mutations and 12 new alleles of ACT1 were identified in two independent screens. The 14 extragenic noncomplementing mutations represent alleles of at least four different genes, ANC1, ANC2, ANC3 and ANC4 (Actin NonComplementing). Mutations in the ANC1 gene were shown to cause osmosensitivity and defects in actin organization; phenotypes that are similar to those caused by act1 mutations. We conclude that the ANC1 gene product plays an important role in actin cytoskeletal function. The 12 new alleles of ACT1 will be useful for further elucidation of the functions of actin in yeast.