[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copper-containing ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) forms binary and ternary complexes with cationic proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and myeloperoxidase (Mpo) during inflammation. We present an X-ray crystal structure of a 2Cp-Mpo complex at 4.7 Å resolution. This structure allows one to identify major protein-protein interaction areas and provides an explanation for a competitive inhibition of Mpo by Cp and for the activation of p-phenylenediamine oxidation by Mpo. Small angle X-ray scattering was employed to construct low-resolution models of the Cp-Lf complex and, for the first time, of the ternary 2Cp-2Lf-Mpo complex in solution. The SAXS-based model of Cp-Lf supports the predicted 1∶1 stoichiometry of the complex and demonstrates that both lobes of Lf contact domains 1 and 6 of Cp. The 2Cp-2Lf-Mpo SAXS model reveals the absence of interaction between Mpo and Lf in the ternary complex, so Cp can serve as a mediator of protein interactions in complex architecture. Mpo protects antioxidant properties of Cp by isolating its sensitive loop from proteases. The latter is important for incorporation of Fe(3+) into Lf, which activates ferroxidase activity of Cp and precludes oxidation of Cp substrates. Our models provide the structural basis for possible regulatory role of these complexes in preventing iron-induced oxidative damage.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e67145. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plastocyanin (PC) from poplar leaves is present in two isoforms, PCa and PCb, which differ in sequence by amino acid replacements at locations remote from the copper center and simultaneously act in the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. We describe ultra-high resolution structures of PCa and high-resolution structures of PCb, both under oxidizing and reducing conditions at pH 4, 6 and 8. The docking on cytochrome f and photosystem I, respectively, has been modeled for both isoforms. PCa and PCb exhibit closely similar overall and active-site structures, except for a difference in the relative orientation of the acidic patches. The isoforms exhibit substantial differences in the dependence of the reduced (Cu(I)) geometry on pH. In PCa, the decrease in pH causes a gradual dissociation of His87 from Cu(I) at low pH, probably adopting a neutral tautomeric state. In PCb, the histidine remains covalently bound to Cu(I) and may adopt a doubly protonated state at low pH. The fact that both isoforms have similar although not identical functions in photosynthetic electron flows suggests that the His87 imidazole does not play a crucial role for the pathway of electron transport from cytochrome f to oxidized PC.
Journal of inorganic biochemistry 07/2012; 115:174-81. · 3.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathway for oxidative degradation of nicotine in Arthrobacter nicotinovorans includes two genetically and structurally unrelated flavoenzymes, 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase (6HLNO) and 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase, which act with absolute stereospecificity on the l- and d-forms, respectively, of 6-hydroxy-nicotine. We solved the crystal structure of 6HLNO at 1.95 Å resolution by combined isomorphous/multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing. The overall structure of each subunit of the 6HLNO homodimer and the folds of the individual domains are closely similar as in eukaryotic monoamine oxidases. Unexpectedly, a diacylglycerophospholipid molecule was found to be non-covalently bound to each protomer of 6HLNO. The fatty acid chains occupy hydrophobic channels that penetrate deep into the interior of the substrate-binding domain of each subunit. The solvent-exposed glycerophosphate moiety is located at the subunit–subunit interface. We further solved the crystal structure of a complex of dithionite-reduced 6HLNO with the natural substrate 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine at 2.05 Å resolution. The location of the substrate in a tight cavity suggests that the binding geometry of this unproductive complex may be closely similar as under oxidizing conditions. The observed orientation of the bound substrate relative to the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor is suitable for hydride-transfer dehydrogenation at the carbon atom that forms the chiral center of the substrate molecule. A comparison of the substrate-binding modes of 6HLNO and 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase, based on models of complexes with the d-substrate, suggests an explanation for the stereospecificity of both enzymes. The two enzymes are proposed to orient the enantiomeric substrates in mirror symmetry with respect to the plane of the flavin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CASK is a unique MAGUK protein that contains an N-terminal CaM-kinase domain besides the typical MAGUK domains. The CASK CaM-kinase domain is presumed to be a catalytically inactive pseudokinase because it lacks the canonical DFG motif required for Mg2+ binding that is thought to be indispensable for kinase activity. Here we show, however, that CASK functions as an active protein kinase even without Mg2+ binding. High-resolution crystal structures reveal that the CASK CaM-kinase domain adopts a constitutively active conformation that binds ATP and catalyzes phosphotransfer without Mg2+. The CASK CaM-kinase domain phosphorylates itself and at least one physiological interactor, the synaptic protein neurexin-1, to which CASK is recruited via its PDZ domain. Thus, our data indicate that CASK combines the scaffolding activity of MAGUKs with an unusual kinase activity that phosphorylates substrates recuited by the scaffolding activity. Moreover, our study suggests that other pseudokinases (10% of the kinome) could also be catalytically active.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The structural mechanism of the catalytic functioning of shikimate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was investigated on the basis of a series of high-resolution crystal structures corresponding to individual steps in the enzymatic reaction. The catalytic turnover of shikimate and ATP into the products shikimate-3-phosphate and ADP, followed by release of ADP, was studied in the crystalline environment. Based on a comparison of the structural states before initiation of the reaction and immediately after the catalytic step, we derived a structural model of the transition state that suggests that phosphoryl transfer proceeds with inversion by an in-line associative mechanism. The random sequential binding of shikimate and nucleotides is associated with domain movements. We identified a synergic mechanism by which binding of the first substrate may enhance the affinity for the second substrate.
Journal of Molecular Biology 01/2007; 364(3):411-23. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The import motor of the mitochondrial translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23) mediates the ATP-dependent translocation of preproteins into the mitochondrial matrix by cycles of binding to and release from mtHsp70. An essential step of this process is the stimulation of the ATPase activity of mtHsp70 performed by the J cochaperone Tim14. Tim14 forms a complex with the J-like protein Tim16. The crystal structure of this complex shows that the conserved domains of the two proteins have virtually identical folds but completely different surfaces enabling them to perform different functions. The Tim14-Tim16 dimer reveals a previously undescribed arrangement of J and J-like domains. Mutations that destroy the complex between Tim14 and Tim16 are lethal demonstrating that complex formation is an essential requirement for the viability of cells. We further demonstrate tight regulation of the cochaperone activity of Tim14 by Tim16. The first crystal structure of a J domain in complex with a regulatory protein provides new insights into the function of the mitochondrial TIM23 translocase and the Hsp70 chaperone system in general.
The EMBO Journal 11/2006; 25(19):4675-85. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triple-helical collagen IV protomers associate through their N- and C-termini, forming a three-dimensional network that provides basement membranes with mechanical strength. Within this network, the C-terminal non-collagenous (NC1) domains form tight dimeric junctions. Crystallographic analyses of isolated NC1 domains show two trimeric cap-like structures interacting via a large interface. Previously, for NC1 from human placenta type-IV collagen we described covalent alpha1-alpha1 and alpha2-alpha2 crosslinks between Met93 and Lys211 of opposing alpha1(IV) and alpha2(IV) NC1-chains, which further stabilize this interface and explain the occurrence of reduction-insensitive NC1-chain dimers. However, their existence was recently questioned, and we therefore analyzed NC1-domain dimers in more detail by biochemical and protein crystallographic methods. Short-exposure diffraction data show a clear electron density cross-connecting the respective residues, which gradually disappears with prolonged crystal irradiation. Sequence analyses of isolated tryptic peptides derived from denatured NC1 monomers and dimers indicate that only the dimers, but not the monomers, yield these chemically labile cross-linked peptides. These data clearly demonstrate the presence of reduction-resistant, but chemically and radiation-sensitive covalent crosslinks between the side chains of Met93 and Lys211 in human placenta type-IV collagen.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we report the crystal structure of YqjM, a homolog of Old Yellow Enzyme (OYE) that is involved in the oxidative stress response of Bacillus subtilis. In addition to the oxidized and reduced enzyme form, the structures of complexes with p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and p-nitrophenol, respectively, were solved. As for other OYE family members, YqjM folds into a (alpha/beta)8-barrel and has one molecule of flavin mononucleotide bound non-covalently at the COOH termini of the beta-sheet. Most of the interactions that control the electronic properties of the flavin mononucleotide cofactor are conserved within the OYE family. However, in contrast to all members of the OYE family characterized to date, YqjM exhibits several unique structural features. For example, the enzyme exists as a homotetramer that is assembled as a dimer of catalytically dependent dimers. Moreover, the protein displays a shared active site architecture where an arginine finger (Arg336) at the COOH terminus of one monomer extends into the active site of the adjacent monomer and is directly involved in substrate recognition. Another remarkable difference in the binding of the ligand in YqjM is represented by the contribution of the NH2-terminal Tyr28 instead of a COOH-terminal tyrosine in OYE and its homologs. The structural information led to a specific data base search from which a new class of OYE oxidoreductases was identified that exhibits a strict conservation of active site residues, which are critical for this subfamily, most notably Cys26, Tyr28, Lys109, and Arg336. Therefore, YqjM is the first representative of a new bacterial subfamily of OYE homologs.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2005; 280(30):27904-13. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammalian prohormone/proprotein convertase (PC) furin is responsible for the maturation of a great variety of homeostatic but also many pathogenic proteins within the secretory pathway and the endosomal pathway and at the cell surface. Similar to other members of the PC family, furin requires calcium for catalytic activity. In a previous paper, the structural association of the catalytic and the P-domain of furin was shown and data were presented indicating two or three calcium-binding sites. The exact number and the three-dimensional localization of the essential calcium sites within furin have now been determined by collecting X-ray diffraction data on either side of the Ca K absorption edge and by calculating a novel type of double difference map from these anomalous scattering data. Two calcium ions were unambiguously identified: the purely structural Ca-1 also conserved in the bacterial digestive subtilisins and the Ca-2 site specific to PCs and essential for the formation of the P1 specificity-determining S1-binding pocket. In addition, these anomalous diffraction data show that no tightly bound K(+) sites exist in furin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The C terminus of transcription factor NusA from Escherichia coli comprises two repeat units, which bind during antitermination to protein N from phage lambda. To delineate the structural basis of the NusA-lambdaN interaction, we attempted to crystallize the NusA C-terminal repeats in complex with a lambdaN peptide (residues 34-47). The two NusA domains became proteolytically separated during crystallization, and crystals contained two copies of the first repeat unit in contact with a single lambdaN fragment. The NusA modules employ identical regions to contact the peptide but approach the ligand from opposite sides. In contrast to the alpha-helical conformation of the lambdaN N terminus in complex with boxB RNA, residues 34-40 of lambdaN remain extended upon interaction with NusA. Mutational analyses indicated that only one of the observed NusA-lambdaN interaction modes is biologically significant, supporting an equimolar ratio of NusA and lambdaN in antitermination complexes. Solution studies indicated that additional interactions are fostered by the second NusA repeat unit, consistent with known compensatory mutations in NusA and lambdaN. Contrary to the RNA polymerase alpha subunit, lambdaN binding does not stimulate RNA interaction of NusA. The results demonstrate that lambdaN serves as a scaffold to closely oppose NusA and the mRNA in antitermination complexes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2004; 101(38):13762-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells are often controlled by the formation of specific signaling complexes, which are coordinated by scaffold and adaptor proteins. Elucidating their molecular architecture is essential to understand the spatial and temporal regulation of cellular signaling. p14 and MP1 form a tight (K(d) = 12.8 nM) endosomal adaptor/scaffold complex, which regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Here, we present the 1.9-A crystal structure of a biologically functional p14/MP1 complex. The overall topology of the individual MP1 and p14 proteins is almost identical, having a central five-stranded beta-sheet sandwiched between a two-helix and a one-helix layer. Formation of the p14/MP1 heterodimer proceeds by beta-sheet augmentation and yields a unique, almost symmetrical, complex with several potential protein-binding sites on its surface. Mutational analysis allowed identification of the p14 endosomal adaptor motif, which seems to orient the complex relative to the endosomal membrane. Two highly conserved and hydrophobic protein-binding sites are located on the opposite "cytoplasmic" face of the p14/MP1 heterodimer and might therefore function as docking sites for the target proteins extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and MAPK/ERK kinase 1. Furthermore, detailed sequence analyses revealed that MP1/p14, together with profilins, define a protein superfamily of small subcellular adaptor proteins, named ProflAP. Taken together, the presented work provides insight into the spatial regulation of MAPK signaling, illustrating how p14 and MP1 collaborate as an endosomal adaptor/scaffold complex.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2004; 101(30):10984-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-molecular-weight cytochromes (Hmcs) belong to a large family of multihaem cytochromes in sulfate-reducing bacteria. HmcA is the first cytochrome reported to have 16 c-type haems arranged in its polypeptide chain. The function of this cytochrome is still unknown, although it is clear that it belongs to a membrane-bound complex involved in electron transfer from the periplasm to the membrane. HmcA from Desulfovibrio gigas has been purified and successfully crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals grew using PEG and zinc acetate as precipitants to maximum dimensions of 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.2 mm in an orthorhombic space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.9, b = 90.9, c = 83.7 A. The crystals diffracted to beyond 2.07 A and a MAD data set was collected.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About one-third of the more than 300 C2H2 zinc finger proteins of Drosophila contain a conserved sequence motif, the zinc finger-associated domain (ZAD). Genes that encode ZAD proteins are specific for and expanded in the genomes of insects. Only three ZAD-encoding gene functions are established, and the role of ZAD is unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of the ZAD of Grauzone (ZAD(Grau)), a Drosophila transcription factor that specifically controls the maternal Cdc20-like APC subunit Cortex. ZAD forms an atypical treble-clef-like zinc-coordinating fold. Head-to-tail arrangement of two ZAD(Grau) molecules in the crystals suggests dimer formation, an observation supported by crosslinking and dynamic light scattering. The results indicate that ZAD provides a novel protein-protein interaction module that characterizes a large family of insect transcription factors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fourth reaction step of CO(2)-reduction to methane in methanogenic archaea is catalyzed by coenzyme F(420)-dependent methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase (Mtd). We have structurally characterized this enzyme in the selenomethionine-labelled form from the hyperthermophilic methanogenic archaeon Methanopyrus kandleri at 1.54A resolution using the single wavelength anomalous dispersion method for phase determination. Mtd was found to be a homohexameric protein complex that is organized as a trimer of dimers. The fold of the individual subunits is composed of two domains: a larger alpha,beta domain and a smaller helix bundle domain with a short C-terminal beta-sheet segment. In the homohexamer the alpha,beta domains are positioned at the outside of the enzyme, whereas, the helix bundle domains assemble towards the inside to form an unusual quarternary structure with a 12-helix bundle around a 3-fold axis. No structural similarities are detectable to other enzymes with F(420) and/or substituted tetrahydropterins as substrates. The substrate binding sites of F(420) and methylenetetrahydromethanopterin are most likely embedded into a crevice between the domains of one subunit, their isoalloxazine and tetrahydropterin rings being placed inside a pocket formed by this crevice and a loop segment of the adjacent monomer of the dimer. Mtd revealed the highest stability at low salt concentrations of all structurally characterized enzymes from M.kandleri. This finding might be due to the compact quaternary structure that buries 36% of the monomer surface and to the large number of ion pairs.
Journal of Molecular Biology 11/2003; 332(5):1047-57. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are widely distributed and highly conserved proteins that regulate actin remodeling in response to cellular signals. The N termini of CAPs play a role in Ras signaling and bind adenylyl cyclase; the C termini bind to G-actin and thereby alter the dynamic rearrangements of the microfilament system. We report here the X-ray structure of the core of the N-terminal domain of the CAP from Dictyostelium discoideum, which comprises residues 51-226, determined by a combination of single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS). The overall structure of this fragment is an alpha helix bundle composed of six antiparallel helices. Results from gel filtration and crosslinking experiments for CAP(1-226), CAP(255-464), and the full-length protein, together with the CAP N-terminal domain structure and the recently determined CAP C-terminal domain structure, provide evidence that the functional structure of CAP is multimeric.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In eukaryotes, many essential secreted proteins and peptide hormones are excised from larger precursors by members of a class of calcium-dependent endoproteinases, the prohormone-proprotein convertases (PCs). Furin, the best-characterized member of the mammalian PC family, has essential functions in embryogenesis and homeostasis but is also implicated in various pathologies such as tumor metastasis, neurodegeneration and various bacterial and viral diseases caused by such pathogens as anthrax and pathogenic Ebola virus strains. Furin cleaves protein precursors with narrow specificity following basic Arg-Xaa-Lys/Arg-Arg-like motifs. The 2.6 A crystal structure of the decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethylketone (dec-RVKR-cmk)-inhibited mouse furin ectodomain, the first PC structure, reveals an eight-stranded jelly-roll P domain associated with the catalytic domain. Contoured surface loops shape the active site by cleft, thus explaining furin's stringent requirement for arginine at P1 and P4, and lysine at P2 sites by highly charge-complementary pockets. The structure also explains furin's preference for basic residues at P3, P5 and P6 sites. This structure will aid in the rational design of antiviral and antibacterial drugs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fully automated system for screening protein crystals for X-ray diffraction analysis has been designed and is being installed on the beamline BW6 at DORIS in Hamburg, Germany. The system includes robotic mounting of flash-frozen crystals from a storage dewar, centering and alignment of the sample both by optical and X-ray (scattering and fluorescence) techniques, assessment of the diffraction quality of the sample, and SAD/MAD or non-conventional diffraction data acquisition with high-throughput data rates. The system covers all experimental steps required for protein x-ray structure analysis and provides a powerful means for structural genomics projects.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triple-helical collagen IV protomers associate through their N- and C-termini forming a three-dimensional network, which provides basement membranes with an anchoring scaffold and mechanical strength. The noncollagenous (NC1) domain of the C-terminal junction between two adjacent collagen IV protomers from human placenta was crystallized and its 1.9-A structure was solved by multiple anomalous diffraction (MAD) phasing. This hexameric NC1 particle is composed of two trimeric caps, which interact through a large planar interface. Each cap is formed by two alpha 1 fragments and one alpha 2 fragment with a similar previously uncharacterized fold, segmentally arranged around an axial tunnel. Each monomer chain folds into two structurally very similar subdomains, which each contain a finger-like hairpin loop that inserts into a six-stranded beta-sheet of the neighboring subdomain of the same or the adjacent chain. Thus each trimer forms a quite regular, but nonclassical, sixfold propeller. The trimer-trimer interaction is further stabilized by a previously uncharacterized type of covalent cross-link between the side chains of a Met and a Lys residue of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains from opposite trimers, explaining previous findings of nonreducible cross-links in NC1. This structure provides insights into NC1-related diseases such as Goodpasture and Alport syndromes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2002; 99(10):6607-12. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Threonine synthase catalyzes the final step of threonine biosynthesis, the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent conversion of O-phosphohomoserine into threonine and inorganic phosphate. Threonine is an essential nutrient for mammals, and its biosynthetic machinery is restricted to bacteria, plants, and fungi; therefore, threonine synthase represents an interesting pharmaceutical target. The crystal structure of threonine synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been solved at 2.7 A resolution using multiwavelength anomalous diffraction. The structure reveals a monomer as active unit, which is subdivided into three distinct domains: a small N-terminal domain, a PLP-binding domain that covalently anchors the cofactor and a so-called large domain, which contains the main of the protein body. All three domains show the typical open alpha/beta architecture. The cofactor is bound at the interface of all three domains, buried deeply within a wide canyon that penetrates the whole molecule. Based on structural alignments with related enzymes, an enzyme-substrate complex was modeled into the active site of yeast threonine synthase, which revealed essentials for substrate binding and catalysis. Furthermore, the comparison with related enzymes of the beta-family of PLP-dependent enzymes indicated structural determinants of the oligomeric state and thus rationalized for the first time how a PLP enzyme acts in monomeric form.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2002; 277(14):12396-405. · 4.65 Impact Factor