Vishwanath Ramachandran

Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States

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Publications (8)63.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Leukocytes rolling on selectins extrude thin membrane tethers that might stabilize rolling velocities despite marked alterations in wall shear stress. To test this hypothesis, we used differential interference contrast videomicroscopy to visualize formation and breakage of membrane tethers as neutrophils rolled on P-selectin under flow. Neutrophils rapidly increased tether number as wall shear stress rose and decreased tether number as wall shear stress declined. Membrane tethers invariably accompanied slower, more uniform rolling steps that translated into lower mean rolling velocities and variances in velocity. Unexpectedly, neutrophils, but not fixed cells or microspheres bearing selectin ligands, rolled progressively more slowly and uniformly over time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that neutrophils developed larger, more complex tether structures as they rolled for longer periods. These data provide evidence that neutrophils stabilize selectin-mediated rolling by rapidly adjusting tether number in response to changes in wall shear stress. Gradual remodeling of tether architecture may further reduce rolling velocities, facilitating integrin-dependent deceleration and arrest on inflamed vascular surfaces.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2004; 101(37):13519-24. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: P-selectin binds to the N-terminal region of human P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). For optimal binding, this region requires sulfation on 3 tyrosines and specific core-2 O-glycosylation on a threonine. P-selectin is also thought to bind to the N terminus of murine PSGL-1, although it has a very different amino acid sequence than human PSGL-1. Murine PSGL-1 has potential sites for sulfation at Tyr13 and Tyr15 and for O-glycosylation at Thr14 and Thr17. We expressed murine PSGL-1 or constructs with substitutions of these residues in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells that coexpressed the glycosyltransferases required for binding to P-selectin. The cells were assayed for binding to fluid-phase P-selectin and for tethering and rolling on P-selectin under flow. In both assays, substitution of Tyr13 or Thr17 markedly diminished, but did not eliminate, binding to P-selectin. In contrast, substitution of Tyr15 or Thr14 did not affect binding. Substitution of all 4 residues eliminated binding. Treatment of cells with chlorate, an inhibitor of sulfation, markedly reduced binding of wild-type PSGL-1 to P-selectin but did not further decrease binding of PSGL-1 with substitutions of both tyrosines. These data suggest that sulfation of Tyr13 and O-glycosylation of Thr17 are necessary for murine PSGL-1 to bind optimally to P-selectin. Because it uses only one tyrosine, murine PSGL-1 may rely more on other peptide components and O-glycosylation to bind to P-selectin than does human PSGL-1.
    Blood 02/2003; 101(2):552-9. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Murine leukocytes are thought to express alpha2-3-sialylated and alpha1-3-fucosylated selectin ligands such as sialyl Lewis x (sLe(x)), although monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to sLe(x) or Le(x) reportedly do not bind to murine leukocytes. We observed that P- and E-selectin bound to pronase-sensitive ligands on murine monocytic WEHI-3 cells and murine neutrophils, indicating that the ligands for both selectins are glycoproteins. CSLEX-1, HECA-452, and other widely used mAbs to sLe(x) and Le(x) did not bind to WEHI-3 cells and bound at very low levels to murine neutrophils. Only the anti-sLe(x) mAbs 2H5 and KM93, which also recognize nonfucosylated glycans, bound to WEHI-3 cells. 2H5 and KM93 bound to pronase-resistant structures, indicating that the mAbs did not identify selectin ligands. Treatment of WEHI-3 cells with glycosidases or chlorate demonstrated that sialic acid modifications, alpha1-3-galactosylation, or sulfation did not mask epitopes for mAbs to sLe(x) or Le(x). Compared to human promyelocytic HL-60 cells, WEHI-3 cells and murine neutrophils expressed low alpha1-3-fucosyltransferase activities. Consistent with very low endogenous fucosylation, forced fucosylation of intact WEHI-3 cells or murine neutrophils by exogenous alpha1-3-fucosyltransferase FTVI and GDP-fucose created many new epitopes for anti-sLe(x) mAbs such as HECA-452 and CSLEX-1. Nevertheless, forced fucosylation of intact cells did not significantly augment their ability to bind to fluid-phase P- or E-selectin or to roll on immobilized P- or E-selectin under flow. These data suggest that murine myeloid leukocytes fucosylate only a few specific glycans, which interact preferentially with P- and E-selectin.
    Blood 01/2003; 100(13):4485-94. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed rolling of neutrophils or transfected CHO cells expressing PSGL-1 on immobilized P-selectin in a flow chamber. After tethering, cells initially rolled rapidly and unstably but then progressively rolled more slowly and more regularly. Small, uniform rolling steps occurred in cells that developed multiple long adhesive tethers, as visualized by both scanning electron microscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy. Deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of PSGL-1 impaired cytoskeletal interactions and rolling stability but did not prevent extrusions of membrane tethers.
    01/2002; 1.
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    ABSTRACT: Selectins mediate rolling of leukocytes by rapid formation and dissociation of selectin-ligand bonds, which are assumed to require high mechanical strength to prevent premature dissociation by the forces applied in shear flow. This assumption is based largely on the observation that increasing wall shear stress increases only modestly the dissociation of transient leukocyte tethers on very low selectin densities. P-selectin binds to the N-terminal region of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a mucin on leukocytes. Both PSGL-1 and P-selectin are extended homodimers. We perfused transfected cells expressing wild-type dimeric PSGL-1 or a chimeric monomeric form of PSGL-1 on immobilized dimeric or monomeric forms of P-selectin. Cells expressing dimeric or monomeric PSGL-1 tethered to P-selectin at equivalent rates. However, cells expressing dimeric PSGL-1 established more stable rolling adhesions, which were more shear resistant and exhibited less fluctuation in rolling velocities. On low densities of dimeric P-selectin, increasing wall shear stress more rapidly increased transient tether dissociation of cells expressing monomeric PSGL-1 than dimeric PSGL-1. Tether dissociation on low densities of monomeric P-selectin was even more shear sensitive. We conclude that dimerization of both PSGL-1 and P-selectin stabilizes tethering and rolling, probably by increasing rebinding within a bond cluster. Because transient tethers may have more than one bond, the mechanical strength of selectin-ligand bonds is likely to be lower than initially estimated. Tether strength may rely more on bond clusters to distribute applied force.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2001; 98(18):10166-71. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selectins are adhesion molecules that initiate tethering and rolling of leukocytes on the vessel wall. Rolling requires rapid formation and breakage of selectin-ligand bonds that must have mechanical strength to resist premature dissociation by the forces applied in shear flow. P- and L-selectin bind to the N-terminal region of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a mucin on leukocytes. To define determinants on PSGL-1 that contribute to the kinetic and mechanical properties of bonds with selectins, we compared rolling of transfected preB cells expressing P- or L-selectin on transfected cell monolayers expressing wild-type PSGL-1 or PSGL-1 constructs with substitutions in targeted N-terminal residues. Rolling through P- or L-selectin required a Thr or Ser at a specific position on PSGL-1, the attachment site for an essential O-glycan, but required only one of three nearby Tyr residues, which are sites for Tyr-SO(3) formation. The adhesive strengths and numbers of cells rolling through P- or L-selectin were similar on wild-type PSGL-1 and on each of the three PSGL-1 constructs containing only a single Tyr. However, the cells rolled more irregularly on the single-Tyr forms of PSGL-1. Analysis of the lifetimes of transient tethers on limiting densities of PSGL-1 revealed that L-selectin dissociated faster from single-Tyr than wild-type PSGL-1 at all shears examined. In sharp contrast, P-selectin dissociated faster from single-Tyr than wild-type PSGL-1 at higher shear but not at lower shear. Thus, tyrosine replacements in PSGL-1 affect distinct kinetic and mechanical properties of bonds with P- and L-selectin.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/1999; 96(24):13771-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selectins are adhesion molecules that initiate tethering and rolling of leukocytes on the vessel wall. Rolling requires rapid formation and breakage of selectin–ligand bonds that must have mechanical strength to resist premature dissociation by the forces applied in shear flow. P- and L-selectin bind to the N-terminal region of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a mucin on leukocytes. To define determinants on PSGL-1 that contribute to the kinetic and mechanical properties of bonds with selectins, we compared rolling of transfected preB cells expressing P- or L-selectin on transfected cell monolayers expressing wild-type PSGL-1 or PSGL-1 constructs with substitutions in targeted N-terminal residues. Rolling through P- or L-selectin required a Thr or Ser at a specific position on PSGL-1, the attachment site for an essential O-glycan, but required only one of three nearby Tyr residues, which are sites for Tyr-SO3 formation. The adhesive strengths and numbers of cells rolling through P- or L-selectin were similar on wild-type PSGL-1 and on each of the three PSGL-1 constructs containing only a single Tyr. However, the cells rolled more irregularly on the single-Tyr forms of PSGL-1. Analysis of the lifetimes of transient tethers on limiting densities of PSGL-1 revealed that L-selectin dissociated faster from single-Tyr than wild-type PSGL-1 at all shears examined. In sharp contrast, P-selectin dissociated faster from single-Tyr than wild-type PSGL-1 at higher shear but not at lower shear. Thus, tyrosine replacements in PSGL-1 affect distinct kinetic and mechanical properties of bonds with P- and L-selectin.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1999; 96(24):13771-13776. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The major high affinity ligand for P-selectin on human leukocytes is P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). To bind P-selectin, PSGL-1 must be modified with tyrosine sulfate and sialylated, fucosylated, core-2 O-glycan(s). The required sites for these modifications on full-length PSGL-1 have not been defined. The N-terminal region of mature PSGL-1, which begins at residue 42, includes tyrosines at residues 46, 48, and 51, plus potential sites for Thr-linked O-glycans at residues 44 and 57. We expressed full-length PSGL-1 constructs with substitutions of these residues in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. The cells were co-transfected with cDNAs for the glycosyltransferases required to construct sialylated and fucosylated, core-2 O-glycans on PSGL-1. The transfected cells were assayed for their abilities to bind fluid-phase P-selectin and to support rolling adhesion of pre-B cells expressing P-selectin under hydrodynamic flow. In both assays, substitution of Thr-57 with alanine eliminated binding of PSGL-1 to P-selectin without affecting sulfation of PSGL-1, whereas substitution with serine, to which an O-glycan might also be attached, did not affect binding. Binding was not altered by substituting alanines for the two amino acids on either side of Thr-57, or by substituting alanine for Thr-44. Substitution of all three tyrosines with phenylalanines markedly reduced sulfation and prevented binding to P-selectin. However, all constructs in which one or two tyrosines were replaced with phenylalanines bound P-selectin. These results suggest that full-length PSGL-1 requires an O-glycan attached to Thr-57 plus sulfation of any one of its three clustered tyrosines to bind P-selectin.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1998; 273(12):7078-87. · 4.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

398 Citations
63.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2004
    • Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation
      Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States
  • 1998–2004
    • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Oklahoma City, OK, United States
  • 1999
    • Warren Hospital
      Phillipsburg, New Jersey, United States