[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated gene expression in the peripheral blood of Mayak workers in relationship to occupational chronic exposure to identify permanent post-exposure signatures. The Mayak workers had experienced either a combined exposure to incorporated (239)Pu and external gamma rays (n = 82) or exposure to external gamma rays (n = 18). Fifty unexposed individuals served as controls. Peripheral blood was collected and then the RNA was isolated, converting it into cDNA and stored at -20°C. In a previous study at stage I, we screened the mRNA and microRNA transcriptome using 40 of the 150 samples and identified 95 mRNAs and 45 microRNAs. In stage II of this study, we now validated our 140 candidate genes using the qRT-PCR technique for the remaining 92 blood samples (18 samples were lost due to methodological reasons). We analyzed associations of normalized gene expression values in linear models separately for both exposure types (continuous and categorical scales) and adjusted for exposure age as well as stratified by gender. After further adjustment for confounders such as chronic non-cancer diseases or age at biosampling, mostly binary (on/off) dose-to-gene relationships were found for 15 mRNAs and 15 microRNAs, of which 8 mRNAs and 6 microRNAs remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Almost all of them were associated with plutonium incorporation and gender. Our study provides mRNA and microRNA gene expression changes dependent on the exposure type and gender, which occur and seem to persist after chronic radiation exposures supporting the concept of permanent post-exposure signatures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to assess effects of chronic occupational exposure on immune status in Mayak workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). The study cohort consists of 77 workers occupationally exposed to external gamma-rays at total dose from 0.5 to 3.0 Gy (14 individuals) and workers with combined exposure (external gamma-rays at total dose range 0.7-5.1 Gy and internal alpha-radiation from incorporated plutonium with a body burden of 0.3-16.4 kBq). The control group consists of 43 age- and sex-matched individuals who never were exposed to IR, never involved in any cleanup operations following radiation accidents and never resided at contaminated areas. Enzyme-linked immunoassay and flow cytometry were used to determine the relative concentration of lymphocytes and proteins. The concentrations of T-lymphocytes, interleukin-8 and immunoglobulins G were decreased in external gamma-exposed workers relative to control. Relative concentrations of NKT-lymphocytes, concentrations of transforming growth factor-β, interferon gamma, immunoglobulins A, immunoglobulins M and matrix proteinase-9 were higher in this group as compared with control. Relative concentrations of T-lymphocytes and concentration of interleukin-8 were decreased, while both the relative and absolute concentration of natural killers, concentration of immunoglobulins A and M and matrix proteinase-9 were increased in workers with combined exposure as compared to control. An inverse linear relation was revealed between absolute concentration of T-lymphocytes, relative and absolute concentration of T-helpers cells, concentration of interferon gamma and total absorbed dose from external gamma-rays in exposed workers. For workers with incorporated plutonium, there was an inverse linear relation of absolute concentration of T-helpers as well as direct linear relation of relative concentration of NKT-lymphocytes to total absorbed red bone marrow dose from internal alpha-radiation. In all, chronic occupational IR exposure of workers induced a depletion of immune cells in peripheral blood of the individuals involved.
Radiation and environmental biophysics. 07/2014; 53(4):659-670.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to non-invasively assess early, irradiation-induced normal tissue alterations via metabolic imaging with 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18) F]fluorothymidine ([(18) F]FLT).
Molecular imaging and biology: MIB: the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging 06/2014; · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) inhibitor STI571 (Glivec(R)) has been shown to effectively inhibit colorectal cancer cell migration and invasion. The c-Abl substrate abelson interactor 1 (Abi1) is a key regulator of actin reorganization and upregulated in colorectal carcinoma. The specific role of Abi1 in relation to extracellular matrix degradation and effects of targeting Abi1 phosphorylation have not yet been examined. Here, we investigated the role of Abi1 in relation to invasive properties in colorectal cancer.Methods and results: In 56 primary human colorectal carcinoma samples, we found overexpression of Abi1 in 39% at the invasive edge of the tumour, associated with an infiltrative phenotype and high-grade tumour cell budding (p = 0.001). To explore the role of Abi1 in vitro, we employed the Abi1 expressing and KRAS-mutated CHD1 model and performed matrix degradation assays that showed Abi1 localization at specific sites of matrix degradation. Moreover, quantification of matrix dissolution demonstrated suppression after RNAi knockdown of Abi1 by 95% (p = 0.001). Importantly, treatment with STI571 did abolish Abi1 Y435-phosphorylation, suppressed the matrix dissolution, decreased fibronectin attachment, and suppressed cell invasion through reconstituted extracellular matrix.
Molecular Cancer 06/2014; 13(1):145. · 5.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors evaluated gene expression in the peripheral blood in relation to occupational exposure in Mayak workers to find out about the existence of a permanent post exposure signature. Workers were exposed to combined incorporated Pu and external gamma rays (n = 82) or to external gamma rays only (n = 18), and 50 unexposed individuals served as controls. Peripheral blood was taken from workers older than 70 y. RNA was isolated, converted into cDNA, and stored at -20°C. A two-stage study design was performed focusing on examinations on the transcriptional (mRNA) and post-transcriptional level (microRNA). In the first stage, 40 samples were identified for screening purposes and selection of candidate genes. For examinations on the transcriptional level, whole genome microarrays and qRT-PCR were employed on the post-transcriptional level (667 microRNAs). Candidate genes were assessed by (1) introducing a twofold difference in gene expression over the reference group and (2) showing a significant p-value using the Kruskal-Wallis test. From 42,545 transcripts of the whole genome microarray, 376 candidate genes (80 up-regulated and 296 down-regulated relative to the reference group) were selected. Expression of almost all of these genes (70-98%) appeared significantly associated with internal Pu and to a lesser extent were associated with external gamma-ray exposure (2-30%). Associations in the same direction were found for 45 microRNAs. Although both exposures led to modulations of different gene sets in different directions, the authors could detect no differences in gene set enrichment analysis.
Health physics 06/2014; 106(6):664-76. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The release of radioactive material due to accidents or terroristic actions can result in radioactive contamination of the environment and may lead to intake and incorporation of radionuclides with the consequence of prolonged radiation exposure. In this case, a decision about countermeasures must be carried out as soon as possible to reduce the resulting radiation dose. In order to be prepared for such a scenario, an Assessment and Documentation System has been developed to support the rapid assessment of internal exposures and to assist in decision making. Radionuclide distributions, excretion rates, and resulting exposures have been calculated on the basis of a reference scenario. The documentation of the results in the form of tables and graphs allows the easy and quick interpretation of measurements in terms of exposure and intake. The system in its present status gives information about possibilities of countermeasures; it is the intention of the next steps of development to give advice on the basis of estimated avertable doses.
Health physics 06/2014; 106(6):660-3. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosome aberration (translocation) yield was investigated by mFISH in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Mayak Production Association (PA) workers with prolonged occupational exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). A dose threshold for cytogenetic indication of a prolonged occupational radiation exposure was estimated for Mayak PA workers using functions of dose distributions. Two limits were estimated for the indication of IR exposure to workers with a prolonged external gamma-ray exposure: These are a background translocation yield of N 0 = 0.812 ± 0.149% and a dose threshold of indication D 0 estimated to be approximately 1 Gy.
Health physics 06/2014; 106(6):677-81. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast the needs for biodosimetry for initial triage for military forces and civilian populations when there are radiation exposures that involve potentially a large number of persons. Several differences in the likely scenarios for exposure of military forces include a greater likelihood of having higher rates of significant exposures, inhomogeneous exposures, significant doses from neutrons, and combined injury. Measurements will be able to begin sooner than for exposures in civilian settings because medical facilities usually are an integral part of the way military forces are deployed. It also will be very feasible to have personnel that will be trained and equipped specifically for rapid deployment to assess dose. As a consequence, the most appropriate biodosimetry techniques will include features that are not present or are less important for civilian settings; i.e., the need for changes that become measureable very soon after the radiation is received, the ability to complete measurements in very close proximity to the subjects (so samples do not need to be transported out and results returned), increased capability of resolving homogeneity of the exposure, ability to be carried out in an injured person, capability of determining whether neutrons have made a significant contribution to dose, and the ability to rely on more sophisticated equipment and trained personnel to carry out the measurements at the point of care.Health Phys. 106(6):000-000; 2014.
Health physics 06/2014; 106(6):755-63. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The minipig is emerging as a potential alternative non-rodent animal model. Several biological markers (e.g., blood counts, laboratory parameters, and clinical signs) have been proposed for rapid triage of radiation victims. Here, the authors focus on the significance of bio-indicators for prediction of survivors after irradiation and compare it with human data; the relationship between these biomarkers and radiation dose is not part of this study. Male Göttingen minipigs (age 4-5 mo, weight 9-10 kg) were irradiated (or sham-irradiated) bilaterally with gamma-photons (Co, 0.5-0.6 Gy min) in the dose range of 1.6-12 Gy. Peripheral blood cell counts, laboratory parameters, and clinical symptoms were collected up to 10 d after irradiation and analyzed using logistic regression analysis and calculating ROC curves. In moribund pigs, parameters such as decreased lymphocyte/granulocyte counts, increased C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase values, as well as increased citrulline values and body temperature, significantly (p < 0.002 up to p < 0.0001) discriminated non-survivors from survivors with high precision (ROC > 0.8). However, most predictive within the first 3 d after exposure was a combination of decreased lymphocyte counts and increased body temperature observed as early as 3 h after radiation exposure (ROC: 0.93-0.96, p < 0.0001). Sham-irradiated animals (corresponding to "worried wells") could be easily discriminated from dying pigs, thus pointing to the diagnostic significance of this analysis. These data corroborate with earlier findings performed on human radiation victims suffering from severe hematological syndrome and provide further evidence for the suitability of the minipig model as a potential alternative non-rodent animal model.
Health physics 06/2014; 106(6):727-33. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous radiation syndrome is the delayed consequence of localized skin exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. Adipocyte derived stem cells injection may improve tissue regeneration through secreted factors. Thus mesenchymal stem cells secretome optimization, using transient transfection, may represent a new strategy to treat this syndrome. Sonic hedgehog, a secreted protein involved in cell proliferation and angiogenesis, has been chosen as a first candidate. Here preliminary results are reported of the therapeutic potential of transient gene therapy to cure cutaneous radiation syndrome in a minipig model. Adipocyte derived stem cells were transiently transfected by electroporation with a plasmid coding for Sonic Hedgehog. Göttingen minipigs were locally irradiated using a Co gamma source at the dose of 50 Gy and received Phosphate Buffer Salin (controls: n = 8), stem cells (50 × 10 each time, n = 5) or transfected stem cells (25±7 × 10 each time, n = 1). All controls exhibited a homogeneous clinical evolution of cutaneous radiation syndrome with final necrosis (day 91). In stem cell injected minipigs, an ultimate wound healing was observed in four out of five grafted animals (day 130 ± 28, complete in two of them) (historical results). The Sonic hedgehog animal, albeit injected with a lower number of transfected stem cells, presented a very similar evolution of skin healing without necrosis or uncontrolble pain. Globally this preliminary report suggests that local injection of Sonic Hedgehog transfected adipocyte derived stem cells may improve wound healing. Thus work is ongoing to evaluate this therapeutic strategy on a larger number of animals.
Health physics 06/2014; 106(6):713-9. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:We aimed to better discriminate (occult) metastasised from non-metastasised seminoma based on transcriptional changes of small RNAs in the primary tumour.Methods:Total RNAs including small RNAs were isolated from five testicular tumours of each, lymphogenic, occult and non-metastasised patients. Next-generation sequencing (SOLID, Life Technologies) was used to examine transcriptional changes. Small RNAs showing ⩾50 reads and a significant ⩾2-fold difference using non-metastasised tumours as the reference group were examined in univariate logistic regression analysis and combinations of two small RNAs were further examined using support vector machines.Results:On average, 1.3 × 10(7), 1.4 × 10(7) and 1.7 × 10(7) small RNA reads were detectable in non-metastasised, occult and lymphogenic metastasised seminoma, respectively, of which 30-32% remained after trimming. Between 59 and 68% represented annotated reads and between 8.6 and 11% were annotated small RNA tags. Of them, 137 small RNAs showed>50 reads and a two-fold difference to the reference. In univariate analysis, 32-38 small RNAs significantly discriminated lymphogenic/occult from non-metastasised seminoma, and among these different comparisons, it were the same small RNAs in 51-88%. Many combinations of two of these small RNAs allowed a complete discrimination of metastasised from non-metastasised seminoma irrespective of the metastasis subtype.Conclusions:Metastasised and non-metastasised seminoma can be completely discriminated with a combination of two small RNAs.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 1 May 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.134 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the biological differences between seminomas with occult and clinically apparent metastases at the time of diagnosis of the primary tumor to gain insight into the biology of these tumors and facilitate the identification of novel predictors of seminoma metastasis.
Total RNA including small RNAs was isolated from testicular tumors of patients with pure seminoma presenting with lymphogenic metastasis (n = 5, clinical stage IIb/c) and occult metastasis (n = 5, clinical stage I). The regulation of biological processes was examined (1) throughout the mRNA transcriptome (whole genome microarrays, 8×60 K Array, Agilent with 4 samples/group) and (2) the miRNA transcriptome employing small RNA next generation sequencing (SOLID, Life Technologies with 5 samples/group). Protein coding genes (mRNAs) and small RNAs showing a significant (≥2-fold) difference between the groups were identified. Finally (3), we examined 95 candidate miRNAs in 36 apparent metastasized and another 5 occult metastasized seminoma using logistic regression analysis.
Among 19,596 genes, on average 12,894 mRNAs appeared expressed (65.8%, SD+/-2.4; range, 62.0-69.3%) and 16.99×106/13.94×106 small RNA reads were identified for apparent/occult metastasized seminoma. These reads on average convert into 9,901/9,675 small RNAs including 422/404 mature microRNAs. None of these mRNAs/small RNAs met our selection criteria for candidate genes. From 95 candidate miRNAs 44 appeared expressed, with 3 of them showing weak but significant (p = 0.05) differences among both groups.
Occult and apparent metastasized seminomas are biologically almost indistinguishable and probably represent no separate tumor entities. These findings may simplify future research on seminoma metastasis.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e95009. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to better discriminate metastasized (lymphogen/occult/both combined) from non-metastasized seminoma based on post-transcriptional changes examined in the peripheral blood.
Total RNAs including small RNAs were isolated from the peripheral blood of patients suffering from metastasized testicular tumours (lymphogen, n = 5, clinical stage IIb/c; occult, n = 5, clinical stage I) and non-metastasized patients (n = 5, clinical stage I). Small RNA next generation sequencing (SOLID, Life Technologies) was employed to examine post-transcriptional changes. We searched for small RNAs showing at least 50 reads and a significant > 2-fold difference using peripheral blood small RNAs of non-metastasized tumours as the reference group. Candidate small RNAs were examined in univariate logistic regression analysis and combinations of two small RNAs were further examined using support vector machines.
On average 1.3x107, 1.2x107 and 1.2x107 small RNA reads were detectable in non-metastasized, lymphogen and occult metastasized seminoma, respectively of which 73-76% remained after trimming. From these between 80-82% represented annotated reads and 7.2-7.8% (1.6-1.7x104) were annotated small RNA tags. Of them 137 small RNAs showed > 50 reads and a > two-fold difference to the reference. In univariate analysis we detected 33-35 different small RNAs which significantly discriminated lymphogen/occult/combined metastasized from non-metastasized seminoma and among these different comparisons it were the same small RNAs in 44-79%. Many combinations of two of these small RNAs completely discriminated metastasized from non-metastasized seminoma irrespective of the metastasis subtype.
Metastasized (either lymphogen or occult) seminoma can be completely discriminated from non-metastasized seminoma with a combination of two small RNAs measured in the peripheral blood.
Molecular Cancer 03/2014; 13(1):47. · 5.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR) induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI) with 49 Gy (±6%) Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available early after IR exposure.
PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e87458. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A key difficulty in developing countermeasures against radiation-induced health impairments is the clear lack of controlled clinical studies, due to the relatively low number of radiation victims worldwide. Instead, established and accepted animal models, as well as the recommendations of national and international expert panels and committees, are the main sources of information. Therefore, the development of countermeasures requires comparison of data from many sources and accumulation of information consistent with the U. S. Food and Drug Administration's "Animal Rule." A new approach is the comparative analysis of human data from the SEARCH (System for Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories) database and data from nonhuman primate (NHP) animal model studies. The SEARCH database contains 824 clinical cases from 81 radiation accidents in 19 countries. This exceptional collection of clinical data from accidentally radiation-exposed persons is analyzed regarding clinical signs and symptoms of radiation-induced health impairments. To analyze the time course of radiation syndromes, clinical parameters common to the SEARCH and NHP databases have to be assigned into comparable categories of clinical severity for each species. The goal is to establish a method for comparison of human and NHP data, validate the NHP data as a surrogate for human efficacy/clinical studies, and open a way for the extraction of diagnostic and treatment methods for humans after radiation exposure according to relevant regulations.
Health physics 01/2014; 106(1):129-34. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were shown to inhibit radiation-induced tissue damage through FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling; however, this signaling was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumors. In contrast, FGF12 cannot activate any FGFRs. Instead, FGF12 can be internalized readily into cells using 2 cell-penetrating peptide domains (CPP-M, CPP-C). Therefore, this study focused on clarifying the role of FGF12 internalization in protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury.
Each FGF or peptide was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 hours before or after total body irradiation with γ rays at 9 to 12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum.
Administration of FGF12 after radiation exposure was as effective as pretreatment in significantly promoting intestinal regeneration, proliferation of crypt cells, and epithelial differentiation. Two domains, comprising amino acid residues 80 to 109 and 140 to 169 of FGF12B, were identified as being responsible for the radioprotective activity, so that deletion of both domains from FGF12B resulted in a reduction in activity. Interestingly, these regions included the CPP-M and CPP-C domains, respectively; however, CPP-C by itself did not show an antiapoptotic effect. In addition, FGF1, prototypic FGF, possesses a domain corresponding to CPP-M, whereas it lacks CPP-C, so the fusion of FGF1 with CPP-C (FGF1/CPP-C) enhanced cellular internalization and increased radioprotective activity. However, FGF1/CPP-C reduced in vitro mitogenic activity through FGFRs compared with FGF1, implying that FGFR signaling might not be essential for promoting the radioprotective effect of FGF1/CPP-C. In addition, internalized FGF12 suppressed the activation of p38α after irradiation, resulting in reduced radiation-induced apoptosis.
These findings indicate that FGF12 can protect the intestine against radiation-induced injury through its internalization, independently of FGFRs, suggesting that cellular uptake of FGF12 is an alternative signaling pathway useful for cancer radiation therapy.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 12/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cutaneous radiation syndrome includes all deterministic effects on the skin and visible parts of the mucosa from ionizing radiation. The Intensity and duration of radiation-induced skin symptoms depend on the kind and quality of ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was the investigation of the importance of the time of the development of radiation induced-skin effects on the prognosis of radiation accident victims. Clinical data about radiation accident victims from the database SEARCH were used. 211 cases with good documentation regarding radiation-induced skin effects were selected. From these 211 patients, 166 survived the acute phase of the acute radiation syndrome, while 45 died during the acute phase. Among those patients who did not survive the acute phase, 82.2 % showed their first documented radiation-induced skin symptoms during the first 3 days after radiation exposure. Of those patients whose first documented radiation-induced skin symptoms appeared on or after day four, 94.2 % survived the acute phase. The time to the occurrence of the first radiation-induced skin effects is diagnostically significant. The skin plays an important role in the clinical course of radiation syndromes and in the development of radiation-induced multi-organ failure. In a retrospective data analysis like this, the quality of data might be a limitation.
Der Hautarzt 12/2013; 64(12):904-909. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the significance of 90 biomarkers for predicting metastatic status in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT). By predicting metastatic status, it may be possible to eliminate unnecessary therapeutic or diagnostic efforts.
We investigated 552 males who were diagnosed with non-metastatic (n = 273) and metastatic (n = 279) NSGCT between 2000 and 2011. The sample included cancers of different histologies: embryonal cell carcinoma (n = 131), teratoma (n = 55), and mixed histology (n = 366). We collected and analyzed more than 90 parameters via logistic regression: demographic characteristics, medical history, histopathological parameters, and levels of tumor markers and hormones.
Testis histology (p = 0.004), clinical symptoms (p = 0.0005), tumor length (p = 0.005), infiltration of the rete testis (p = 0.008), invasion of lymphatic (pL1) and blood vessels (pV1) (p < 0.0001), and levels of enzymes such as LDH, βHCG, AFP, and FSH (p values as small as <0.0001) were associated with metastatic status. With one model, we identified 14 out of 76 (18.4 %) metastatic NSGCT cases with 93-100 % certainty (positive predictive value) at 99 % specificity by the peripheral blood levels of LDH (day of operation) in combination with FSH measurements (1 day after operation). A second model included pV, tumor length, and FSH (1 day after operation). It identified 25 out of 90 (27.8 %) non-metastatic NSGCT with approximately 90 % certainty (negative predictive value) at 94-98 % sensitivity.
No single parameter was able to discriminate metastatic from non-metastatic NSGCT, but combinations of parameters in two predictive models accurately identified the metastatic status in 23 % of the cases in our sample.
World Journal of Urology 10/2013; · 3.42 Impact Factor