[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic modification of the genome which is involved in embryonic development, transcription, chromatin structure, X chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting and chromosome stability. Consistent with these important roles, DNA methylation has been demonstrated to be required for vertebrate early embryogenesis and essential for regulating temporal and spatial expression of genes controlling cell fate and differentiation. Further studies have shown that abnormal DNA methylation is associated with human diseases including the embryonic development diseases. We attempt to study the DNA methylation status of CpG islands in fetus related to fetus growth and development.
GeneChip(R) Human Tiling 2.0R Array set is used for analysis of methylated DNA in a whole-genome wide in 8 pairs amniotic fluid and maternal blood DNA samples.
We found 1 fetus hypermethylation DNA markers and 4 fetus hypomethylation DNA markers though a Genome-wide analysis. These DNA markers all found to be associated with the critical genes for fetus growth and development (SH2D3C gene, EML3 gene, TRIM71 gene, HOXA3 gene and HOXA5 gene).
These genes can be used as a biomarker for association studying of embryonic development, pathological pregnancy and so on. The present study has provided new and fundamental insights into the roles that DNA methylation has in embryonic development and in the pathological pregnancy.
BMC Medical Genomics 04/2014; 7(1):18. · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) have been used as complements of autosomal STR application in recent years. In this work, we present population genetic data of 12 X-STRs including DXS101, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS6789, DXS7133, DXS7423, DXS7424, DXS8378, DXS981, GATA165B12 and GATA31E08 loci in a sample of 231 unrelated healthy individuals from the Hui ethnic group in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Allelic frequencies of the 12 X-STR loci and haplotypic frequencies of the reported linkage groups (DXS7424-DXS101 and DXS10159-DXS10164-DXS10162) were investigated in the group, respectively. No STR loci showed significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums (HWE) and no linkage disequilibriums of pairwise loci were found after Bonferroni correction, respectively. A combined power of discrimination in female individuals was 0.999999999985 and that in male individuals was 0.99999967, respectively. The combined mean exclusion chance in deficiency cases, normal trios and duo cases were 0.999934, 0.995754 and 0.999796, respectively. Significant differences were observed from 0 to 8 loci, when making comparisons between the data of Hui ethnic group and previously reported data from other 16 populations. The results indicated the new panel of 12 X-STR loci might be useful for forensic science application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mongolian is the eighth largest ethnic minority on Chinese population data according to the 2010 census. In the present study, we presented the first report about the allelic frequencies and forensic statistical parameters at the 21 new short tandem repeats (STRs) and analyzed linkage disequilibrium of pairwise loci in the Mongolian ethnic minority, China. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests demonstrated no significant deviations except for the D1S1627 locus. The cumulative power of discrimination and power of exclusion of all the loci are 0.9999999999999999992576, 0.9999997528, respectively. The results of analysis of molecular variance showed that significant differences between the Mongolian and the other 8 populations were found at 1-9 STR loci. In population genetics, the results of principal component analysis, structure analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction analysis indicated shorter genetic distance between the Mongolian group and the Ningxia Han. All the results suggest that the 21 new STR loci will contribute to Chinese population genetics and forensic caseworks in the Mongolian group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We obtained the allelic frequencies and forensic efficiency data for eight mini short tandem repeat loci including Penta E, D12S391, D6S1043, D2S1338, D19S433, CSF1PO, Penta D and D19S253 loci from a sample of 128 unrelated Uyghur individuals from China. The amplification products of the eight STR loci are <240 bp in size. A total of 94 alleles were observed and the corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0039 to 0.3438 in the present study. Observed genotype distributions for each locus do not show deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. The combined power of discrimination, combined power of exclusion and combined matching probability of the eight STR loci equaled to 0.999999999963373, 0.9997770 and 3.6627 × 10(-11), respectively. Because of the small fragment length of PCR products and the high degree of polymorphisms, the eight STR loci are highly beneficial for the forensic analysis of degraded DNA samples which are commonly observed in forensic cases. The STR data of the Uyghur group were compared with the previously published population STR data of other groups from different ethnic or areas, and significant differences were observed among these groups at some loci.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated polymorphic distributions of allelic frequencies and forensic genetic parameters of 21 novel autosomal microsatellite loci from 110 unrelated healthy individuals of Chinese Yi ethnic group. Expected heterozygosity, power of discrimination, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.617 to 0.812, 0.777 to 0.936 and 0.560 to 0.790. The microsatellite loci showed high forensic efficiency. The total discrimination power and cumulate probability of exclusion were 0.99999999999999999986902 and 0.999998818, respectively. Locus-by-locus allelic frequencies were compared using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) method, and the statistically significant differences were observed between Yi group and Russian, Tujia, Kazak, Bai, Ningxia Han, Salar, Tibetan, and Uigur groups at 5, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 12, and 13 loci, respectively. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses, and principal component analysis all indicated that the Yi group showed relatively short genetic relationships with Russian, Salar, and Bai group. The experimental results showed that the 21 loci in the multiplex system provided highly polymorphic information and forensic efficiency for forensic individual identification and paternity testing, also basic population data for population genetics and anthropological research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Short tandem repeat loci have been recognized as useful tools in the routine forensic application and in recent decades, more and more new STR loci have been constantly discovered, studied and applied in forensic caseworks. In this study, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of 21 STR loci in the Kazak ethnic minority as well as the genetic relationships between the Kazak ethnic minority and other populations. Allelic frequencies of 21 STR loci were obtained from 114 unrelated healthy Kazak individuals in the Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region of China. We observed a total of 159 alleles in the group with the allelic diversity values ranging from 0.0044 to 0.5088. The highest polymorphism was found at D19S433 locus and the lowest was found at D1S1627. Statistical analysis of the generated data indicated no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums at all 21 STR loci. In order to estimate the population differentiation, allelic frequencies of all STR loci of the Kazak were compared with those of other neighboring populations using analysis of molecular variance method. Statistically significant differences were found between the studied population and other populations at 2-7 STR loci. A neighbor-joining tree was constructed based on allelic frequencies of the 21 STR loci and phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Kazak has a close genetic relationship with the Uigur ethnic group. The present results may provide useful information for forensic sciences and population genetics studies, and can also increase our understanding of the genetic background of this group. The present findings showed that all the 21 STR loci are highly genetically polymorphic in the Kazak group, which provided valuable population genetic data for the genetic information study , forensic human individual identification and paternity tests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the allelic frequency distributions and statistical forensic parameters of 21 new short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the amelogenin locus, which are not included in the combined DNA index system (CODIS), in a Russian ethnic minority group from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. A total of 114 bloodstain samples from unrelated individuals were extracted and co-amplified with four fluorescence-labeled primers in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Using capillary electrophoresis, the PCR products of the 21 STR loci were separated and genotyped. A total of 161 alleles were observed in the Russian ethnic minority group, and corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.0044 to 0.5965. The 21 non-CODIS STR loci of the Russian ethnic minority group were characterized by high genetic diversity and therefore may be useful for elucidating the population's genetic background, for individual identification, and for paternity testing in forensic practice.
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 06/2013; 14(6):533-540. · 1.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B allele was found in a healthy male Chinese Kazak individual. Sequencing-based typing (SBT) was used to identify and analyze the difference between the new allele and the closest matching HLA-B allele. HLA-B∗46 new allele has 1nt change from B∗46:01:01 at nt 853 where G->C (condon 260 GTA->CTA), resulting in a coding change: 260 Val is changed to Leu. The new HLA-B∗46:34 allele was identified, and was named officially by the World Health Organization (WHO) Nomenclature Committee in June 2012. The GenBank sequence accession number is JX035785.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate allelic frequency distribution and forensic genetic parameters of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci of the population samples from 107 Tujia individuals from Chinese Hubei Province. Twenty-one autosomal STR genetic markers (D9S1122, D6S474, D6S1017, D5S2500, D4S2408, D3S4529, D2S441, D2S1776, D22S1045, D20S482, D1S1677, D1S1627, D1GATA113, D19S433, D18S853, D17S1301, D11S4463, D12ATA63, D10S1248, D10S1435 and D14S1434) were simultaneously amplified in a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction system. 155 alleles for all the STR loci from the Tujia population were observed and the corresponding allelic frequencies ranged from 0.005 to 0.589. Expected heterozygosity, polymorphic information content, power of discrimination and power of exclusion of the 21 STR loci in the Tujia population were from 0.579 to 0.824, from 0.525 to 0.802, from 0.773 to 0.945 and from 0.257 to 0.641, respectively. Our results indicate that the autosomal STRs multiplex system provides highly informative STR data and could be useful in forensic individual identification and parentage testing in this region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Population genetic data of 21 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) were obtained in a sample of 106 unrelated healthy individuals of Bai ethnic minority born in the Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province. We observed 138 alleles with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 0.575. The genotypic frequency distributions at those STR loci were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (Bonferroni's correction was used for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests). The combined probability of exclusion, power of discrimination, probability of matching value for all 21 STR loci were 0.9999975729, 0.999999999999999999872 and 1.28×10(-19), respectively. The population data in this study showed significant differences from the previously published population data of Tibetan and Salar groups in some loci.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are expressed on natural killer cells and as such regulate their response against infection and malignancy. KIR genes are variable in gene content and type, which results in different KIR haplotypes, and can be used to discriminate individuals and populations from different regions or ethnic groups. In the present study, we represent the first report on the KIR gene frequency and content diversities of 14 KIR genes (KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1) and 2 pseudogenes (KIR3DP1 and 2DP1) in the Chinese Mongolian population. The 16 detected KIR genes were all observed. All the individuals were typed positive for the four framework genes KIR3DL3, 3DL2, 2DL4 and the pseudogene KIR3DP1, as well as for the pseudogene KIR2DP1. The observed carrier gene frequencies (OF) of the other KIR genes ranged from 16% at the KIR2DL2 locus to 93% at the KIR3DL1 locus. Over all, 48 different gene profiles were found in the study population and the most commonly observed KIR gene profile with a frequency of 14% consisted of KIR2DL4, 3DL2, 3DL3, 2DP1, 3DP1, 2DL1, 2DL3 and 3DL1 which belongs to the AA genotype. Principal component analysis (PCA) and the dendrogram illustrated the genetic distances between our study population and previously published populations from other ethnic groups or regions. The results of the present study show that the KIR gene family is highly polymorphic and can be a valuable tool for enriching the Chinese ethnical gene information resources, for anthropological studies, as well as for KIR gene related disease research.
Human immunology 07/2012; 73(10):1031-8. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors are expressed in natural killer cells and subsets of T lymphocytes. They regulate these cells upon interaction with human leukocyte antigen class I molecules and other ligands presented by target cells. KIR gene frequencies and haplotype distributions have been shown to differ significantly between populations from different geographical regions and ethnic origins, which relates to functional variations in the immune response. We have investigated KIR gene frequencies and genotype diversities of 15 KIR genes (KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, ID, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1) and two pseudogenes (KIR3DP1 and 2DP1) in 120 unrelated healthy individuals of the Uygur population living in the Xinjiang autonomous region of China. All individuals were typed positive for the four framework loci KIR3DL3, 2DL4, 3DL2 and KIR3DP1, while activating genes (KIR2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS5 and KIR3DS1) indicated some variation in this population. KIR3DS1 was found in a higher frequency in the studied population than in other groups from China. Linkage disequilibrium among KIR genes displayed a wide range. χ(2) analysis, conducted among non-ubiquitous genes, based on the KIR gene frequency data from our study population and previously published population data, revealed significant differences in the KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 3DL1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS5, and 3DS1 genes. A neighbor-joining phylogenic tree, built using the observed carrier frequencies data of 13 KIR loci (KIR2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS5, and 3DS1), showed relationships between the population studied and other previously reported populations. The present study can therefore be valuable for enriching the ethnical gene information resources of the KIR gene pool, for population origin studies and for KIR-related clinical practice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, 17 killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) genes and KIR ligands (human leukocyte antigen [HLA] -A and -B) were detected by using a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) method in 104 unrelated healthy Han individuals living in Shaanxi province, China. The observed carrier frequencies of the 12 KIR genes ranged from 0.14 to 0.96. KIR2DL4, 3DL2, 3DL3, 2DP1 and 3DP1 were found to be present in every individual. A total of 51 different KIR gene profiles were identified, in which 11 gene profiles exclusively belonged to the study population. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree between the studing population and its neighboring ethnic groups was constructed using the observed carrier frequencies of 13 KIR loci. The phylogenetic tree shows that the Shaanxi Han population, Han populations in different regions, Yi, Japanese, and Koreans were in the same cluster. KIR/HLA relationships show that KIR3DS1(-)/3DL1(+)/Bw4(+) was the most common association in the population. In conclusion, the present study findings reveal the high polymorphism of KIRs in the Shaanxi Han population, demonstrate the KIR/HLA association in the study population, and enrich the KIR and HLA gene resources. The obtained KIR data will further the understanding of genetic relationships among populations in different geographic areas, and assist in answering questions regarding KIR/HLA relationships.
Human immunology 06/2011; 72(9):733-40. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we reported the allele frequencies for new 21 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, including D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435 and D5S2500 loci. Forensic statistical parameters were estimated from a sample set of 120 unrelated healthy individuals from the Salar ethnic group in Xunhua Salar Autonomous County of Qinghai province, China. A total of 151 alleles were observed at 21 STR loci in the population, and their allele frequencies were in the range of 0.004-0.554. All STR loci showed a high degree of genetic polymorphisms, and the combined probability of exclusion, combined power of discrimination and combined probability of matching for all 21 STR loci were 0.9999993134, 0.99999999999999999991739 and 8.2607 × 10(-20), respectively. For all the 21 STR loci in the Salar ethnic group, the observed genotypic data showed no significant deviation from those expected under the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allele frequency distributions for the 21 autosomal STR loci were compared between the Salar group and its neighboring populations and significant differences were detected among these populations at D1S1677, D2S441, D3S4529, D4S2408, D6S1017, D11S4463, D12ATA63, D14S14343, D18S853, D19S433 and D22S1045 loci.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene polymorphisms in the Tibetan ethnic minority of China. To that purpose, we have studied KIR gene frequencies and genotype diversities of 16 KIR genes and three pseudogenes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5A, 2DL5B, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4*001/002, 2DS4*003-007, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1, 2DP1, 3DP1*001/002/004, and 3DP1*003) in a population sample of 102 unrelated healthy individuals of the Tibetan population living in Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Tibetans mainly live in "the roof of the world," the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China and surrounding areas stretching from central Asia in the North and West to Myanmar and mainland China in the East, and India, Nepal, and Bhutan to the south. KIR gene frequencies and statistical parameters of Tibetan ethnic minority were calculated. Fifteen KIR genes were observed in the 102 tested Tibetan individuals with different frequencies. The allelic frequencies of the 15 KIR genes ranged from 0.06 to 0.86. In addition, KIR 2DL1, 2DL4, 3DL2, and 3DL3 were found to be present in every individual. Variable gene content, together with allelic polymorphisms, can result in individualized human KIR genotypes and haplotypes, with the A haplotypes being predominantly observed. The results of tested linkage disequilibrium (LD) among KIR genes demonstrated that KIR genes present a wide range of linkage disequilibrium. Moreover, a comparison of the population data of our study with previously published population data of other ethnic groups or areas was performed. The differences of allelic frequency distribution in KIR2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 3DL1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 3DS1, and 2DP1 were statistically significant among different populations using the statistical method of the standard χ(2) test. In conclusion, the results of the present study can be valuable for enriching the Chinese ethnical gene information resources of the KIR gene pool and for anthological studies, as well as for KIR-related disease research.
Human immunology 11/2010; 71(11):1116-23. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated 21 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D6S474, D12ATA63, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1677, D11S4463, D1S1627, D3S4529, D2S441, D6S1017, D4S2408, D19S433, D17S1301, D1GATA113, D18S853, D20S482, D14S1434, D9S1122, D2S1776, D10S1435, D5S2500), which are not included in the Combined DNA Index System and Amelogenin locus in 104 randomly selected healthy autochthonous individuals from the Tibetan ethnic minority group residing in the Lhasa region, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Allelic frequencies, common forensic statistical parameters, and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population were calculated with a modified PowerState V12.xls. A total of 143 alleles were found in the Tibetan group with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 0.582. The observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, the power of discrimination, the power of exclusion, and the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.615 to 0.817, 0.559 to 0.787, 0.727 to 0.926, 0.310 to 0.632, and 0.488 to 0.760, respectively. Chi-square tests of the observed genotype frequencies and expected genotype frequencies in the samples showed no departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at all loci except for D5S2500. Our results demonstrate that these 21 STRs are highly polymorphic and suitable for anthropological research, population genetics, and forensic paternity testing and human individual identification in this region, and can enrich Chinese ethnical genetic informational resources.
Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin 11/2010; 125(4):581-5. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the diversity distributions of allelic frequencies of 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci in a sample of Chinese Hui ethnic group in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The allelic frequencies of the 15 STR loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA) were obtained from 2975 unrelated healthy Hui individuals. The STR genotyping data of all the samples were generated by DNA extraction, multiple amplification, GeneScan and genotype analysis. The genetic distances among different populations were calculated by using Nei's method and a phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the allelic frequencies of the same 15 STR loci using the neighbor-joining method. A total of 185 alleles were observed in the Hui population, with the corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0002 to 0.5322. Chi-Square tests showed that all STR loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The forensic statistical parameters of all the loci showed high values. The population data in this study were compared with the previously published population data from other ethnics or areas. The Hui population showed significant differences from the Minnan Han, Uigur, Ewenki, Yi, Tibetan, Maonan and Malay ethnic minority groups in some loci, and from the South Morocco population and the Moroccan population in all the loci. Our results are valuable for human individual identification and paternity testing in the Chinese Hui population and are expected to enrich the genetic information resources of Chinese populations.