Camilla H Sandholt

University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark

Are you Camilla H Sandholt?

Claim your profile

Publications (28)261.53 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesis Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but the nature of this association remains elusive. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an elevated fasting serum ferritin level is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes due to its association with impaired beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity. Methods We investigated 6,392 individuals from the Danish general population. Surrogate measures of beta cell function and insulin sensitivity were calculated for approximately 6,100 individuals based on OGTT examinations. Results The ORs for type 2 diabetes were 4.2 (95% CI 2.4, 7.2) for the highest vs the lowest quintile of serum ferritin, and 17 (95% CI 8.9, 33) for serum ferritin levels ≥97.5th percentile vs p p = 0.02 and p p p Conclusions/interpretation Elevated fasting serum ferritin levels are associated with surrogate measures of both impaired beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity. Menopause seems to modify the association with insulin sensitivity.
    Diabetologia 12/2014; · 6.49 Impact Factor
  • Niels Grarup, Camilla H Sandholt, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the past 7 years, genome-wide association studies have shed light on the contribution of common genomic variants to the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes, obesity and related intermediate phenotypes. The discoveries have firmly established more than 175 genomic loci associated with these phenotypes. Despite the tight correlation between type 2 diabetes and obesity, these conditions do not appear to share a common genetic background, since they have few genetic risk loci in common. The recent genetic discoveries do however highlight specific details of the interplay between the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity. The focus is currently shifting towards investigations of data from targeted array-based genotyping and exome and genome sequencing to study the individual and combined effect of low-frequency and rare variants in metabolic disease. Here we review recent progress as regards the concepts, methodologies and derived outcomes of studies of the genetics of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and discuss avenues to be investigated in the future within this research field.
    Diabetologia 05/2014; · 6.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Meta-analyses have suggested an effect of MTHFR C677T genotype (rs1801133), a proxy for blood total homocysteine, on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in populations with low population dietary folate. The aim was to examine the association and effect modification by serum folate and vitamin B12 levels between MTHFR and CVD-related outcomes in a general population with no mandatory folic acid fortification policy. The study population included 13,748 adults retrieved from pooling of four population-based studies conducted in Denmark. MTHFR genotype, serum folate (measured in approximately 9,356 individuals), and serum vitamin B12 (9,215 individuals), hypertension, and dyslipidemia were measured at baseline, and participants were followed for a mean of 10.5-11.7 years in central registries for diagnoses of stroke (623 incidents), ischaemic heart disease (IHD) (835 incidents), and all-cause mortality (1,272 incidents). The MTHFR genotype (TT vs. CC/CT) was not associated with hypertension [OR (95 % CI) 1.09 (0.95-1.25)], dyslipidemia [OR (95 % CI) 0.97 (0.84-1.11)], stroke [HR (95 % CI) 0.92 (0.69-1.23)], and all-cause mortality [HR (95 % CI) 0.94 (0.77-1.14)], either overall, or in participants with low serum folate or B12 status (P values for interactions 0.15-0.94). Individuals with the MTHFR TT genotype had a higher risk of IHD (HR (95 % CI) 1.38 (1.11-1.71)), but this association was not modified by folate status (P value for interaction 0.45). Our results do not support a causal relationship between homocysteine and CVD. However, we cannot exclude a direct causal effect of MTHFR C677T genotype on IHD.
    European Journal of Nutrition 01/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age2, sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, Pinteraction = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, Pinteraction = 0.275 for Europeans). In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction = 0.003) and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction = 0.025) variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.
    PLoS Genetics 07/2013; · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: More than 40 genetic risk variants for type 2 diabetes have been validated. We aimed to test if a genetic risk score associates with the incidence of type 2 diabetes and with 5-year changes in glycemic traits and if the effects were modulated by changes in BMI and lifestyle.The Inter99 study population was genotyped for 46 variants and a genetic risk score was constructed. During a median follow-up of 11 years 327 of 5,850 individuals developed diabetes. Physical examinations and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at baseline and after 5 years (n=3,727).The risk of incident type 2 diabetes was increased with a hazard ratio of 1.06 [95%CI 1.03-1.08] per risk allele. While the population in general improved their glucose regulation during the 5-year follow-up period, each additional allele in the genetic risk score was associated with a relative increase in fasting, 30-min and 120-min plasma glucose values and a relative decrease in measures of beta-cell function over the 5-year period, whereas indices of insulin sensitivity were unaffected. The effect of the genetic risk score on 5-year changes in fasting plasma glucose was stronger in individuals who increased their BMI.In conclusion, a genetic risk score based on 46 variants associated strongly with incident type 2 diabetes and 5-year changes in plasma glucose and beta-cell function. Individuals who gain weight may be more susceptible to the cumulative impact of type 2 diabetes risk variants on fasting plasma glucose.
    Diabetes 07/2013; · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B12 and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B12 (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B12 and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimer's disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B12 or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations.
    PLoS Genetics 06/2013; 9(6):e1003530. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gene-lifestyle interactions have been suggested to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Glucose levels 2 h after a standard 75-g glucose challenge are used to diagnose diabetes and are associated with both genetic and lifestyle factors. However, whether these factors interact to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (β = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13-0.31], P = 1.63 × 10(-6)). All SNPs were associated with 2-h glucose (β = 0.06-0.12 mmol/allele, P ≤ 1.53 × 10(-7)), but no significant interactions were found with PA (P > 0.18) or BMI (P ≥ 0.04). In this large study of gene-lifestyle interaction, we observed no interactions between genetic and lifestyle factors, both of which were associated with 2-h glucose. It is perhaps unlikely that top loci from genome-wide association studies will exhibit strong subgroup-specific effects, and may not, therefore, make the best candidates for the study of interactions.
    Diabetes 03/2012; 61(5):1291-6. · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    C H Sandholt, T Hansen, O Pedersen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity and related complications are major health burdens. Almost 700 million adults are currently obese globally and the prevalence is predicted to rise towards 2030. The sudden change of lifestyle with physical inactivity and excessive calorie intake undoubtedly have a major part of the epidemic development; however, some individuals seem to be more prone to be affected by an unhealthy lifestyle than others. Hence, genetic predisposition also has an essential role in determining disease susceptibility and response to lifestyle factors. Since the introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the success of identifying obesity susceptibility variants have increased, and a total of 32 variants have been identified associating genome-wide significantly with body mass index (BMI) and 18 with measures of fat distribution during four overall obesity GWAS waves. However, the immediate success of the GWAS approach has eased off, but the proportion of explained variance for BMI by the identified obesity variants remains low. This review suggests and discusses new initiatives to take GWAS of obesity to the next level, including gene-environment interactions as modulating/masking factors, low-frequent or rare variants and ways to address such analyses, and finally reflections about the applicability of epigenetic modifications when elucidating the genetic background of obesity.
    Nutrition & Diabetes 01/2012; 2:e37.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: [This corrects the article on p. e40376 in vol. 7.].
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9). · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common condition, associated with hepatic insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome including hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia. We aimed at studying the potential impact of the NAFLD-associated PNPLA3 rs738409 G-allele on NAFLD-related metabolic traits in hyperglycaemic individuals. The rs738409 variant was genotyped in the population-based Inter99 cohort examined by an oral glucose-tolerance test, and a combined study-sample consisting of 192 twins (96 twin pairs) and a sub-set of the Inter99 population (n = 63) examined by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (n(total) = 255). In Inter99, we analyzed associations of rs738409 with components of the WHO-defined metabolic syndrome (n = 5,847) and traits related to metabolic disease (n = 5,663). In the combined study sample we elucidated whether the rs738409 G-allele altered hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity. Study populations were divided into individuals with normal glucose-tolerance (NGT) and with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). The case-control study showed no associations with components of the metabolic syndrome or the metabolic syndrome. Among 1,357 IGR individuals, the rs738409 G-allele associated with decreased fasting serum triglyceride levels (per allele effect(β) = -9.9% [-14.4%;-4.0% (95% CI)], p = 5.1×10(-5)) and fasting total cholesterol (β = -0.2 mmol/l [-0.3;-0.01 mmol/l(95% CI)], p = 1.5×10(-4)). Meta-analyses showed no impact on hepatic or peripheral insulin resistance in carriers of the rs738409 G-allele. Our findings suggest that the G-allele of PNPLA3 rs738409 associates with reduced fasting levels of cholesterol and triglyceride in individuals with IGR.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e40376. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268). All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r(2)>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A-) allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20-1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (p(interaction)  = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio  = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19-1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio  = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24-1.36). No such interaction was found in children and adolescents. The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity.
    PLoS Medicine 11/2011; 8(11):e1001116. · 15.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The FTO gene harbors the strongest known susceptibility locus for obesity. While many individual studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) may attenuate the effect of FTO on obesity risk, other studies have not been able to confirm this interaction. To confirm or refute unambiguously whether PA attenuates the association of FTO with obesity risk, we meta-analyzed data from 45 studies of adults (n = 218,166) and nine studies of children and adolescents (n = 19,268). Methods and Findings All studies identified to have data on the FTO rs9939609 variant (or any proxy [r2>0.8]) and PA were invited to participate, regardless of ethnicity or age of the participants. PA was standardized by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable (physically inactive versus active) in each study. Overall, 25% of adults and 13% of children were categorized as inactive. Interaction analyses were performed within each study by including the FTO×PA interaction term in an additive model, adjusting for age and sex. Subsequently, random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the interaction terms. In adults, the minor (A−) allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity by 1.23-fold/allele (95% CI 1.20–1.26), but PA attenuated this effect (pinteraction = 0.001). More specifically, the minor allele of rs9939609 increased the odds of obesity less in the physically active group (odds ratio = 1.22/allele, 95% CI 1.19–1.25) than in the inactive group (odds ratio = 1.30/allele, 95% CI 1.24–1.36). No such interaction was found in children and adolescents. Conclusions The association of the FTO risk allele with the odds of obesity is attenuated by 27% in physically active adults, highlighting the importance of PA in particular in those genetically predisposed to obesity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
    PLoS Medicine 11/2011; 8(11). · 15.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified novel WHR and BMI susceptibility loci. The aim of this study was to elucidate if any of these loci had an effect on quantitative measures of glucose homeostasis, including estimates of insulin release and insulin sensitivity in an epidemiological setting. By applying an additive genetic model, 14 WHR-associated gene variants and 18 BMI-associated variants were investigated for their relationships with glucose-related metabolic traits in treatment-naive individuals from the population-based Inter99 study sample (n = 6,039). Of the variants associated with BMI, the QPCTL rs2287019 C allele was associated with an increased insulinogenic index of 7.4% per risk allele (p = 4.0 × 10⁻⁷) and increased disposition index of 5.6% (p = 6.4 × 10⁻⁵). The LRP1B rs2890652 C allele was associated with insulin resistance, showing a 3.3% increase (p = 0.0011) using the HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and a 2.2% reduction (p = 0.0014) with the Matsuda index. Of the variants associated with WHR, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10 rs4846567 G allele carriers showed a 5.2% lower HOMA-IR (p = 0.00086) in women, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Female carriers of the VEGFA rs6905288 A allele were insulin resistant, with a 3.7% increase in HOMA-IR (p = 0.00036) and 4.0% decrease in Matsuda index (p = 2 × 10⁻⁴). Our correlative findings from analysing single-locus data suggest that some variation in validated BMI and WHR loci are associated with either increased or decreased insulin sensitivity and thereby potentially with metabolically healthy or metabolically unhealthy subsets of obesity. The results call for testing in larger study samples and for further physiological exploration of the possible metabolic implications of these loci.
    Diabetologia 09/2011; 55(1):105-13. · 6.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Candidate genes for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) identified by a bioinformatics approach were examined for variant associations to quantitative traits of NAFLD-related phenotypes. By integrating public database text mining, trans-organism protein-protein interaction transferal, and information on liver protein expression a protein-protein interaction network was constructed and from this a smaller isolated interactome was identified. Five genes from this interactome were selected for genetic analysis. Twenty-one tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which captured all common variation in these genes were genotyped in 10,196 Danes, and analyzed for association with NAFLD-related quantitative traits, type 2 diabetes (T2D), central obesity, and WHO-defined metabolic syndrome (MetS). 273 genes were included in the protein-protein interaction analysis and EHHADH, ECHS1, HADHA, HADHB, and ACADL were selected for further examination. A total of 10 nominal statistical significant associations (P<0.05) to quantitative metabolic traits were identified. Also, the case-control study showed associations between variation in the five genes and T2D, central obesity, and MetS, respectively. Bonferroni adjustments for multiple testing negated all associations. Using a bioinformatics approach we identified five candidate genes for NAFLD. However, we failed to provide evidence of associations with major effects between SNPs in these five genes and NAFLD-related quantitative traits, T2D, central obesity, and MetS.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(1):e16542. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have suggested that four variants: rs2605100 in lysophospholipase-like 1 (LYPLAL1), rs10146997 in neuroxin 3 (NRXN3), rs545854 in methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA), and rs987237 in transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) associate with measures of central obesity. To elucidate potential underlying phenotypes we aimed to investigate whether these variants associated with: 1) quantitative metabolic traits, 2) anthropometric measures (waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio, and BMI), or 3) type 2 diabetes, and central and general overweight and obesity. The four variants were genotyped in Danish individuals using KASPar®. Quantitative metabolic traits were examined in a population-based sample (n = 6,038) and WC and BMI were furthermore analyzed in a combined study sample (n = 13,507). Case-control studies of diabetes and adiposity included 15,326 individuals. The major G-allele of LYPLAL1 rs2605100 associated with increased fasting serum triglyceride concentrations (per allele effect (β) = 3%(1;5(95%CI)), p(additive) = 2.7×10(-3)), an association driven by the male gender (p(interaction) = 0.02). The same allele associated with increased fasting serum insulin concentrations (β = 3%(1;5), p(additive) = 2.5×10(-3)) and increased insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (β = 4%(1;6), p(additive) = 1.5×10(-3)). The minor G-allele of rs10146997 in NRXN3 associated with increased WC among women (β = 0.55cm (0.20;0.89), p(additive) = 1.7×10(-3), p(interaction) = 1.0×10(-3)), but showed no associations with obesity related metabolic traits. The MSRA rs545854 and TFAP2B rs987237 showed nominal associations with central obesity; however, no underlying metabolic phenotypes became obvious, when investigating quantitative metabolic traits. None of the variants influenced the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. We demonstrate that several of the central obesity-associated variants in LYPLAL1, NRXN3, MSRA, and TFAP2B associate with metabolic and anthropometric traits in Danish adults. However, analyses were made without adjusting for multiple testing, and further studies are needed to confirm the putative role of LYPLAL1, NRXN3, MSRA, and TFAP2B in the pathophysiology of obesity.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e20640. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified novel BMI/obesity associated susceptibility loci. The purpose of this study is to determine associations with overweight, obesity, morbid obesity and/or general adiposity in a Danish population. Moreover, we want to investigate if these loci associate with type 2 diabetes and to elucidate potential underlying metabolic mechanisms. 15 gene variants in 14 loci including TMEM18 (rs7561317), SH2B1 (rs7498665), KCTD15 (rs29941), NEGR1 (rs2568958), ETV5 (rs7647305), BDNF (rs4923461, rs925946), SEC16B (rs10913469), FAIM2 (rs7138803), GNPDA2 (rs10938397), MTCH2 (rs10838738), BAT2 (rs2260000), NPC1 (rs1805081), MAF (rs1424233), and PTER (rs10508503) were genotyped in 18,014 middle-aged Danes. Five of the 15 gene variants associated with overweight, obesity and/or morbid obesity. Per allele ORs ranged from 1.15-1.20 for overweight, 1.10-1.25 for obesity, and 1.41-1.46 for morbid obesity. Five of the 15 variants moreover associated with increased measures of adiposity. BDNF rs4923461 displayed a borderline BMI-dependent protective effect on type 2 diabetes (0.87 (0.78-0.96, p = 0.008)), whereas SH2B1 rs7498665 associated with nominally BMI-independent increased risk of type 2 diabetes (1.16 (1.07-1.27, p = 7.8×10(-4))). Associations with overweight and/or obesity and measures of obesity were confirmed for seven out of the 15 gene variants. The obesity risk allele of BDNF rs4923461 protected against type 2 diabetes, which could suggest neuronal and peripheral distinctive ways of actions for the protein. SH2B1 rs7498665 associated with type 2 diabetes independently of BMI.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e23531. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10−9 to P = 1.8 × 10−40) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10−3 to P = 1.2 × 10−13). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions.
    Nature Genetics 01/2011; 43(11):1164. · 35.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using metabolite concentrations as proxies for enzymatic activity, suggested that two variants: rs2014355 in the gene encoding short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADS) and rs11161510 in the gene encoding medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADM) impair fatty acid β-oxidation. Chronic exposure to fatty acids due to an impaired β-oxidation may down-regulate the glucose-stimulated insulin release and result in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to investigate whether the two variants associate with altered insulin release following an oral glucose load or with T2D. The variants were genotyped using KASPar® PCR SNP genotyping system and investigated for associations with estimates of insulin release and insulin sensitivity following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a random sample of middle-aged Danish individuals (nACADS = 4,324; nACADM = 4,337). The T2D-case-control study involved a total of ~8,300 Danish individuals (nACADS = 8,313; nACADM = 8,344). In glucose-tolerant individuals the minor C-allele of rs2014355 of ACADS associated with reduced measures of serum insulin at 30 min following an oral glucose load (per allele effect (β) = -3.8% (-6.3%;-1.3%), P = 0.003), reduced incremental area under the insulin curve (β = -3.6% (-6.3%;-0.9%), P = 0.009), reduced acute insulin response (β = -2.2% (-4.2%;0.2%), P = 0.03), and with increased insulin sensitivity ISIMatsuda (β = 2.9% (0.5%;5.2%), P = 0.02). The C-allele did not associate with two other measures of insulin sensitivity or with a derived disposition index. The C-allele was not associated with T2D in the case-control analysis (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96-1.18, P = 0.21). rs11161510 of ACADM did not associate with any indices of glucose-stimulated insulin release or with T2D. In glucose-tolerant individuals the minor C-allele of rs2014355 of ACADS was associated with reduced measures of glucose-stimulated insulin release during an OGTT, a finding which in part may be mediated through an impaired β-oxidation of fatty acids.
    BMC Medical Genetics 01/2011; 12:4. · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10−9 to P = 1.8 × 10−40) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10−3 to P = 1.2 × 10−13). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions.
    Nature Genetics 10/2010; · 35.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and ∼ 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P < 5 × 10⁻⁸), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (at MC4R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one of these loci is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly associated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation.
    Nature Genetics 10/2010; 42(11):937-48. · 35.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
261.53 Total Impact Points

Top Journals

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2011–2012
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2010
    • University Hospital Regensburg
      Ratisbon, Bavaria, Germany
    • Novo Nordisk
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States