G Magalon

Aix-Marseille Université, Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

Are you G Magalon?

Claim your profile

Publications (200)105.84 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of full-field optical coherence tomography to differentiate hypertrophic and keloid scars on ex-vivo tissues. All patients who underwent resection of pathological scar from November 2012 to September 2013 were analyzed. The scars were fixed in formalin and analyzed by conventional histology and full-field optical coherence tomography. The criteria for evaluation were: presence of dermal nodules, presence of cells and hyalinization of collagen. Nineteen pathological scars were analyzed. Histology found 7 keloid scars, 7 mixed and 3 hypertrophic scars. The sensitivity of optical coherence tomography for the detection of dermal nodules was 100%. This technology was not helpful for detection of cells and hyalinized collagen. In the present state of technology, optical coherence tomography did not identify the presence of cells, which makes the differential diagnosis difficult in the case of hypertrophic and keloid scars.
    Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthetique 03/2014; · 0.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate effects of motor denervation by Clostridium botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A) on the afferent activity of fibers originating from the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. Animals were randomized in two groups, 1) untreated animals acting as control and 2) treated animals in which the toxin was injected in the left muscle. Locomotor activity was evaluated once per day during 12 days with a test based on footprint measurements of walking rats (sciatic functional index). At the end of the functional assessment period, electrophysiological tests were used to measure muscle properties, metabosensitive afferent fiber responses to chemical (KCl and lactic acid) injections, electrically induced fatigue (EIF), and mechanosensitive responses to tendon vibrations. Additionally, ventilatory response was recorded during repetitive muscle contractions. Then, rats were sacrificed, and the BoNT/A-injected muscles were weighed. Twelve days postinjection we observed a complete motor denervation associated with a significant muscle atrophy and loss of force to direct muscle stimulation. In the BoNT/A group, the metabosensitive responses to KCl injections were unaltered. However, we observed alterations in responses to EIF and to 1 mM of lactic acid (which induces the greatest activation). The ventilatory adjustments during repetitive muscle activation were abolished, and the mechanosensitive fiber responses to tendon vibrations were reduced. These results indicate that BoNT/A alters the sensorimotor loop and may induce insufficient motor and physiological adjustments in patients in whom a motor denervation with BoNT/A was performed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 02/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autologous conditioned serum (ACS) is a recent biotherapy based on certain cytokines anti-inflammatory properties mainly used for the reduction of osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms. Here we investigated different physico-chemical factors influencing ACS purification and cytokine production. Human venous blood was incubated in the presence of different diameter beads (respectively 2.5, 3, 3.5, and 4 mm) or glass beads with different types of coating (polished or coated with CrSO4). Sera were recovered, and the concentrations of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory relevant cytokines were measured using Luminex(®) technology. Fresh whole blood incubated for 24 h highly increased production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 cytokines. At the same time, the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-1 receptor agonist (IL-1Ra), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were slightly induced. The highest cytokine concentrations were obtained with the exposure of whole blood to 3-mm glass beads and 3.5-mm polished beads. The minimum IL-1β/IL-1Ra ratio obtained was 3.2±1.3 after 24-h incubation without any beads. ACS has been shown to alleviate clinical symptoms of OA in clinical studies. This descriptive study demonstrated that different pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are present in ACS since no selective anti-inflammatory cytokines were produced based on the different protocols. Furthermore, we showed that CrSO4-treated glass beads are not necessary and that the absence of beads combined with a 24-h incubation could also lead to an enriched serum.
    BioResearch open access. 02/2014; 3(1):35-8.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the efficacy of full-field optical coherence tomography to differentiate hypertrophic and keloid scars on ex-vivo tissues. Patients and methods All patients who underwent resection of pathological scar from November 2012 to September 2013 were analyzed. The scars were fixed in formalin and analyzed by conventional histology and full-field optical coherence tomography. The criteria for evaluation were: presence of dermal nodules, presence of cells and hyalinization of collagen. Results Nineteen pathological scars were analyzed. Histology found 7 keloid scars, 7 mixed and 3 hypertrophic scars. The sensitivity of optical coherence tomography for the detection of dermal nodules was 100%. This technology was not helpful for detection of cells and hyalinized collagen. Conclusion In the present state of technology, optical coherence tomography did not identify the presence of cells, which makes the differential diagnosis difficult in the case of hypertrophic and keloid scars.
    Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique. 01/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis is a disorder involving the connective tissue, arterioles and microvessels. It is characterized by skin and visceral fibrosis and ischemic phenomena. Currently, therapy is limited and no antifibrotic treatment has proven its efficacy. Beyond some severe organ lesions (pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, scleroderma renal crisis), which only concern a minority of patients, the skin sclerosis of hands and face and the vasculopathy lead to physical and psychological disability in most patients. Thus, functional improvement of hand motion and face represents a priority for patient therapy. Due to its easy obtention by fat lipopaspirate and adipocytes survival, re injection of adipose tissue is a common therapy used in plastic surgery for its voluming effect. Identification and characterization of the adipose tissue-derived stroma vascular fraction, mainly including mesenchymal stem cells, have revolutionized the science showing that adipose tissue is a valuable source of multipotent stem cells, able to migrate to site of injury and to differentiate according to the receiver tissue's needs. Due to easy harvest by liposuction, its abundance in mesenchymal cells far higher that the bone marrow, and stroma vascular fraction's ability to differentiate and secrete growth angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors, the use of adipose tissue is becoming more attractive in regenerative medicine. We here present the interest of adipose tissue use in the treatment of the hands and face in scleroderma.
    La Revue de Médecine Interne 09/2013; · 0.90 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rhinoplasty sequelae can be difficult to treat, especially in patients with thin skin. Autologous fat grafting is already used in numerous applications in plastic surgery. However, its use in the nasal region remains relatively uncommon. Given its volumetric qualities and its action on cutaneous trophicity, adipose tissue can be considered the reference product for filling. METHODS: From 2006 to 2012, 20 patients were treated by autologous fat injections according to the Coleman technique in order to correct rhinoplasty sequelae. The procedures were performed under local or general anaesthesia. The quantity of adipose tissue injected ranged from 1 to 6 cc depending on the size of the deformation and the zone being injected: dorsum irregularities, inverted V deformations, visible lateral osteotomies and saddle nose deformity. RESULTS: Of the 20 patients followed up for 18-24 months, 18 had satisfactory aesthetic results after one procedure and two required a second session. Our experience gradually led us to design micro-cannulae for greater injection precision and enabled us to perform these procedures under local anaesthesia. The reduction in ecchymoses and postoperative oedema through the use of these cannulae has significantly reduced convalescence time. CONCLUSION: In patients who undergo multiple procedures, lipofilling can be a simple and reliable alternative to correct imperfections following rhinoplasty.
    Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 04/2013; · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis is a disorder involving the connective tissue, arterioles and microvessels. It is characterized by skin and visceral fibrosis and ischemic phenomena. Currently, therapy is limited and no antifibrotic treatment has proven its efficacy. Beyond some severe organ lesions (pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, scleroderma renal crisis), which only concern a minority of patients, the skin sclerosis of hands and face and the vasculopathy lead to physical and psychological disability in most patients. Thus, functional improvement of hand motion and face represents a priority for patient therapy. Due to its easy obtention by fat lipopaspirate and adipocytes survival, re injection of adipose tissue is a common therapy used in plastic surgery for its voluming effect. Identification and characterization of the adipose tissue-derived stroma vascular fraction, mainly including mesenchymal stem cells, have revolutionized the science showing that adipose tissue is a valuable source of multipotent stem cells, able to migrate to site of injury and to differentiate according to the receiver tissue's needs. Due to easy harvest by liposuction, its abundance in mesenchymal cells far higher that the bone marrow, and stroma vascular fraction's ability to differentiate and secrete growth angiogenic and antiapoptotic factors, the use of adipose tissue is becoming more attractive in regenerative medicine. We here present the interest of adipose tissue use in the treatment of the hands and face in scleroderma.
    La Revue de Médecine Interne. 01/2013; 34(12):763–769.
  • Progrès en Urologie. 11/2012; 22(13):781–782.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present in this original article a histological study of surgical skin residues. Aim of the study This study was realized in order to show, in objective way, skin diversity according to sex, age and area, and to illustrate some current surgical practices of our speciality. Patients and method Two years along, 141 patients was selected, 69 Men and 72 women. Fifty-four biopsies were realized on the upper extremity, 34 on the trunk and 53 on legs and arms. The histological study was based on two steps; the first one was a classic quantitative study, with measurement of each cutaneous layer, and objective evaluation of elastic density in superficial dermis. The second one was a descriptive histological analysis of each cutaneous area. Results The results coming from the quantitative analysis, allowed us to establish a classification of all the areas, according to each parameter. These results are globally compliant to the literature. The results of the descriptive analysis, lead us to conclude that it exists a lot of different skins with regional specificities. Then the crossover of the two analyses allowed us to define good practices tricks, in order to choose the best reconstruction technique for each area. Conclusion This study is just a rough draft of a dynamic skin cartography adapted to our surgery. But it allowed us to confirm our basic premise: it doesn’t exist only one skin but many skins.
    Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthetique 10/2012; 57(5):423–449. · 0.33 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The aim of this study was to review and present our experience with pedicled flap reconstruction of lower limb defects with particular reference to choice of flap, complications and pre-existing health disorders. Methods A retrospective review of lower limb reconstructions by pedicled flaps was carried out by the plastic and reconstructive surgery unit at Marseille's hospitals from January 1st, 1997 to December 31st, 2007. This study evaluated patients satisfaction and complications rate. Results During 10 years, 152 patients had 157 local flap reconstructions of lower limb defects. General patients satisfaction was 94% with 80% good or very good results and 20% of medium results. There were 16 immediate complications with three total necrosis, four partial necrosis, six hematoma, and three infections. There were nine late complications including wound dehiscence and graft instability. There were 11 functional sequels and 40 aesthetic sequels secondary to flaps. Conclusions The current study presented our experience with locoregional flap reconstruction of lower limb defects. Lower limb reconstruction used a lot of locoregional flaps which had their own advantages and disadvantages. Their indication depended on the fiability and quality of the donor site.
    Annales De Chirurgie Plastique Esthetique - ANN CHIR PLAST ESTHET. 08/2012;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Autologous fat graft, by virtue of its volumetric qualities and its action on skin trophicity, can be considered as a gold standard implant. Current techniques do not allow very superficial or subdermal injections of adipose tissue. The authors report technical modifications that enable fat transfer through a 25-gauge cannula. The viability of grafted fat was assessed after subcutaneous injection on a murine model. METHODS: Micro-fat grafting consists of harvesting fat tissue using a multiperforated cannula with holes of 1 mm. Fat tissue is refined as described by SR Coleman and transferred through a micro-cannula. Initially, human fat was first harvested using two different procedures: Coleman's technique and the modified harvesting technique. Preliminary comparative histologic analyses were performed. Sixteen nude mice received human fat tissue: one side was filled with 0.7 cc through a 17-G cannula using Coleman's technique, and the opposite side was grafted using smaller cannulae (20G, 23G and 25G) following the modified harvesting technique. Mice were euthanised at 12 weeks and skin biopsies were performed. RESULTS: Experimental fat grafts on mice were observed and analysed: macroscopically, the fat tissue of each side showed the same healthy aspect. Haematoxylin-eosin-saffron staining revealed intact adipocytes and anti-CD31 antibody immunohistochemical staining highlighted an abundant neo-vessel network. CONCLUSION: Fat graft obtained by the modified technique maintains a normal histologic structure. Fat injection with micro-cannulae extends the application of lipostructure to the superficial layers of the skin.
    Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 06/2012; · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Keloid scar is a proliferative healing dysfunction formed by an excessive build-up of collagen fibers on the dermis. It is responsible of aesthetic and functional disabilities. There is no ideal treatment and recurrence occurs very often. Keloid scars occur only to human, that's why animal model needs to be made to study this pathology and new treatments. Few models have been described using human keloid scars implanted into subcutaneous tissue of nude mice or rat. To allow study of topical and laser treatment we have developed a new animal model using human keloid scar fragment with epidermal and dermal tissue implanted into back of nude mice like a full thickness skin graft. Keloid fragments from five donors have been grafted onto 40 nudes mice. Macroscopic and microscopic studies have been made at day 28, 56, 84 and 112. We observed integration of the fragments in all cases. Hyalinized collagen bundles were observed in all implant biopsies confirming the stability of the keloid architecture within 112 days. This model is easily reproducible and allows the study of topical treatment and laser due to the accessibility of the keloid.
    Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthetique 06/2012; · 0.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous biotherapy based on platelet-healing properties. Here, we developed a simple and reproducible PRP purification protocol based on two successive centrifugations. We evaluated different centrifugation speeds and time-storage durations on the platelet quantity and quality. Sterility and stability of our PRP homemade product were also performed. We prepared PRP from 54 healthy volunteers. We tested activation state, reactivity, and stability of platelets by flow cytometry using basal and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced P-selectin expression markers; growth factor release after platelet activation by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); platelet aggregation capacity by aggregrometry assays; clot formation and retraction by thromboelastography; and platelet morphology by ultrastructural analysis. About 130 and 250 g successive speed centrifugations further concentrated platelets while preserving their bioactivity during 6 h (after that, platelet functions were significantly altered). In these conditions, we obtained a highly concentrated pure PRP product (with a low leukocyte count) suitable to study platelet properties. To avoid the loss of efficacy, we recommend injecting PRP under 3 h after preparation.
    BioResearch open access. 06/2012; 1(3):115-23.
  • J. Londner, G. Magalon, J. Bardot
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: L’espansione cutanea è una tecnica utilizzata in chirurgia plastica e riparativa da diverse decine di anni; essa consiste nel posizionamento di protesi di espansione vuote che saranno progressivamente riempite di soluzione fisiologica attraverso una valvola, permettendo, così, di ottenere un guadagno cutaneo e di trattare una perdita di sostanza. Il principio è sempre lo stesso, ma il materiale è progredito dalla prima protesi moderna descritta da Radovan nel 1976. Dopo una descrizione dettagliata della tecnica chirurgica, gli autori propongono una classificazione regione per regione delle principali indicazioni e delle specificità tecniche. Sono elencate le principali complicanze, così come la condotta da tenere. Un capitolo più dettagliato è dedicato all’espansione nella ricostruzione mammaria. L’espansione cutanea resta una tecnica indispensabile nell’arsenale del chirurgo plastico; è una tecnica semplice ma che richiede un grande rigore chirurgico.
    06/2012; 10(2):1–21.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The wound healing attributes of five acellular dermal skin substitutes were compared, in a two-step procedure, in a porcine model. Ten pigs were included in this experimental and randomized study. During the first step, dermal substitutes (Integra(®), ProDerm(®), Renoskin(®), Matriderm(®) 2mm and Hyalomatrix(®) PA) were implanted into full-thickness skin wounds and the epidermis was reconstructed during a second step procedure at day 21 using autologous split-thickness skin graft or cultured epithelial autograft. Seven pigs were followed-up for 2 months and 3 pigs for 6 months. Dermal substitute incorporation, epidermal graft takes, wound contraction and Vancouver scale were assessed, and histological study of the wounds was performed. Results showed significant differences between groups in dermis incorporation and in early wound contraction, but there was no difference in wound contraction and in Vancouver scale after 2 and 6 months of healing. We conclude there was no long-term difference of scar qualities in our study between the different artificial dermis. More, there was no difference between artificial dermis and the control group. This study makes us ask questions about the benefit of artificial dermis used in a two-step procedure.
    Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 05/2012; 38(6):820-9. · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article describes the concomitant presence of two anomalous muscles on a left forearm in a 40-year-old man. The anconeus epitrochlearis muscle was responsible for a cubital tunnel syndrome and the unusual origin of the flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle was responsible for a compartment syndrome with ulnar nerve compression at the level of Guyon's canal during effort diagnosed by MRI. Resection of these muscles relieved the symptoms and allowed the patient to return to work.
    Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthetique 04/2012; · 0.33 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Turner's syndrome encompassed several conditions, of which monosomy X (absence of the entire sex chromosome X) is most common. It is a chromosomal abnormality in which all or part of the sex chromosomes X is absent. Typical females have two X chromosomes, but in Turner's syndrome, one of those sex chromosomes is missing or presents abnormalities. Patients show a shield shaped thorax with thick and bulging chest, breast hypotrophy and widely spaced nipples. The objective of this study was to characterize the breast abnormalities observed in Turnerian. We describe a prospective multicentric study (August 2007-March 2008) on 21 nullipar patients, ranging from 16 to 35 years old. Six were monosomic and 14 were Turner mosaic (in this case the chromosome is missing in some cells but not others), 19 were treated with estrogens and progestatives. This study was achieved through the use of clinical examinations including body, waist, hips (BWH) measurements and photography. The statistical method involved a descriptive analysis, linear correlation calculations and student test. The breast morphology appears to be quite closed to that of the general woman population, but with average thorax volume more bulky mainly in the anteroposterior zone, and with more reduced breast volumes. No specific abnormalities in the chest development were observed. No differences in the hypotrophy, hypertrophy, and normal breast volume repartition were observed between monosomic and mosaic patients. The self-satisfaction index on the breast look is quite low, patients mainly complain about breast hypotrophy. Nevertheless, these results are not representative of the whole turnerians, since this study address only to volunteer patients and we cannot exclude possible distortions. In contrast to common beliefs, we don't have observed any increase of the average of the internipple space; this observation is in good agreement with the most recent published literature works, which report only an apparent increase of this intermamelonary distance versus the thoracic width (in front view), probably caused to an optical distortion effect.
    Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthetique 02/2012; 57(1):25-34. · 0.33 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Laser Assisted Skin Healing (LASH) was first introduced in 2001 by Capon and Mordon to prevent keloids and hypertrophic scars. LASH requires homogenous heating throughout the full thickness of the skin around the wound. However, LASH therapy with 808-nm diode laser is deemed to be only applicable for phototype I-IV due to melanin absorption. This prospective ex-vivo study aims to evaluate the thermal effects of different wavelengths (808, 1064, 1210 and 1320 nm) on human skin phototype II, IV and VI. Laser shots were applied on skin explants phototypes II, IV and VI. The following laser settings were used: 808, 1064, 1210 and 1320-nm diode laser, Spot size 20 × 3.7 mm, Power 3 W, Irradiance 4 W/cm², 50 shots for each phototype and wavelength. The surface temperature at 2 and 4-mm depth respectively was evaluated by an infrared camera and a low inertia micro thermocouple. For the 1064, 1210 and 1320-nm wavelengths, the temperature gradient between the surface and 2-mm depth after an irradiation time of 15 s was less than 4.0°C for each phototype. For the 808 nm, the gradient was 0.8°C and 4.4°C in phototype II and IV respectively, but reached 17.2°C in phototype VI. Strong absorption by melanin of skin phototype VI induced unwanted temperature increases at the dermis-epidermis junction, making this wavelength unsuitable for LASH therapy for this phototype. Among the three other wavelengths, the discussion section indicates strong blood absorption at 1064 nm and presents both 1210 and 1320 nm as excellent compromises for LASH therapy across the whole range of phototypes. Being poorly absorbed by melanin, both 1210 and 1320-nm wavelengths ensure homogeneity of temperature throughout the full skin explant thickness. Their possible utilization for efficient LASH therapy should now be confirmed by prospective in vivo studies.
    Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy 11/2011; 14(1):7-13. · 0.86 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Burn contractures are common after deep burns of the limbs. When rehabilitation fails to restore joint function and normal range of motion, surgical contracture release should be performed. Different plastic surgery techniques can be used, from Z-plasty to skin grafts, artificial dermis and flaps. Surgery can also be used in case of esthetic concerns. Available surgical techniques and indications are presented.
    Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthetique 09/2011; 56(5):444-53. · 0.33 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Treatment of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is always debated, especially for upper plexus palsy. Some authors perform early surgical treatment in case of absence of biceps contraction at the age of 3 months. Others prefer to wait until the age of 6 months before considering a surgical procedure when no suspicion of root avulsion is found. We think that a conservative approach with intensive rehabilitation program can obtain good functional outcome for patients who will recover biceps function spontaneously between 3 and 6 months, and that it is not necessary to perform surgery at 3 months. To argue our choice, we have compared the long-term outcome of two groups of children with upper OBPP conservatively treated regarding the age of biceps recovery (before or after 3 months). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-two patients with non operated upper roots birth palsy, followed in Timone's Hospital of Marseille by a multidisciplinary team, have recovered a biceps contraction between 1 and 8 months and were retrospectively included in this study. All children underwent an intensive rehabilitation program since birth, performed by a specialized physiotherapist. Patients were reviewed, and their shoulder function was assessed using Mallet score. The score was analysed regarding the age of biceps recovery. RESULTS: The mean follow up was 8.2 years. Nine children recovered a biceps contraction at 3 months of age or before; the mean global Mallet score was 4.11. Thirteen children recovered a biceps contraction after 3 months of age (between 3 and 8 months); the mean global Mallet score was 3.92. The difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: This study shows that global shoulder function is comparable for two groups. The children who did not recover a biceps contraction at 3 months of age had a global shoulder function as good as the one who recovered biceps function earlier. We think our intensive rehabilitation program allowed us to avoid a useless early surgery. Surgical plexus treatment was indicated for children who did not have biceps contraction after 6 months of age.
    Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthetique 06/2011; · 0.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

437 Citations
105.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2012
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      • Unité de Recherche de Neurobiologie des Interactions Cellulaires et Neurophysiopathologie (UMR 7259 NICN)
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2011
    • University of Lille Nord de France
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
  • 1998–2011
    • Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Marseille
      • • Service de chirurgie plastique pédiatrique
      • • Service de chirurgie plastique et réparatrice
      Marseille, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, France
  • 2010
    • Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
  • 2008
    • Medical University of Vienna
      Linz, Upper Austria, Austria
  • 2006
    • Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc
      • Centre for Vascular Anomalies
      Brussels, BRU, Belgium
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1982
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Limoges
      Limages, Limousin, France