[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
While malate and fumarate participate in a multiplicity of pathways in plant metabolism, the function of these organic acids as carbon stores in C(3) plants has not been deeply addressed. Here, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing a maize (Zea mays) plastidic NADP-malic enzyme (MEm plants) were used to analyze the consequences of sustained low malate and fumarate levels on the physiology of this C(3) plant. When grown in short days (sd), MEm plants developed a pale-green phenotype with decreased biomass and increased specific leaf area, with thin leaves having lower photosynthetic performance. These features were absent in plants growing in long days. The analysis of metabolite levels of rosettes from transgenic plants indicated similar disturbances in both sd and long days, with very low levels of malate and fumarate. Determinations of the respiratory quotient by the end of the night indicated a shift from carbohydrates to organic acids as the main substrates for respiration in the wild type, while MEm plants use more reduced compounds, like fatty acids and proteins, to fuel respiration. It is concluded that the alterations observed in sd MEm plants are a consequence of impairment in the supply of carbon skeletons during a long dark period. This carbon starvation phenotype observed at the end of the night demonstrates a physiological role of the C(4) acids, which may be a constitutive function in plants.