[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monolayer Contact Doping (MLCD) is a simple method for doping of surfaces and nanostructures(1). MLCD results in the formation of highly controlled, ultra shallow and sharp doping profiles at the nanometer scale. In MLCD process the dopant source is a monolayer containing dopant atoms. In this article a detailed procedure for surface doping of silicon substrate as well as silicon nanowires is demonstrated. Phosphorus dopant source was formed using tetraethyl methylenediphosphonate monolayer on a silicon substrate. This monolayer containing substrate was brought to contact with a pristine intrinsic silicon target substrate and annealed while in contact. Sheet resistance of the target substrate was measured using 4 point probe. Intrinsic silicon nanowires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process using a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism; gold nanoparticles were used as catalyst for nanowire growth. The nanowires were suspended in ethanol by mild sonication. This suspension was used to dropcast the nanowires on silicon substrate with a silicon nitride dielectric top layer. These nanowires were doped with phosphorus in similar manner as used for the intrinsic silicon wafer. Standard photolithography process was used to fabricate metal electrodes for the formation of nanowire based field effect transistor (NW-FET). The electrical properties of a representative nanowire device were measured by a semiconductor device analyzer and a probe station.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Micropatterned polymer-supported membranes (PSM) are established as a tool for confining the diffusion of transmembrane proteins for single molecule studies. To this end, a photochemical surface modification with hydrophobic tethers on a PEG polymer brush is implemented for capturing of lipid vesicles and subsequent fusion. Formation of contiguous membranes within micropatterns is confirmed by scanning force microscopy, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and super-resolved single-molecule tracking and localization microscopy. Free diffusion of transmembrane proteins reconstituted into micropatterned PSM is demonstrated by FRAP and by single-molecule tracking. By exploiting the confinement of diffusion within micropatterned PSM, the diffusion and interaction dynamics of individual transmembrane receptors are quantitatively resolved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have established a robust and versatile analytical platform for probing membrane protein function in a defined lipid environment on solid supports. This approach is based on vesicle capturing onto an ultrathin poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymer brush functionalized with fatty acid moieties and subsequent vesicle fusion into a contiguous membrane. In order to ensure efficient formation of these tethered polymer-supported membranes (PSM), very small unilamellar vesicles (VSUV) containing fluorescent lipids or model transmembrane proteins were generated by detergent depletion with cyclodextrin. Thus, very rapid reconstitution of membrane proteins into PSM was possible in a format compatible with microfluidics. Moreover, surfaces could be regenerated with detergent solution and reused multiple times. Lipid and protein diffusion in these membranes was investigated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, single molecule tracking, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Full mobility of lipids and a high degree of protein mobility as well as homogeneous diffusion of both were observed. Quantitative ligand binding studies by solid phase detection techniques confirmed functional integrity of a transmembrane receptor reconstituted into these PSM. Colocomotion of individual ligand-receptor complexes was detected, demonstrating the applicability for single molecule fluorescence techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spatial organization of proteins into microscopic structures has important applications in fundamental and applied research. Preserving the function of proteins in such microstructures requires generic methods for site-specific capturing through affinity handles. Here, we present a versatile bottom-up surface micropatterning approach based on surface functionalization with maleimides, which selectively react with organic thiols. Upon UV irradiation through a photomask, the functionality of illuminated maleimide groups was efficiently destroyed. Remaining maleimides in nonilluminated regions were further reacted with different thiol-functionalized groups for site-specific protein immobilization under physiological conditions. Highly selective immobilization of His-tagged proteins into tris(nitrilotriacetic acid) functionalized microstructures with very high contrast was possible even by direct capturing of proteins from crude cell lysates. Moreover, we employed phosphopantetheinyl transfer from surface-immobilized coenzyme A to ybbR-tagged proteins in order to implement site-specific, covalent protein immobilization into microstructures. The functional integrity of the immobilized protein was confirmed by monitoring protein-protein interactions in real time. Moreover, we demonstrate quantitative single-molecule analysis of protein-protein interactions with proteins selectively captured into these high-contrast micropatterns.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional immobilization and lateral organization of proteins into micro- and nanopatterns is an important prerequisite for miniaturizing bioanalytical and biotechnological devices. Here, we report an approach for efficient site-specific protein immobilization based on enzymatic phosphopantetheinyl transfer (PPT) from coenzyme A (CoA)-functionalized glass-type surfaces to specific peptide tags. We devised a bottom-up surface modification approach for coupling CoA densely to a molecular poly(ethylene glycol) polymer brush. Site-specific enzymatic immobilization of proteins fused to different target peptides for the PPTase Sfp was confirmed by real-time label-free detection. Quantitative protein-protein interaction experiments confirmed that significantly more than 50% of the immobilized protein was fully active. The method was successfully applied with different proteins. However, different immobilization efficiencies of PPT-based immobilization were observed for different peptide tags being fused to the N- and C-termini of proteins. On the basis of this immobilization method, we established photolithographic patterning of proteins into functional binary microstructures.