[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Microalbuminuria is an early marker of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Previous studies have shown that either metabolic syndrome (MetS) or chronic inflammation is related to renal impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MetS, C-reactive protein (CRP) and microalbuminuria in a rural Chinese population.
This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Handan Eye Study. MetS was defined according to the Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS) criteria. CRP levels ≥ 3 mg/L were classified as high CRP. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) of 30–300 mg/g.
We included 4191 subjects aged ≥ 30 years in this analysis. The prevalence of MetS and microalbuminuria in the group was 25.7% and 15.6%, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of microalbuminuria in subjects with MetS was 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03 − 1.51) compared with those without microalbuminuria. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, high blood pressure (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.10 − 1.67) and high fasting blood glucose (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.17 − 1.76) were independently associated with microalbuminuria. Subjects with high CRP and MetS had a 1.46-fold greater risk of having microalbuminuria compared with those with low CRP without MetS (95% CI: 1.06 − 2.01).
In this rural Chinese population aged ≥30 years, MetS and microalbuminuria were independently related and the combination of high CRP and MetS was associated with an increased risk of microalbuminuria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe the rate of cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and the quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes after cataract surgery in rural China.
A clustered, random sampling procedure was used to select 7557 Chinese patients aged 30 years and older from Handan, China. Comprehensive eye examinations, including standardized refraction and classification of lens characteristics, were offered to all eligible subjects. Visual impairment was defined as any individual with presenting visual acuity of less than 20/60 in the better-seeing eye. The main outcome measures were CSC rate and a summary measure assessing QoL in visually impaired (VI) participants.
Of 5592 participants older than 40 years, there were 41 cataract patients operated on and 54 VI cataract patients not operated on. The CSC rate among individuals with VI was 43.2%. Older age was significantly negatively associated with a history of cataract surgery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.44 per 10-year increase in age; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.74). Women were less likely to have had cataract surgery compared with men, although not significantly (adjusted odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-1.12). The QoL summary measure was significantly better in the cataract group operated on than that not operated on (P < 0.01).
There is a large unmet need for cataract surgery in rural Handan, China. Those who had surgery were more likely to have better QoL outcomes than those who did not. There is a potential need to promote cataract surgery and develop age- and sex-sensitive interventions in rural China.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome is a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. We investigated the association between metabolic syndrome and CKD in a rural Chinese population.
This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Handan Eye Study.
4944 of participants aged ≥ 30 y were included in this analysis. Participants with metabolic syndrome had a higher prevalence of CKD (20.9% vs.15.8%, P<0.001) than those without. As the number of metabolic syndrome components increased, so did the prevalence of CKD (P<0.001). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of chronic kidney disease in participants with metabolic syndrome was 1.293 (95% CI 1.093-1.529) compared with those without. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, high blood pressure (OR 1.348; 95% CI 1.122-1.619) and high fasting glucose (OR 1.501; 95% CI 1.235-1.794) were independently associated with the risk for CKD. Compared with participants without any component, multivariate adjusted OR for CKD was 1.316 (95%CI 1.004-1.723), 1.397(95%CI 1.038-1.882), 1.672 (95%CI 1.183-2.363) for those with 2, 3, 4 or 5 components, respectively.
In this rural Chinese population aged ≥ 30 y, metabolic syndrome was associated with CKD.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 10/2011; 412(21-22):1983-8. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2011.07.014 · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence and associations of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a rural population of northern China.
In a rural county in Handan, China, 6716 adults residing in 13 villages were randomly selected and participated in the study. All participants completed a comprehensive eye examination, including intraocular pressure (IOP), slit-lamp examination, and fundus evaluation. Visual fields were obtained with on glaucoma suspects.
Sixty-five persons (1.2%) had POAG, with an adjusted prevalence of 1.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7% -1.3%) in those aged 40 years and older. Sex was not significantly associated with POAG (P > 0.05). Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.5, for each 10-year increase), IOP (OR, 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-2.0 for each 5-mm Hg increase), axial length (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6), and moderate myopia (3.1-6.0 D; OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.6-13.5) increased the risk for POAG in multivariate analysis. The mean IOP of persons with POAG was 16.3 ± 3.5 mm Hg, and 90% of them presented with an IOP ≤ 21 mm Hg. Of those with POAG, 4.5% were blind from glaucoma in at least one eye.
Approximately 1% of adults aged 40 years and older living in rural China have POAG. As seen in other populations, increasing age, higher IOP, greater axial length, and having myopia were associated with POAG. Given the rapid aging and myopic shift (acquired myopia) in China's population, POAG is likely to increase in prevalence in the coming decades.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CKD and associated factors in a rural adult population in Northern China.
This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Handan Eye Study. A total of 5,105 subjects aged >or=30 years were included in this analysis. Spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was determined. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated with the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. CKD was defined by the guidelines proposed by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. The associations between age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and kidney damage were examined.
Albuminuria and reduced renal function were detected in 16.8 and 0.4% of subjects, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of albuminuria, reduced renal function and CKD was 14.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-15.9), 0.38% (95% CI 0.21-0.55) and 15.2% (95% CI 14.2-16.2), respectively. The prevalence of CKD was greater in women than in men (16.7 vs. 12.9%, respectively, p < 0.001). The increased prevalence of CKD with increasing age was observed in both genders. Older age, female gender, diabetes and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Older age was independently associated with reduced renal function.
The prevalence of CKD in the rural Chinese population is relatively high. Factors associated with CKD are similar to those of urban areas in China and developed countries. CKD is a major public health problem in rural China.
Nephron Clinical Practice 04/2010; 114(4):c295-302. DOI:10.1159/000276582 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While many papers have been published regarding age-related eye diseases in Mainland China in the past two decades, the variable quality of those reports limit the conclusions that can be drawn. Many of these studies assessed blindness and low vision rates, and these estimates are likely accurate. However, due to lack of standardization of techniques for assessing cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, estimates of the burden of these diseases on the population are less reliable. Owing to the rapid economic development of China in the last decade, resources to address eyecare problems are more likely to be available. Therefore, an accurate assessment of the burden of various eye diseases is needed in order to improve blindness prevention planning and program development.