Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 05/2012; 5(3):e36-7. · 5.94 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Low-flow low-gradient (LFLG) is sometimes observed in severe aortic stenosis (AS) despite normal ejection fraction, but its frequency and mechanisms are still debated. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with LFLG AS and assess the presence of longitudinal left ventricular dysfunction in these patients.
In a multicenter prospective study, 340 consecutive patients with severe AS and normal ejection fraction were studied. Longitudinal left ventricular function was assessed by 2D-strain and global afterload by valvulo-arterial impedance. Patients were classified according to flow and gradient: low flow was defined as a stroke volume index ≤35 mL/m(2), low gradient as a mean gradient ≤40 mm Hg. Most patients (n=258, 75.9%) presented with high-gradient AS, and 82 patients (24.1%) with low-gradient AS. Among the latter, 52 (15.3%) presented with normal flow and low gradient and 30 (8.8%) with LFLG. As compared with normal flow and low gradient, patients with LFLG had more severe AS (aortic valve area=0.7±0.12 cm(2) versus 0.86±0.14 cm(2)), higher valvulo-arterial impedance (5.5±1.1 versus 4±0.8 mm Hg/mL/m(2)), and worse longitudinal left ventricular function (basal longitudinal strain=-11.6±3.4 versus -14.8±3%; P<0.001 for all).
LFLG AS is observed in 9% of patients with severe AS and normal ejection fraction and is associated with high global afterload and reduced longitudinal systolic function. Patients with normal-flow low-gradient AS are more frequent and present with less severe AS, normal afterload, and less severe longitudinal dysfunction. Severe left ventricular longitudinal dysfunction is a new explanation to the concept of LFLG AS.
Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 11/2011; 5(1):27-35. · 5.94 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction leads to heart failure and death. Ischaemic preconditioning (PreC) and postconditioning (PostC) reduce infarct size in animal models and human. Zac1 was identified as the only gene related to apoptosis and jointly down-regulated upon PreC and PostC. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of Zac1 down-regulation during ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) in vivo.
C57BL/6 mice were submitted to myocardial I/R injury, PreC, or PostC protocols. QPCR and immunochemistry showed that Zac1 expression was down-regulated both at the transcriptional and the protein levels upon PreC and PostC. Zac1(-/-) Knockout mice (n = 7) developed smaller infarcts (54%) than Zac1(+/+) littermates (n = 8) and decreased apoptosis (61.7%) in the ischaemic part of the left ventricle during I/R (Zac1(-/-), n = 6 vs. Zac1(+/+), n = 7; P = 0.0012). Mutants showed under control conditions a decrease of 53.9% in mRNA of Daxx, a pro-apoptotic protein playing a key role in I/R injuries (4.81 ± 0.77, n = 4 Zac1(-/-) mice vs. 10.44 ± 3.5, n = 7 Zac1(+/+) mice; P = 0.0121).
Our study shows for the first time that Zac1 is down-regulated both at the transcriptional and protein levels upon PreC and PostC in wild-type mice. Moreover, inactivation of Zac1 in vivo is associated with a decreased amount of Daxx transcripts and, upon I/R injury, decreased infarct size and apoptosis. Altogether, our results show that Zac1 down-regulation plays a key role during cardioprotection against I/R injury and support the concept that cardioprotection regulates a network of interacting pro-apoptotic genes including Zac1 and Daxx.
Cardiovascular research 11/2011; 94(2):351-8. · 5.80 Impact Factor
Internal Medicine 01/2010; 49(1):79. · 0.94 Impact Factor
Cardiology journal 01/2010; 17(2):196-7. · 1.31 Impact Factor