ABSTRACT: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on social and behavioral sciences (SBS) indicated that 50% of morbidity and mortality in the United States is associated with SBS factors, which the report also found were inadequately taught in medical school. A multischool collaborative explored whether the Association of American Medical Colleges Graduation Questionnaire (GQ) could be used to study changes in the six SBS domains identified in the IOM report.
A content analysis conducted with the GQ identified 30 SBS variables, which were narrowed to 24 using a modified Delphi approach. Summary data were pooled from nine medical schools for 2006 and 2007, representing 1,126 students. Data were generated on students' perceptions of curricular experiences, attitudes related to SBS curricula, and confidence with relevant clinical knowledge and skills. The authors determined the sample sizes required for various effect sizes to assess the utility of the GQ.
The 24 variables were classified into five of six IOM domains representing a total of nine analytic categories with cumulative scale means ranging from 60.8 to 93.4. Taking into account the correlations among measures over time, and assuming a two-sided test, 80% power, alpha at .05, and standard deviation of 4.1, the authors found that 34 medical schools would be required for inclusion to attain an estimated effect size of 0.50 (50%). With a sample size of nine schools, the ability to detect changes would require a very high effect size of 107%.
Detecting SBS changes associated with curricular innovations would require a large collaborative of medical schools. Using a national measure (the GQ) to assess curricular innovations in most areas of SBS is possible if enough medical schools were involved in such an effort.
Academic medicine: journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges 01/2010; 85(1):169-76. · 2.34 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Students' perceptions of curricular experience and study effort were compared for a traditional and a new integrative, interdisciplinary curriculum at a single institution. United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 1 scores were examined for subgroup interactions.
Medical students from four cohorts completed an educational goals survey and USMLE Step 1. Analysis included subgroup performance based on admissions data.
Students rated the new curriculum as more helpful in achieving educational goals. USMLE Step 1 was significantly higher for students in the lowest quartile of MCAT scores in the new compared with the previous curriculum.
To understand the outcomes of a large-scale curricular intervention, interactions of curriculum and aptitude should be examined.
Academic Medicine 11/2007; 82(10 Suppl):S117-20. · 3.52 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Clinical rotations play an important role in the medical curriculum and are considered crucial for student learning. However, competencies that should be learned can differ from those that are assessed. In order to explore which competencies are considered important for daily performance of student on the wards and to what extent clinical teachers consider the same competencies important for clerkship grading, a survey that consisted of 21 different student characteristics was administered to clinical teachers. Two independent factor analyses using structural equation modeling were conducted to abstract underlying latent relationships among the different student characteristics and to define a clinical competence profile for daily performance of students on the wards and clerkship grading. Differences between the degree of importance for student daily ward performance and clerkship grading are considered and discussed. The results of the survey indicate that the degree of importance of competencies are rated different for daily performance of students on the wards and clerkship grades. Competencies related to the diagnostic process are more important for clerkship grading, whereas interpersonal skills, professional qualities, and motivation are more important for daily ward performance. It is concluded that the components of clinical competence considered important for adequate performance are not necessarily in alignment with what is required for grading. Future research should focus on an explanation why clinical educators think differently about the importance of competencies for student examination in contrast to what is required for adequate daily performance on the wards.
Advances in Health Sciences Education 09/2007; 13(5):693-707. · 2.09 Impact Factor