[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV) was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV) to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e86109. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NO and H2S are gaseous signaling molecules that modulate smooth muscle motility. We aimed to identify expressions of enzymes that catalyze H2S and NO generation in mouse gastric smooth muscle, and determine relationships between endogenous H2S and NO in regulation of smooth muscle motility. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry methods were used to track expressions of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) in gastric smooth muscles. Smooth muscle motility was recorded by isometric force transducers. cGMP production was measured by a specific radioimmunoassay. We found that CBS, CSE, eNOS, and nNOS were all expressed in mice gastric antral smooth muscle tissues, and in cultured gastric antral smooth muscle cells. AOAA significantly inhibited smooth muscle contractions in the gastric antrum, which was significantly recovered by NaHS, while PAG had no significant effect. L-NAME enhanced contractions. NaHS at low concentrations increased basal tension but decreased it at high concentrations. SNP significantly inhibited the contractions, which could be recovered by NaHS both in the absence and presence of CuSO4. ODQ did not block NaHS-induced excitatory effect, while IBMX partially blocked this effect. cGMP production in smooth muscle was significantly increased by SNP but was not affected by NaHS. All these results suggest that endogenous H2S and NO appear to play opposite roles in regulating gastric motility and their effects may be via separate signal transduction pathways. Intracellular H2S/NO levels may be maintained in a state of balance to warrant normal smooth muscle motility.
European journal of pharmacology 10/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous study demonstrated that natriuretic peptides (NPs) play an inhibitory role in regulation of gastric smooth muscle motility. However, it is not clear whether NPs are involved in diabetics-induced loss of gastric interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC). The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between diabetics-induced loss of gastric ICC and natriuretic peptide signaling pathway in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results showed that the protein expression levels of c-Kit and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) in gastric smooth muscle layers were decreased in STZ-induced diabetic mice. However, both mRNA and protein expression levels of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A, B and C were increased in the same place of the diabetic mice. The amplitude of spontaneous contraction in gastric antral smooth muscles was inhibited by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) dose-dependently and the inhibitory effect was potentiated in diabetic mice. Pretreatment of the cultured gastric smooth muscle cells (GSMCs) with different concentration of CNP can significantly decrease the mSCF expression level. 8-Bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclomo-nophosphate (8-Br-cGMP), a membrane permeable cGMP analogue, mimicked the effect of CNP but not cANF (a specific NPR-C agonist). Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that high concentration of cANF (10(-6)mol/L) inhibited cell proliferation in cultured GSMCs. These findings suggest that up-regulation of NPs/NPR-A,B/cGMP and NPs/NPR-C signaling pathways may be involved in diabetes-induced loss of gastric ICC.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in partial obstruction-induced dysfunction of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in mice ileum.
Partial intestinal obstruction was induced surgically in male imprinting control region (ICR) mice. ICC networks were studied by Immunohistochemistry. Electrical activity was recorded by intracellular recording techniques. The expression of ICC phenotype marker c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase (c-kit), membrane binding stem cell factor (mSCF), the endogenous H(2)S biosynthesis enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) was studied by Western blotting. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA was observed by using real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Partial intestinal obstruction resulted in ICC networks were disrupted above obstruction 14 days after the operation. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed and their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized. The expression of c-kit and mSCF was significantly decreased, also suggesting the disruption of the ICC network. The expression of TNF-α was significantly increased in the tunica muscularis of the obstructed intestine. Treatment of cultured intestinal smooth muscle cells with TNF-α caused dramatic down regulation of mSCF. The expression of CBS and CSE was significantly decreased in the tunica muscularis of the obstructed intestine. Intraperitoneal injection (i.p) of DL-propargylglycine, an irreversible inhibitor of CSE, and aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of CBS, elevated the expression of TNF-α mRNA in the tunica muscularis of the ileum. Obstruction-induced over expression of TNF-α was significantly improved by supplementation of NaHS, but not the expressions of mSCF and c-kit.
The down regulation of endogenous H(2)S biosynthesis is related to over expression of TNF-α in obstructed small intestine. TNF-α-mediated mSCF down-regulation is not the only reason of partial intestinal obstruction-induced loss of ICC.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e48249. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) on gastric motility in mice. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were used to determine expression levels of the H₂S-producing enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in gastric tissues and cultured smooth muscle cells. Physiological and intracellular recordings and the whole-cell patch clamp technique were used to evaluate the effect of H₂S on the mechanical and electrical activities in muscle strips and in isolated smooth muscle cells, respectively. The results showed that CBS and CSE were expressed in mouse gastric smooth muscle. NaHS, a H₂S donor, inhibited the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contraction at high concentrations (>200 μM). However, NaHS at low concentrations (<100 μM) enhanced the basal tension and increased the contractile amplitude of muscle strips. This excitatory effect was not altered by the blockade of the enteric nerve with TTX, but was abolished by tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), but not propargylglycine (PAG), caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contraction. This effect was restored by L-cysteine and NaHS. In addition, NaHS at low concentrations (<100 μM) produced a depolarization of the membrane potential, whereas AOA hyperpolarized the membrane potential and decreased the amplitude of slow waves. Furthermore, AOA increased whole-cell delayed rectifier K⁺ current (I(K(V))). These findings suggest that endogenous H₂S appears to be an excitatory gaseous mediator during physiological regulation of gastric motility and this excitable effect is mediated by depolarization of the membrane potential via inhibition of I(K(V)).
European journal of pharmacology 10/2011; 673(1-3):85-95. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ang II on gastric smooth muscle motility and its mechanism using intracellular recording and whole-cell patch clamp techniques. Ang II dose-dependently increased the tonic contraction and the frequency of spontaneous contraction in the gastric antral circular smooth muscles of guinea pig. ZD7155, an Ang II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) blocker, completely blocked the effect of Ang II on the spontaneous contraction of gastric smooth muscle. In contrast, TTX, a sodium channel blocker, failed to block the effect. Furthermore, nicardipine, a voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channel antagonist, did not block the effect of Ang II on the tonic contraction of gastric smooth muscle, but external free-calcium almost completely blocked this effect. Both ryanodine, an inhibitor of calcium-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) from ryanodine-sensitive calcium stores, and thapsigargin, which depletes calcium in calcium stores, almost completely blocked the effect of Ang II on tonic contraction. However, 2-APB, an inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor blocker, significantly, but not completely, blocked the Ang II effect on tonic contraction. We also determined that Ang II depolarized membrane potential and increased slow wave frequency in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited delayed rectifying potassium currents in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect L-type calcium currents or calcium-activated potassium currents. These results suggest that Ang II plays an excitatory regulation in gastric motility via AT(1)R-IP(3) and the CICR signaling pathway. The Ang II-induced inhibition of delayed rectifying potassium currents that depolarize membrane potential is also involved in the potentiation of tonic contraction and the frequency of spontaneous contraction in the gastric smooth muscle of guinea pig.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion from gastric mucosa and the relationship between the ANP/natriuretic peptide receptor type A (NPR-A) pathway and diabetic gastroparesis.
Male imprinting control region (ICR) mice (4 wk old) were divided into two groups: control mice, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Eight weeks after injection, spontaneous gastric contraction was recorded by using physiography in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The ANP-positive cells in gastric mucosa and among dispersed gastric epithelial cells were detected by using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. ANP and natriuretic peptide receptor type A (NPR-A) gene expression in gastric tissue was observed by using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
The frequency of spontaneous gastric contraction was reduced from 12.9 +/- 0.8 cycles/min in the control group to 8.4 +/- 0.6 cycles/min in the diabetic mice (n = 8, P < 0.05). However, the amplitude of contraction was not significantly affected in the diabetic group. The depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal in the gastric muscle layer was observed in the diabetic mice. ANP-positive cells were distributed in the gastric mucosal layer and the density index of ANP-positive cells was increased from 20.9 +/- 2.2 cells/field in control mice to 51.8 +/- 2.9 cells/field in diabetic mice (n = 8, P < 0.05). The percentage of ANP-positive cells among the dispersed gastric epithelial cells was increased from 10.0% +/- 0.9% in the control mice to 41.2% +/- 1.0% in the diabetic mice (n = 3, P < 0.05). ANP and NPR-A genes were both expressed in mouse stomach, and the expression was significantly increased in the diabetic mice.
These results suggest that the ANP/NPR-A signaling pathway is upregulated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and contributes to the development of diabetic gastroparesis.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2010; 16(1):48-55. · 2.55 Impact Factor