[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Surface and ground water across the world, including North America, is contaminated with bacteria resistant to antibiotics. The consumption of water contaminated with antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been associated with the carriage of resistant E. coli in people who drink it. OBJECTIVES: To describe the proportion of drinking water samples submitted from private sources for bacteriological testing that were contaminated with E. coli resistant to antibiotics and to determine risk factors for the contamination of these water sources with resistant and multi-class resistant E. coli. METHODS: Water samples submitted for bacteriological testing in Ontario and Alberta Canada were tested for E. coli contamination, with a portion of the positive isolates tested for antimicrobial resistance. Households were invited to complete questionnaires to determine putative risk factors for well contamination. RESULTS: Using multinomial logistic regression, the risk of contamination with E. coli resistant to one or two classes of antibiotics compared to susceptible E. coli was higher for shore wells than drilled wells (odds ratio [OR] 2.8) and higher for farms housing chickens or turkeys (OR 3.0) than properties without poultry. The risk of contamination with multi-class resistant E. coli (3 or more classes) was higher if the properties housed swine (OR 5.5) or cattle (OR 2.2) than properties without these livestock and higher if the wells were located in gravel (OR 2.4) or clay (OR 2.1) than in loam. CONCLUSIONS: Housing livestock on the property, using a shore well, and having a well located in gravel or clay soil increases the risk of having antimicrobial resistant E. coli in E. coli contaminated wells. To reduce the incidence of water borne disease and the transmission of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, owners of private wells need to take measures to prevent contamination of their drinking water, routinely test their wells for contamination, and use treatments that eliminate bacteria.
Water Research 03/2013; 47(9). DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2013.03.008 · 5.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine plasmid colocalization and transferability of both erm(B) and tet(M) genes in Enterococcus faecalis isolates from abattoir pigs in Canada. A total of 124 E. faecalis isolates from cecal contents of abattoir pigs were examined for antibiotic susceptibility. High percentages of resistance to macrolides and tetracyclines were found. Two predominant multiresistance patterns of E. faecalis were examined by PCR and sequencing for the presence of genes encoding antibiotic resistance. Various combinations of antibiotic resistance genes were detected; erm(B) and tet(M) were the most common genes. Plasmid profiling and hybridization revealed that both genes were colocated on a ∼9-kb transferable plasmid in six strains with the two predominant multiresistant patterns. Plasmid colocalization and cotransfer of tet(M) and erm(B) genes in porcine E. faecalis isolates indicates that antibiotic coselection and transferability could occur via this single genetic element. To our knowledge, this is the first report on plasmid colocalization and transferability of erm(B) and tet(M) genes in E. faecalis on a mobile genetic element of ∼9 kb. Physical linkage between important antibiotic resistance determinants in enterococci is of interest for predicting potential transfer to other bacterial genera.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously described how retail meat, particularly chicken, might be a reservoir for extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in humans. To rule out retail beef and pork as potential reservoirs, we tested 320 additional E. coli isolates from these meats. Isolates from beef and pork were significantly less likely than those from chicken to be genetically related to isolates from humans with UTIs. We then tested whether the reservoir for ExPEC in humans could be food animals themselves by comparing geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from 475 humans with UTIs and from cecal contents of 349 slaughtered animals. We found genetic similarities between E. coli from animals in abattoirs, principally chickens, and ExPEC causing UTIs in humans. ExPEC transmission from food animals could be responsible for human infections, and chickens are the most probable reservoir.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may result in the transfer of resistance to commensal or pathogenic microbes present in the gastrointestinal tract, which may lead to severe health consequences and difficulties in treatment of future bacterial infections. It was hypothesized that the recreational waters from beaches represent a source of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli for people engaging in water activities.
To describe the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E coli in the recreational waters of beaches in southern Quebec.
Sampling occurred over two summers; in 2004, 674 water samples were taken from 201 beaches, and in 2005, 628 water samples were taken from 177 beaches. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antimicrobial-resistant E coli isolates against a panel of 16 antimicrobials were determined using microbroth dilution.
For 2004 and 2005, respectively, 28% and 38% of beaches sampled had at least one water sample contaminated by E coli resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and more than 10% of the resistant isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial of clinical importance for human medicine. The three antimicrobials with the highest frequency of resistance were tetracycline, ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole.
The recreational waters of these beaches represent a potential source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria for people engaging in water activities. Investigations relating the significance of these findings to public health should be pursued.
The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale / AMMI Canada 01/2012; 23(2):e20-5. · 0.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to characterize the antimicrobial resistance determinants and investigate plasmid colocalization of tetracycline and macrolide genes in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium from broiler chicken and turkey flocks in Canada. A total of 387 E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates were recovered from poultry cecal contents from five processing plants. The percentages of resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, respectively, were 88.1 and 94% to bacitracin, 0 and 0.9% to chloramphenicol, 0.7 and 14.5% to ciprofloxacin, 72.6 and 80.3% to erythromycin, 3.7 and 41% to flavomycin, 9.6 and 4.3% (high-level resistance) to gentamicin, 25.2 and 17.1% (high-level resistance) to kanamycin, 100 and 94% to lincomycin, 0 and 0% to linezolid, 2.6 and 20.5% to nitrofurantoin, 3 and 27.4% to penicillin, 98.5 and 89.7% to quinupristin-dalfopristin, 7 and 12.8% to salinomycin, 46.7 and 38.5% (high-level resistance) to streptomycin, 95.6 and 89.7% to tetracycline, 73 and 75.2% to tylosin, and 0 and 0% to vancomycin. One predominant multidrug-resistant phenotypic pattern was identified in both E. faecalis and E. faecium (bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, tetracycline, and tylosin). These isolates were further examined by PCR and sequencing for the genes encoding their antimicrobial resistance. Various combinations of vatD, vatE, bcrR, bcrA, bcrB, bcrD, ermB, msrC, linB, tetM, and tetO genes were detected, and ermB, tetM, and bcrB were the most common antimicrobial resistance genes identified. For the first time, plasmid extraction and hybridization revealed colocalization of tetO and ermB genes on a ca. 11-kb plasmid in E. faecalis isolates, and filter mating experiments demonstrated its transferability. Results indicate that the intestinal enterococci of healthy poultry, which can contaminate poultry meat at slaughter, could be a reservoir for quinupristin-dalfopristin, bacitracin, tetracycline, and macrolide resistance genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to microorganisms resistant to antimicrobials may constitute a health risk to human populations. It is believed that one route of exposure occurs when people engage in recreational activities in water contaminated with these microorganisms. The main objective of this study was to explore population-level and environmental determinants specifically associated with the presence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) generic Escherichia coli isolated from recreational waters sampled from beaches located in southern Quebec, Canada. Water samples originated from the Quebec provincial beach surveillance program for the summers of 2004 and 2005. This study focused on three classes of determinants, namely: agricultural, population-level and beach characteristics for a total of 19 specific factors. The study was designed as a retrospective observational analysis and factors were assessed using logistic regression methods. From the multivariable analysis, the data suggested that the percentage of land used for spreading liquid manure was a significant factor associated with the presence of AMR E. coli (OR=27.73). Conceptually, broad factors potentially influencing the presence of AMR bacteria in water must be assessed specifically in addition to factors associated with general microbial contamination. Presence of AMR E. coli in recreational waters from beaches in southern Quebec may represent a risk for people engaging in water activities and this study provides preliminary evidence that agricultural practices, specifically spreading liquid manure in agricultural lands nearby beaches, may be linked to the contamination of these waters by AMR E. coli.
Zoonoses and Public Health 09/2011; 58(6):432-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1863-2378.2010.01386.x · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates were investigated by polymerase chain reaction for aadA, strA, and strB streptomycin resistance genes. Out of 236 Salmonella isolates, 32 (13.5%) yielded amplicons for aadA (n = 23), strA (n = 9), and strB (n = 11). None of the 60 Salmonella isolates exhibiting MIC 4 mg/L harbored resistance genes. Of the Salmonella isolates exhibiting MICs 8 mg/L, 16 mg/L, and 32 mg/L, 1.6%, 15%, and 39%, respectively, tested positive for one or more genes. For most monitoring programs, the streptomycin ECOFF for Salmonella is wild type (WT) ≤32 or ≤16 mg/L. A cut-off value of WT ≤32 mg/L would have misclassified 13.5% of the strains as belonging to the WT population, since this proportion of strains harbored resistance genes and exhibited MICs ≤32 mg/L. Out of 208 E. coli strains, 80 (38.5%) tested positive for aadA (n = 69), strA (n = 18), and strB (n = 31). Of the E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs of 4 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 16 mg/L, and 32 mg/L, 3.6%, 17.6%, 53%, and 82.3%, respectively, harbored any of the three genes. Based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines (ECOFF ≤16 mg/L), 25% of the E. coli strains presenting MIC ≤16 mg/L would have been incorrectly categorized as belonging to the WT population. The authors recommend an ECOFF value of WT ≤16 mg/L for Salmonella and WT ≤8 mg/L for E. coli.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported Clostridium diffi cile in 20 % of retail meat in Canada, which raised concerns about potential foodborne transmissibility. Here, we studied the genetic diversity of C. difficile in retail meats, using a broad Canadian sampling infrastructure and 3 culture methods. We found 6.1 % prevalence and indications of possible seasonality (highest prevalence in winter). Clostridium diffi cile infection (CDI) has been associated with increased illness and death in Canada since 2000 (1,2). Although multiple genotypes with higher levels of virulence and antimicrobial resistance have been recognized (1,3), little is known about risk factors for CDI acquisition outside healthcare facilities. In a 2005 study, we found C. diffi cile in 20 % of retail meats sampled in Canada (4). Limitations to that study included limited geographic representation, nonsystematic sampling, and the use of a nonvalidated culture method. These sampling limitations prevent valid extrapolations. Broader sampling and a better understanding of the culture methods were thus required to reassess the prevalence of retail meat contamination with C. diffi cile. Here, we determined the prevalence of C. diffi cile in retail meat by using a broad-based government sampling infrastructure, compared 3 culture methods, characterized recovered isolates, and evaluated month-to-month variability in C. diffi cile recovery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella Heidelberg is one of the most common serovars in humans in Canada. It is often resistant to ceftiofur, a veterinary antimicrobial, and ceftriaxone, a closely related human antimicrobial important for treatment of pregnant women and children.
The Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) highlighted a strong correlation (r=0.9, p<0.0001) at the ecologic level between ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg (CRSH) in retail chicken and the incidence of CRSH infection in humans. Ceftiofur is not approved for use in chickens in Canada; however, in 2004, 75% of Qubec broiler chicken flocks used ceftiofur in hatching eggs or day-old chicks to prevent E. coli related disease. No data were available for other Canadian provinces. Qubec hatcheries voluntarily withdrew ceftiofur use in February 2005; in 2007 use was partially re-introduced. CIPARS observed the highest and lowest levels of ceftiofur resistance in retail chicken bacteria prior to and after the voluntary withdrawal in 2005 (S. Heidelberg, 62% and 7% respectively; E. coli, 34% and 6%); and increasing levels of resistance from 2007 to 2009 following reintroduction in 2007 (in 2009, ceftiofur resistance in S. Heidelberg was 22%; E. coli, 19%). Although there is no currently available data on the use of ceftiofur in animals in Canada, anecdotal information and the prevalence of ceftiofur resistance in chicken bacteria are consistent with common usage of ceftiofur in the Canadian broiler industry.
CIPARS data strongly suggest that reducing ceftiofur use in hatching eggs can limit the spread of cephalosporin-resistant S. Heidelberg from poultry to humans.
138st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2010; 11/2010
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2006, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) Farm Program was implemented in sentinel grower-finisher swine herds in Québec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Herds were visited 1-3 times annually. Faecal samples were collected from pens of close-to-market (CTM) weight (>80 kg) pigs and antimicrobial use (AMU) data were collected via questionnaires. Samples were cultured for generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. This paper describes the findings of this program between 2006 and 2008. Eighty-nine, 115 and 96 herds participated in this program in 2006, 2007 and 2008 respectively. Over the 3 years, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) levels remained consistent. During this period, resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 56-63% of the Salmonella spp. isolates and 84-86% of E. coli isolates. Resistance to five or more antimicrobials was detected in 13-23% of Salmonella and 12-13% of E. coli. Resistance to drugs classified as very important to human health (Category I) by the Veterinary Drug Directorate (VDD), Health Canada, was less than or equal to 1% in both organisms. AMU data were provided by 100 herds in 2007 and 95 herds in 2008. Nine herds in 2007 and five herds in 2008 reported no AMU. The most common route of antimicrobial administration (75-79% of herds) was via feed, predominantly macrolides/lincosamides (66-68% of herds). In both 2007 and 2008, the primary reasons given for macrolide/lincosamide use were disease prevention, growth promotion and treatment of enteric disease. The Category I antimicrobials, ceftiofur and virginiamycin were not used in feed or water in any herds in 2008, but virginiamycin was used in feed in two herds in 2007. Parenteral ceftiofur was used in 29 herds (29%) in 2007 and 20 herds (21%) in 2008. The reasons for ceftiofur use included treatment of lameness, respiratory disease and enteric disease.
Zoonoses and Public Health 11/2010; 57 Suppl 1:71-84. DOI:10.1111/j.1863-2378.2010.01356.x · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Closely related strains of Escherichia coli have been shown to cause extraintestinal infections in unrelated persons. This study tests whether a food reservoir may exist for these E. coli. Isolates from 3 sources over the same time period (2005-2007) and geographic area were compared. The sources comprised prospectively collected E. coli isolates from women with urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 353); retail meat (n = 417); and restaurant/ready-to-eat foods (n = 74). E. coli were evaluated for antimicrobial drug susceptibility and O:H serotype and compared by using 4 different genotyping methods. We identified 17 clonal groups that contained E. coli isolates (n = 72) from >1 source. E. coli from retail chicken (O25:H4-ST131 and O114:H4-ST117) and honeydew melon (O2:H7-ST95) were indistinguishable from or closely related to E. coli from human UTIs. This study provides strong support for the role of food reservoirs or foodborne transmission in the dissemination of E. coli causing common community-acquired UTIs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance describes a strong correlation (r = 0.9, p<0.0001) between ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg isolated from retail chicken and incidence of ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella serovar Heidelberg infections in humans across Canada. In Quebec, changes of ceftiofur resistance in chicken Salmonella Heidelberg and Escherichia coli isolates appear related to changing levels of ceftiofur use in hatcheries during the study period, from highest to lowest levels before and after a voluntary withdrawal, to increasing levels after reintroduction of use (62% to 7% to 20%, and 34% to 6% to 19%, respectively). These events provide evidence that ceftiofur use in chickens results in extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in bacteria from chicken and humans. To ensure the continued effectiveness of extended-spectrum cephalosporins for treating serious infections in humans, multidisciplinary efforts are needed to scrutinize and, where appropriate, limit use of ceftiofur in chicken production in Canada.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported Clostridium difficile in 20% of retail meat in Canada, which raised concerns about potential foodborne transmissibility. Here, we studied the genetic diversity of C. difficile in retail meats, using a broad Canadian sampling infrastructure and 3 culture methods. We found 6.1% prevalence and indications of possible seasonality (highest prevalence in winter).