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Publications (6)17.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that occupational exposure to trimethyltin (TMT) is a risk factor for developing kidney stones. To further examine the association between TMT exposure and the formation of kidney stones, we conducted a 180-day animal study and exposed the randomly grouped Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats to TMT in the drinking water at doses of 0, 8.2, 32.8 and 131.3 µg kg–1 day–1. Transient behavioral changes were observed in the high-dose group during the first 2 weeks of exposure. TMT exposure led to a significant dose-dependent inhibition of renal H+/K+-ATPase and an increase in urinary pH. In comparison to no kidney stones being identified in the control and the lowest dose group, 1 rat in the 32.8 µg kg–1 day–1 dose group and 3 out of 9 rats in the 131.3 µg kg–1 day–1 dose group were found to have stones in the kidney/urinary tract. Pathological analysis showed that more wide spread calcium disposition was observed in kidneys of rats with TMT exposure compared with the rats in the control group. However, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis found that the kidney stones were mainly composed of struvite with the formula: NH4MgPO4 6H2O, while calcium-containing components were also detected. Together, this study further demonstrates through animal studies that chronic exposure to a relatively low level of TMT induces nephrotoxicity and increases the risk for developing kidney stones. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 09/2014; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Formaldehyde is used in many occupational settings, most notably in manufacturing, health care, and embalming. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human carcinogen, but its mechanism of action remains uncertain. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde-exposed workers and 51 unexposed age and sex-matched controls in Guangdong, China to study formaldehyde's early biologic effects. To follow up our previous report that the total lymphocyte count was decreased in formaldehyde-exposed workers compared with controls, we evaluated each major lymphocyte subset (i.e., CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, natural killer [NK] cells, and B cells) and T cell lymphocyte subset (CD4(+) naïve and memory T cells, CD8(+) naïve and memory T cells, and regulatory T cells). Linear regression of each subset was used to test for differences between exposed workers and controls, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Total NK cell and T cell counts were about 24% (P = 0.037) and 16% (P = 0.0042) lower, respectively, among exposed workers. Among certain T cell subsets, decreased counts among exposed workers were observed for CD8(+) T cells (P = 0.026), CD8(+) effector memory T cells (P = 0.018), and regulatory T cells (CD4(+) FoxP3(+) : P = 0.04; CD25(+) FoxP3(+) : P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Formaldehyde-exposed workers experienced decreased counts of NK cells, regulatory T cells, and CD8(+) effector memory T cells; however, due to the small sample size; these findings need to be confirmed in larger studies. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 07/2012; · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 07/2010; 19(7):1884-5. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trimethyltin chloride (TMT), a byproduct of plastic stabilizers, has caused 67 poisoning accidents in the world; more than 98% (1814/1849) of the affected patients since 1998 have been in China. As a long-established toxic chemical, TMT severely affects the limbic system and the cerebellum; however, its relationship with hypokalemia, a condition observed in the majority of the cases in the last decade, remains elusive. To understand the mechanism underlying hypokalemia induced by TMT, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered TMT to determine the relationship between H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and the blood and urine K(+) concentration and pH, respectively. H(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein and mRNA were observed too. In vitro changes to intracellular pH, K(+) channels in renal cells were measured. The results showed that TMT increased potassium leakage from the kidney, raised urine pH, and inhibited H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity both in vitro and in vivo. In the tested animals, H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was positively correlated with the decrease of plasma K(+) and blood pH but was negatively correlated with the increase of urine K(+) and urine pH (P<0.01), while TMT did not change the expression of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein and mRNA. TMT decreased intracellular pH and opened K(+) channels in renal intercalated cells. Our findings suggest TMT can directly inhibit the activity of H(+)/K(+)-ATPases in renal intercalated cells, reducing urine K(+) reabsorption and inducing hypokalemia.
    Toxicology 03/2010; 271(1-2):45-50. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing, and other industries. Epidemiologic studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse effect on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 01/2010; 19(1):80-8. · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing, and other industries. Epidemiologic studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse effect on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures.