Charlotte Ariyan

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (27)153.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma patients with palpable nodal disease in more than one basin have a worse prognosis than those with single-basin disease. Little is known about the outcome of patients with microscopically positive nodal disease in more than one basin, or how they are currently managed at tertiary referral centers.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 06/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The brain is a common site of recurrence in melanoma patients. Brain recurrence may present as a seizure, hemorrhage, or death. We sought to determine predictors of brain metastases in patients with primary and regional melanoma in order to facilitate targeted screening.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 06/2014; 109(8):770-4. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The benefit of completion lymph node dissection (CLND) in melanoma patients with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) remains unknown. We identified patients with a positive SLN from 1994 to 2012. Patient and tumor characteristics, reasons for not undergoing CLND, patterns of recurrence, and melanoma-specific survival data were analyzed. Of 4,310 patients undergoing SLN biopsy (SLNB), 495 (11 %) had a positive SLN-167 (34 %) patients underwent nodal observation and 328 (66 %) had immediate CLND. Patients in the no-CLND group were older (66 vs. 56 years; p < 0.001) and more likely to have lower extremity lesions (57 vs. 42 %; p = 0.006). There were no differences in tumor thickness, Clark level of invasion, ulceration, or SLN tumor burden. Median follow-up was 23 and 80 months for the no-CLND and CLND groups, respectively, and median time to recurrence was similar at 9 and 12 months, respectively (p = 0.48). There was no difference in local and in transit recurrence rates between groups (16 %, no CLND, and 18 %, CLND; p = 0.48). Nodal disease as a site of first recurrence occurred in 15 % of patients in the no-CLND group and 6 % of CLND patients (p = 0.002). In contrast, systemic recurrences occurred in 8 % of no-CLND patients compared with 27 % of CLND patients (p < 0.001). While median recurrence-free survival was higher after CLND (34.5 vs. 20.9 months; p = 0.02), melanoma-specific survival was similar (not reached, no CLND vs. 110 months, CLND; p = 0.09). Immediate CLND after a positive SLNB is associated with fewer initial nodal basin recurrences but similar melanoma-specific survival. These results support ongoing equipoise in the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial II (MSLT-II).
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives Primary cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30+ LPD), including primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (CALCL) and lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP), comprise the second most common group of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). The etiology of these disorders is not known. Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) and isolated limb infusion (ILI) are forms of regional chemotherapy used to treat recurrent tumors of the extremity, most commonly, melanoma. Secondary malignancy following regional therapy is rarely reported.Methods/ResultsWe identified two cases of CD30+ LPD arising in the affected limbs of patients treated with ILP/ILI. We subsequently performed CD30 immunohistochemical stains on 11 pre- and post-treatment skin specimens from melanoma patients treated with ILP/ILI and found that 5 of the 11 cases showed an increase in CD30+ lymphocytes following ILP/ILI.Conclusions We hypothesize that ILP/ILI causes upregulation of CD30 expression in the extremities of treated patients, and suggest that this may be a marker of treatment response. However, a rare but long-term effect may be an increased risk of T-cell cutaneous lymphoproliferative disease in the affected limb. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2014; · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Danielle M Bello, Ronald P Dematteo, Charlotte E Ariyan
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    ABSTRACT: The high response rates to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib in KIT-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) has led to a paradigm shift in cancer treatment. In a parallel fashion, the field of melanoma is shifting with the utilization of targeted therapy to treat BRAF-mutated melanoma. We reviewed published literature in PubMed on GIST and melanoma, with a focus on both past and current clinical trials. The data presented centers on imatinib, vemurafenib, and most recently dabrafenib, targeting KIT and BRAF mutations and their outcomes in GIST and melanoma. The BRAF(V600E) melanoma mutation, like the KIT exon 11 mutation in GIST, has the highest response to therapy. High response rates with inhibition of KIT in GIST have not been recapitulated in KIT-mutated melanoma. Median time to resistance to targeted agents occurs in ~7 months with BRAF inhibitors and 2 years for imatinib in GIST. In GIST, the development of secondary mutations leads to resistance; however, there have been no similar gatekeeper mutations found in melanoma. Although surgery remains an important component of the treatment of early GIST and melanoma, surgeons will need to continue to define the thresholds and timing for operation in the setting of metastatic disease with improved targeted therapies. Combination treatment strategies may result in more successful clinical outcomes in the management of melanoma in the future.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 02/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RAF inhibitors selectively block ERK signaling in BRAF-mutant melanomas and have defined a genotype-guided approach to care for this disease. RAF inhibitors have the opposite effect in BRAF wild-type tumor cells, where they cause hyperactivation of ERK signaling. Here, we predict that RAF inhibitors can enhance T cell activation, based upon the observation that these agents paradoxically activate ERK signaling in BRAF wild-type cells. To test this hypothesis, we have evaluated the effects of the RAF inhibitor BMS908662 on T cell activation and signaling in vitro and in vivo. We observe that T cell activation is enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner and that this effect corresponds with increased ERK signaling, consistent with paradoxical activation of the pathway. Furthermore, we find that the combination of BMS908662 with CTLA-4 blockade in vivo potentiates T cell expansion, corresponding with hyperactivation of ERK signaling in T cells detectable ex vivo. Lastly, this combination demonstrates superior anti-tumor activity, compared to either agent alone, in two transplantable tumor models. This study provides clear evidence that RAF inhibitors can modulate T cell function by potentiating T cell activation in vitro and in vivo. Paradoxical activation of ERK signaling in T cells offers one mechanism to explain the enhanced antitumor activity seen when RAF inhibitors are combined with CTLA-4 blockade in preclinical models.
    Cancer immunology research. 01/2014; 2(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Isolated limb infusion (ILI) is a percutaneous method of delivering regional chemotherapy to patients with recurrent tumors of the extremity. This study determines predictors of response, survival, and limb salvage. Single institution data from a prospective clinical trial and subsequent ILI experience were reviewed. Limb tumor burden was assessed in melanoma patients with "high" (≥10 lesions or one lesion >3 cm) or "low" burden (<10 lesions and no lesion >3 cm). Response was assessed at 3 months from ILI. Between 1999 and 2011, 62 patients underwent ILI (58 melanoma, 2 Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), 2 soft tissue sarcoma (STS)). Low tumor burden patients had more complete responses (CR) (11/23, 48%) than high tumor burden (3/32, 9%, P < 0.001); they had higher 5-year survival (69% vs. 29%, P = .007). Five-year survival rates based on response: 91% CR, 53% partial response (PR), 25% less than PR (P = 0.042, CR vs. PR). 7 patients (11%) underwent amputation due to disease progression; 3 had prior CR or PR. Low tumor burden is a significant predictor of response in melanoma patients. Response to ILI is a significant predictor of survival. Progression of limb disease requiring amputation is not associated with any factors. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Surgical Oncology 12/2013; · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Danielle M Bello, Charlotte E Ariyan, Richard D Carvajal
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant melanoma is the most fatal type of skin cancer. Traditional melanoma classification has been based on histological subtype or anatomical location. However, recent evidence suggests that melanoma comprises a group of diseases characterized by distinct molecular mutations. These mutations affect disease behavior but provide unique opportunities for targeted therapy. In this review, several signaling pathways in melanoma are described as well as how mutations of BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11 genes cause aberrant signaling and malignant transformation. Multiple genes affecting both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway are mutated in melanoma. Melanomas harboring the BRAF V600E mutation have demonstrated sensitivity to both RAF and MAPK/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. In addition, KIT-mutant melanomas, often arising from mucosal, acral, and chronically sun-damaged skin surfaces, have shown clinical response to several inhibitors of the type III transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. Uveal melanoma, which often harbors GNAQ or GNA11 mutations, may also be sensitive to MAPK/ERK or protein kinase C/PI3K pathway inhibition. Emerging knowledge of these molecular alterations has led to clinical advances in patients with melanoma. The study of known mutations and identification of new potential targets must continue in an effort to develop more effective therapies for this disease.
    Cancer control: journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center 10/2013; 20(4):261-81. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The strategy of immune modulation for the treatment of cancer is being refined with the introduction of multiple new therapeutic agents into the clinic. Melanoma is a disease where many of these agents have demonstrated efficacy. The mechanisms of action of these agents exploit the counter-regulatory mechanisms of the immune response. However, these agents are also associated with immune-related adverse events (IRAEs), which represent tissue-specific inflammatory responses. These IRAEs highlight the delicate balance of immunologic homeostasis and, with some interventions, may occur more frequently in patients who sustain a therapeutic response. This review will discuss melanoma immunogenicity and immunotherapy. Furthermore, the spectrum and distinction between a reversible immune adverse event and autoimmunity will be highlighted.
    Clinical & Translational Immunology. 08/2013; 2(8).
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    ABSTRACT: Acral melanoma (AM) is an unusual malignancy with poor survival. This study defines a cohort of patients, treated at a single institution, and the factors associated with survival and comparison with nonacral cutaneous melanoma (NACM). All patients with AM presenting from 1995 to 2010 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Analysis of clinicopathologic features of AM associated with disease-specific survival (DSS) was performed. A stratified, stage-matched survival analysis compared the outcome of 281 acral to 843 extremity NACM patients. A total of 281 AM patients (170 volar, 111 subungual) were identified. Pathologic stage (p < 0.001), ulceration (p < 0.001), Breslow thickness (p < 0.001), and a positive sentinel lymph node (p < 0.001) were found to be poor prognostic indicators associated with DSS. In stage-matched analysis, AM had a worse DSS compared with NACM (hazard ratio 1.8; 95 % CI 1.2-2.7; p < 0.01). This study represents the largest, single-institution series describing the characteristics and outcomes of AM. AM tumors exhibit aggressive histopathologic features associated with a poorer survival outcome. AM patients have an inferior survival than extremity NACM when matched for stage, perhaps reflecting inherent alterations in tumor biology. This warrants further investigation into the differences between acral and cutaneous melanoma.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 07/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background In patients with melanoma, ipilimumab (an antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4]) prolongs overall survival, and nivolumab (an antibody against the programmed death 1 [PD-1] receptor) produced durable tumor regression in a phase 1 trial. On the basis of their distinct immunologic mechanisms of action and supportive preclinical data, we conducted a phase 1 trial of nivolumab combined with ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. Methods We administered intravenous doses of nivolumab and ipilimumab in patients every 3 weeks for 4 doses, followed by nivolumab alone every 3 weeks for 4 doses (concurrent regimen). The combined treatment was subsequently administered every 12 weeks for up to 8 doses. In a sequenced regimen, patients previously treated with ipilimumab received nivolumab every 2 weeks for up to 48 doses. Results A total of 53 patients received concurrent therapy with nivolumab and ipilimumab, and 33 received sequenced treatment. The objective-response rate (according to modified World Health Organization criteria) for all patients in the concurrent-regimen group was 40%. Evidence of clinical activity (conventional, unconfirmed, or immune-related response or stable disease for ≥24 weeks) was observed in 65% of patients. At the maximum doses that were associated with an acceptable level of adverse events (nivolumab at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight and ipilimumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram), 53% of patients had an objective response, all with tumor reduction of 80% or more. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to therapy occurred in 53% of patients in the concurrent-regimen group but were qualitatively similar to previous experience with monotherapy and were generally reversible. Among patients in the sequenced-regimen group, 18% had grade 3 or 4 adverse events related to therapy and the objective-response rate was 20%. Conclusions Concurrent therapy with nivolumab and ipilimumab had a manageable safety profile and provided clinical activity that appears to be distinct from that in published data on monotherapy, with rapid and deep tumor regression in a substantial proportion of patients. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Ono Pharmaceutical; number, NCT01024231 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 06/2013; · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment after treatment with ipilimumab is not well described. Furthermore, the safety of surgery for patients being treated with ipilimumab for metastatic melanoma has not been well reported. This study analyzed the safety of surgery and the immune phenotype of tumors resected while on ipilimumab. METHODS: From our prospective melanoma database, we identified patients undergoing surgery for any indication within 30 days of receiving a dose of induction ipilimumab or while on maintenance ipilimumab therapy. Surgical toxicity was graded 1-5 by the Clavien classification. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were classified by flow cytometry and compared with peripheral blood. RESULTS: 23 patients were identified who underwent 34 operations a median of 27 weeks after initiation of ipilimumab (1-123 weeks). Subcutaneous resections were the most frequent, followed by intra-abdominal and nodal procedures. Grade 1 or 2 wound complications were seen in 22 % of patients. No Grade 3-5 complications were seen. Analysis of the T cell infiltrate and matched peripheral blood from ten patients showed an elevated % of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T-regulatory cells and a 2.8-fold lower ratio of CD8(+)/CD4(+)FOXP3(+) in the tumor compared with blood (p = 0.02). In addition, all CD8(+) T cells had a higher expression of PD-1 in the tumor, compared with peripheral blood. CONCLUSIONS: Surgery for patients on ipilimumab is safe. This study highlights the immunosuppressive phenotype in tumors not responding to immunotherapy. The high percentage of T-regulatory cells and low T-effector cells in progressive tumors suggests a possible mechanism of immune escape.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : Anatomic site is a predictive factor in subtypes of cutaneous and mucosal melanoma. : The aim of this study was to examine the clinical relevance of location of origin of anorectal melanoma as a prognostic factor. : With the use of a prospectively maintained database, clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes were compared according to the site of origin. SETTINGS, PATIENTS, INTERVENTIONS:: A retrospective review was conducted of patients diagnosed with anorectal melanoma from 1994 to 2010. Tumors were defined as anal, anorectal, or rectal melanoma according to their anatomic relationship to the dentate line. : Clinicopathologic factors were compared by χ test. Time-to-event analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. : Of the 96 patients included (41 with anal melanoma, 32 with anorectal melanoma, 23 with rectal melanoma), patients with rectal and anorectal mucosal melanoma had advanced primary tumors (median Breslow thickness, 12 mm and 8 mm, p = 0.002), whereas anal lesions could be found at earlier depths (median thickness, 6.5 mm). Patients with anal tumors more commonly underwent transanal excision (p < 0.02) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (p = 0.004) versus anorectal and rectal tumors. Patterns of recurrence were also distinct; nearly two-thirds of anorectal and rectal tumors recurred systemically, whereas anal melanoma more often recurred within the lymph nodes first (63%; p < 0.02). Recurrence occurred in 24 (59%) patients with anal tumors, 23 (72%) patients with anorectal tumors, and 16 (70%) patients with rectal tumors. Median overall survival was 22 months for anal melanoma, 28 months for anorectal melanoma, and 27 months for rectal melanoma. Recurrence and survival were not statistically different between the groups. : This study is limited by small sample size and its retrospective nature. : This study represents the only series describing the outcomes of anorectal melanoma by anatomic location. Lesions at or proximal to the dentate line present with more advanced disease, possibly related to a delay in diagnosis. Lesions distal to the dentate line more commonly recur within lymph nodes, which may represent differences in nodal drainage. Irrespective of location, the long-term prognosis remains poor for all cases of anorectal melanoma.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 02/2013; 56(2):150-7. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The effect of lymph node metastasis on local tumor control and distant failure in patients with anorectal melanoma has not been fully studied. Understanding the significance of lymphatic dissemination might assist in stratifying patients for either organ preservation or radical surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients with anorectal melanoma who underwent surgery at our institution between 1985 and 2010. Abdominoperineal resection (APR) was performed in 25 patients (39 %), and wide local excision (WLE) in 40 (61%). Extent of primary surgery and locoregional lymphadenectomy (mesorectal vs. inguinal vs. none) and pattern of treatment failure were analyzed. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were calculated. RESULTS: In patients undergoing APR, DSS was not associated with presence (29 %) or absence (71 %) of metastatic melanoma in mesorectal lymph nodes. There was a trend toward improved DSS in patients with clinically negative inguinal lymph nodes (n = 17) compared with patients with proven inguinal metastasis (n = 6; P = 0.12). Type of surgery (WLE vs. APR) was not associated with subsequent development of distant disease. Twelve patients (18 %) had synchronous local and distant recurrence. Synchronous recurrence was not associated with surgical strategy used to treat primary tumor (P = 0.28). Perineural invasion (PNI) was significantly correlated with RFS (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Outcome following resection of anorectal melanoma is independent of locoregional lymph node metastasis; lymphadenectomy should be reserved for gross symptomatic disease. PNI is a powerful prognostic marker warranting further exploration in clinical trials.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 01/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients undergoing sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping for lower extremity melanoma may have drainage to pelvic nodes (DPN) in addition to superficial inguinal nodes. These nodes are not sampled routinely at SLN biopsy. Factors predicting DPN and its prognostic significance were assessed in a large cohort of patients undergoing an SLN biopsy. Three hundred and twenty five patients with single primary melanomas of the lower extremity or buttocks who underwent SLN mapping were identified from our prospective melanoma database (December 1995-October 2008). Associations of clinical and pathologic factors with DPN and time to melanoma recurrence (TTR) were analyzed by logistic and Cox regression, respectively. DPN was common, occurring in 23% of cases. Increased Breslow's thickness (P=0.007) and age (P=0.01) were associated with DPN by multivariate analysis. Patients with DPN were not more likely to have a positive SLN; however, SLN- patients with DPN showed a shorter TTR (P=0.02) in a multivariable model including thickness and ulceration. With age included in the model, DPN remained marginally associated with TTR in this group (P=0.08). The pelvic recurrence rates observed were similar in recurrent patients with DPN compared with those without DPN (39% in both groups). In conclusion, DPN occurs in almost one-quarter of patients with lower extremity melanoma and is marginally associated with a shorter TTR in SLN- patients.
    Melanoma research 12/2012; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: First-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma survivors are at heightened risk for developing melanoma, but use sun protection inconsistently. To develop appropriate interventions, in this article we identify factors related to sun protection inconsistency in melanoma FDRs using ethnographic decision tree modeling. We conducted in-home interviews with 25 melanoma FDRs balanced across gender and sunbathing attitudes and identified factors related to daily decision making about use of sunscreen, shade seeking, hats, and clothing. Results indicated primary facilitators for sun protection involved water settings and sunny weather. Physical activities such as exercise served to promote as well as inhibit sun protection. If participants anticipated shade cover, they tended to forgo other sun protection. The use of hats and clothing was often dictated by nonsun-protection goals. Understanding factors related to inconsistent sun protection with detail and nuance is an important prerequisite to interventions aimed to improve sun-protection maintenance in this population.
    Qualitative Health Research 07/2012; 22(7):934-45. · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • George Plitas, Charlotte E Ariyan
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    ABSTRACT: The surgical management of the regional lymph node basin of melanoma has undergone significant changes in the past 2 decades, most of which have been guided by prospective randomized trials. Historically, routine elective lymph node dissection was recommended for the management of melanoma regardless of clinical nodal involvement. Subsequent randomized trials failed to show a clear benefit for all patients, and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy emerged as an alternative. Although the prognostic value of SLN biopsy in intermediate-thickness melanoma is well accepted, its value for patients with thin and thick lesions is debated. The therapeutic advantage of removing an involved SLN, and the need for a completion lymph node dissection after the identification of a positive SLN, are areas of continued controversy. This article discusses these issues in the management of the regional lymph node basin in patients with melanoma.
    Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN 03/2012; 10(3):414-21. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Imatinib mesylate targets mutated KIT oncoproteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and produces a clinical response in 80% of patients. The mechanism is believed to depend predominantly on the inhibition of KIT-driven signals for tumor-cell survival and proliferation. Using a mouse model of spontaneous GIST, we found that the immune system contributes substantially to the antitumor effects of imatinib. Imatinib therapy activated CD8(+) T cells and induced regulatory T cell (T(reg) cell) apoptosis within the tumor by reducing tumor-cell expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido). Concurrent immunotherapy augmented the efficacy of imatinib in mouse GIST. In freshly obtained human GIST specimens, the T cell profile correlated with imatinib sensitivity and IDO expression. Thus, T cells are crucial to the antitumor effects of imatinib in GIST, and concomitant immunotherapy may further improve outcomes in human cancers treated with targeted agents.
    Nature medicine 01/2011; 17(9):1094-100. · 27.14 Impact Factor
  • Klaus J Busam, Charlotte Ariyan, Daniel C Coit
    Archives of dermatology 07/2010; 146(7):796-7. · 4.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma patients treated with anti-CTLA-4 have shown a range of anti-tumor responses. In this report, we describe the response of a single patient to anti-CTLA-4, with individual lesions disappearing, others stabilizing, and others progressing. These responses can be viewed as a clear manifestation of cancer immunoediting and its three phases of elimination, equilibrium and escape, with each tumor in this patient being at a discrete stage in the process. The patient's course and associated immunological monitoring and other laboratory data are presented in an immunogram, a way to visualize temporal associations between the multiple clinical and laboratory parameters.
    Cancer immunity: a journal of the Academy of Cancer Immunology 01/2010; 10:1.

Publication Stats

437 Citations
153.05 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2014
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Gastric and Mixed Tumor Service
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Surgery
      Philadelphia, PA, United States